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Income inequality is associated with adolescent fertility in Brazil: a longitudinal multilevel analysis of 5,565 municipalities

Chiavegatto Filho, Alexandre Dias Porto; Kawachi, Ichiro
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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46.79%
Abstract Background Brazil has one of the highest adolescent fertility rates in the world. Income inequality has been frequently linked to overall adolescent health, but studies that analyzed its association with adolescent fertility have been performed only in developed countries. Brazil, in the past decade, has presented a rare combination of increasing per capita income and decreasing income inequality, which could influence future desirable pathways for other countries. Methods We analyzed every live birth from 2000 and from 2010 in each of the 5,565 municipalities of Brazil, a total of 6,049,864 births, which included 1,247,145 (20.6%) births from women aged 15 to 19. Income inequality was assessed by the Gini Coefficient and adolescent fertility by the ratio between the number of live births from women aged 15 to 19 and the number of women aged 15 to 19, calculated for each municipality. We first applied multilevel models separately for 2000 and 2010 to test the cross-sectional association between income inequality and adolescent fertility. We then fitted longitudinal first-differences multilevel models to control for time-invariant effects. We also performed a sensitivity analysis to include only municipality with satisfactory birth record coverage. Results Our results indicate a consistent and positive association between income inequality and adolescent fertility. After controlling for per capita income...

Adolescent fertility and risky environments: a population-level perspective across the lifespan

Placek, Caitlyn D.; Quinlan, Robert J.
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Timing of first reproduction is a key life-history variable with important implications for global economic development and health. Life-history theory predicts that human reproductive strategies are shaped by mortality regimes. This study provides the first test of the relationship between population-level adolescent fertility (AF) and extrinsic risk at two time points. Data are from United Nations database and were analysed using mediation and moderation techniques. The goals were to determine whether (i) early risk has a stronger impact on fertility than current risk; (ii) current risk mediates the relationship between early risk and fertility outcomes; and (iii) different levels of early risk influence the relationship between current risk and fertility. Results indicated that current risk partially mediated the relationship between early risk and fertility, with early risk having the strongest impact on reproduction. Measures for early and current mortality did not show significant interaction effects. However, a series of separate regression analyses using a quantile split of early risk indicated that high levels of early risk strengthened the relationship between current risk and AF. Overall, these findings demonstrate that reproductive strategies are significantly influenced by fluctuations of early mortality as well as current environmental cues of harshness.

When Do Laws Matter? National Minimum-Age-of-Marriage Laws, Child Rights, and Adolescent Fertility, 1989–2007

Kim, Minzee; Longhofer, Wesley; Boyle, Elizabeth Heger; Nyseth, Hollie
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.41%
Using the case of adolescent fertility, we ask the questions of whether and when national laws have an effect on outcomes above and beyond the effects of international law and global organizing. To answer these questions, we utilize a fixed-effect time-series regression model to analyze the impact of minimum-age-of-marriage laws in 115 poor- and middle-income countries from 1989 to 2007. We find that countries with strict laws setting the minimum age of marriage at 18 experienced the most dramatic decline in rates of adolescent fertility. Trends in countries that set this age at 18 but allowed exceptions (for example, marriage with parental consent) were indistinguishable from countries that had no such minimum-age-of-marriage law. Thus, policies that adhere strictly to global norms are more likely to elicit desired outcomes. The article concludes with a discussion of what national law means in a diffuse global system where multiple actors and institutions make the independent effect of law difficult to identify.

Teenage Pregnancy and Opportunities in Latin America and the Caribbean : On Teenage Fertility Decisions, Poverty and Economic Achievement

Azevedo, Joao Pedro; Favara, Marta; Haddock, Sarah E.; Lopez-Calva, Luis F.; Muller, Miriam; Perova, Elizaveta
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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The pregnancy project sought to expose the existence, and challenge the validity, of stereotypes about Hispanic women. The charade explored the underlying motivations of the many who responded with a wide range of reactions. The specific objectives of this regional study are: to establish a thorough description of the magnitude of the issue and its potential implications for social advancement; to advance the understanding of the risk factors, motivations and impacts at the household level-as a determinant of poverty and a cause of intra-and intergenerational poverty traps; to illuminate the coping mechanisms and their individual and social implications; to highlight the gender-related issues that have historically provoked asymmetric costs to boys and girls; and to provide elements that support specific policies on this matter. In the last decade, Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have been moving in the right direction and the region has experienced important gains in gender equality of endowments (assets) and economic opportunities. In most LAC countries...

Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health in Burkina Faso

Cortez, Rafael; Bowser, Diana; Quinlan-Davidson, Meaghen; Ousmane Diadie, Haidara
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Today s adolescents and youth face substantial physical, social, legal, and economic barriers to meeting their SRH potential. Key factors underlying these issues are a lack of adolescent SRH (ASRH) policies and access to accessible, affordable, and appropriate health services. The impact that these factors have on adolescent health and development is clearly seen in Burkina Faso. Burkinabè adolescent girls face high adolescent fertility rates, early and forced marriage, an increased risk of maternal mortality, and a high unmet need for contraception, among others. Adding to this issue is a lack of access to education, basic health information, and SRH services, contributing to a lack of awareness and knowledge about SRH and traditional and harmful gender stereotypes. The objectives of the study were to understand the impact that structural and proximal determinants have on access to ASRH services and health outcomes; and the impact that recently implemented policies and programs have on ASRH.

Socioeconomic Differences in Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health

Cortez, Rafael; Yarger, Jennifer; Decker, Mara; Brindis, Claire
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Brief
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.69%
Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health (ASRH) is one of five areas of focus of the World Banks Reproductive Health Action Plan 2010-2015 (RHAP), which recognizes the importance of addressing ASRH as a development issue with important implications for poverty reduction. Delaying childbearing and preventing unintended pregnancies during adolescence has been shown to schooling, future employment, and earnings (Greene Merrick, 2005). Early marriage often marks the beginning of exposure to the risk of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Research has shown that adolescent marriage is associated with unplanned pregnancy, rapid repeat childbirth, inadequate use of maternal health services, and poor birth outcomes, among other negative maternal and child health outcomes (Godha, Hotchkiss, and Gage, 2013; Raj Boehmer, 2013; Santhya, 2011). Furthermore, research in Ethiopia has found that adolescent females who marry before the age of 15 are at higher risk of intimate partner violence and coercive sex than those who marry between ages 15-18 (Erulkar...

Socioeconomic Differences in Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health

Yarger, Jennifer; Lara, Diana; Decker, Mara; Brindis, Claire
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Brief
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.61%
Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health (ASRH) is one of five areas of focus of the World Banks Reproductive Health Action Plan 2010 - 2015 (RHAP), which recognizes the importance of addressing ASRH as a development issue with important implications for poverty reduction. Delaying childbearing and preventing unplanned pregnancies during adolescence has been shown to improve health outcomes and increase opportunities for schooling, future employment, and earnings (Greene and Merrick, 2005). Delaying childbearing and preventing unplanned pregnancies improves health outcomes and increases opportunities for schooling, future employment, and earnings. A couple of key messages were relayed in this brief. An analysis of data from six countries showed that adolescent childbearing is closely tied to marital status. Around half (ranging from 42 percent in Nepal to 55 percent in Nigeria) of ever-married adolescent women have given birth. In comparison, non-marital adolescent childbearing is rare in all countries studied. In Bangladesh and Burkina Faso...

Maldives

El-Saharty, Sameh; Ohno, Naoko; Sarker, Intissar; Secci, Federica; Nagpal, Somil
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Brief
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
Maldives, a middle income country, is on track to meet most of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), while gender gap requires attention. Maldives has made great progress in improving maternal health and has achieved MDG. The total fertility rate has declined to 2.3 in 2012. Contraceptive use has increased but high unmet need of 28.1 percent is of concern. Skilled birth attendance is high at 95 percent. Access to maternal health services is fairly equitable by residence and wealth quintile, while geographical access to services remains challenging. Also, unwanted pregnancies among young women are on the rise. Maldives has initiated a number of interventions to increase adolescents needs for sexual and reproductive health services, improve quality of RMNCH services, and increase utilization of health services at local level.

The evolution of the socioeconomic gap in fertility among adolescents in Chile, 1990-2011

Castro,Ruben
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.47%
For research and policy issues, it is very important to measure the evolution of socioeconomic differences in the adolescent fertility rate over time (AFER) in order to be able to provide a quantitative description of such an evolution. By combining well reputed Chilean data, this study computes a ratio of AFER (15-17 years-old) between the 30% of the population living in economically worst off areas (the numerator) against the corresponding 30% better off segment of the population (the denominator). This ratio of AFER by relative socioeconomic status shows a stable evolution from 1.45 in the year 1990 to 1.10 in 2011. Sexual initiation, whose association with AFER is well established, also shows a dropping ratio, from 1.24 in 1997 to 1.01 in 2012. The size of some dimensions of socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent fertility and sexual initiation has being decreasing between 1990 and 2011. This exercise shows that even in Chile, the most unequal country among the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, there are some improvements in health inequality.

Reproductive Health in the Middle East and North Africa : Well-Being for All

Aoyama, Aoyama
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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36.72%
This reproductive health review of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region provides an overview of the issues and establishes a base of knowledge upon which a strategy could be constructed. Despite achievements in the population and health sectors during the last decades, several reproductive health issues remain, while new challenges have emerged. Major reproductive health issues in the region include high maternal mortality, particularly in Yemen, Morocco, Egypt, and Iraq; high fertility and slowing fertility decline; early marriage and high teenage fertility; the increasing prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS; and female genital cutting in Egypt and Yemen. There is a correlation between reproductive health issues, a country's level of social development, and the size of gaps within a country; between men and women, urban and rural, rich and poor. Therefore, it is necessary to plan and implement programs targeted to specific issues and underprivileged groups; develop effective and sustainable health systems with high-quality services; raise awareness and change behaviors of both the public and policymakers; and empower women. Strong political commitment is essential to overcoming social and cultural constraints. Possible intervention components and possible roles of the World Bank are suggested.

Age at First Child Does Education Delay Fertility Timing? The Case of Kenya

Ferre, Celine
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
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46.84%
Completing additional years of education necessarily entails spending more time in school. There is naturally a rather mechanical effect of schooling on fertility if women tend not to have children while continuing to attend high school or college, thus delaying the beginning of and shortening their reproductive life. This paper uses data from the Kenyan Demographic and Health Surveys of 1989, 1993, 1998, and 2003 to uncover the impact of staying one more year in school on teenage fertility. To get around the endogeneity issue between schooling and fertility preferences, the analysis uses the 1985 Kenyan education reform as an instrument for years of education. The authors find that adding one more year of education decreases by at least 10 percentage points the probability of giving birth when still a teenager. The probability of having one's first child before age 20, when having at least completed primary education, is about 65 percent; therefore, for this means a reduction of about 15 percent in teenage fertility rates for this group. One additional year of school curbs the probability of becoming a mother each year by 7.3 percent for women who have completed at least primary education...

The Impact of an Adolescent Girls Employment Program : The EPAG Project in Liberia

Adoho, Franck; Chakravarty, Shubha; Korkoyah, Dala T., Jr.; Lundberg, Mattias; Tasneem, Afia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.56%
This paper presents findings from the impact evaluation of the Economic Empowerment of Adolescent Girls and Young Women (EPAG) project in Liberia. The EPAG project was launched by the Liberian Ministry of Gender and Development in 2009 with the goal of increasing the employment and income of 2,500 young Liberian women by providing livelihood and life skills training and facilitating their transition to productive work. The analysis in this paper is based on data collected during two rounds of quantitative surveys in 2010 and 2011, the second of which was conducted six months after the classroom-based phase of the training program ended. Strong impacts are found on the employment and earnings outcomes of program participants, relative to a control group of non-participants. The EPAG program increased employment by 47 percent and earnings by 80 percent. In addition, the impact evaluation documents positive effects on a variety of empowerment measures, including access to money, self-confidence, and anxiety about circumstances and the future. The evaluation finds no net impact on fertility or sexual behavior. At the household level...

Measuring the economic gain of investing in girls : the girl effect dividend

Chaaban, Jad; Cunningham, Wendy
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
Although girls are approximately half the youth population in developing countries, they contribute less than their potential to the economy. The objective of this paper is to quantify the opportunity cost of girls' exclusion from productive employment with the hope that stark figures will lead policymakers to reconsider the current underinvestment in girls. The paper explores the linkages between investing in girls and potential increases in national income by examining three widely prevalent aspects of adolescent girls' lives: early school dropout, teenage pregnancy and joblessness. The countries included in the analysis are: Bangladesh, Brazil, Burundi, China, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Paraguay, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda. The authors use secondary data to allow for some comparability across countries. They find that investing in girls so that they would complete the next level of education would lead to lifetime earnings of today's cohort of girls that is equivalent to up to 68 percent of annual gross domestic product. When adjusting for ability bias and labor demand elasticities...

Women’s Legal Rights over 50 Years : What Is the Impact of Reform?

Hallward-Driemeier, Mary; Hasan, Tazeen; Bogdana Rusu, Anca
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
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46.33%
This study uses a newly compiled database of women's property rights and legal capacity covering 100 countries over 50 years to test for the impact of legal reforms on employment, health, and education outcomes for women and girls. The database demonstrates gender gaps in the ability to access and own property, sign legal documents in one's own name, and have equality or non-discrimination as a guiding principle of the country's constitution. In the initial period, 75 countries had gender gaps in at least one of these areas and often multiple ones. By 2010, 57 countries had made reforms that strengthened women's economic rights, including 28 countries that had eliminated all of the constraints monitored here. In the cross-section and within countries over time, the removal of gender gaps in rights is associated with greater participation of women in the labor force, greater movement out of agricultural employment, higher rates of women in wage employment, lower adolescent fertility, lower maternal and infant mortality, and higher female educational enrollment. This paper provides evidence on how the strengthening of women's legal rights is associated with important development outcomes.

Sri Lankan Population Change and Demographic Bonus Challenges and Opportunities in the New Millennium

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.57%
This paper examines the population changes and the related causative factors, namely fertility, mortality and international migration in Sri Lanka. During the past decades, the total size, as well as the age and sex structure of the population, was exposed to irreversible changes. The age structure transition has produced a demographic bonus conducive for an economic takeoff. During this period, the proportion of people of working age (15-59) is larger than the fraction in the dependent age categories. The paper includes a sector analysis of the employed population in the agriculture, industry and service sectors to identify the growth sectors of the economy and to reveal the potential patterns and levels of utilization of the demographic bonus. Finally, the social safety net implications of the emerging population, such as the dependency burden, aging, disability and the disintegration of traditional family system in Sri Lanka are examined. Sri Lanka's population has grown to 20 million in 2010, an almost eight-fold increase since the census of 1871. The population doubled 54 years after the first census (1925)...

Argentine Youth : An Untapped Potential

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.52%
Argentina's youth, 6.7 million between the ages of 15 and 24, are an important, but to a certain extent untapped, resource for development. Over 2 million (31 percent) have already engaged in risky behaviors, and another 1 million (15 percent) are exposed to risk factors that are correlated with eventual risky behaviors. This totals 46 percent of youth at some form of risk. Today's youth cohort is the country's largest ever and it's largest for the foreseeable future. If policymakers do not invest in youth now, especially in youth at risk, they will miss a unique opportunity to equip the next generation with the abilities to become the drivers of growth, breaking the intergenerational spiral of poverty and inequality and moving Argentina back into the group of high-income countries. If youth are educated and skilled, they can be a tremendous asset for development. If not, they can burden society and public finances. Overall, Argentina is blessed with high enrollment rates in school, low levels of crime and violence...

Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health in Nigeria

Cortez, Rafael; Saadat, Seemeen; Marinda, Edmore; Oluwole, Odutolu
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Brief
ENGLISH; EN_US
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46.6%
Nigeria is the most populous country in sub-Saharan Africa. It also has a very young population. The majority of the population is below the age of 25 years, with 22 percent of the country s population between the ages of 10-19 years. Data on sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes in Nigeria highlight the importance of focusing on adolescents. At 576 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births, Nigeria accounts for roughly 14 percent of the global burden of maternal mortality (DHS 2013/WHO 2014). Global evidence shows that young girls bear a higher burden of maternal mortality and morbidity. Data show that the average age at sexual debut is roughly 15 years of age among adolescent mothers in Nigeria (DHS 2003, 2008, 2013). This note presents the findings of a recent study on Nigeria that examines determinants of adolescent sexual behavior and fertility, with a narrower focus on knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of adolescents aged 10-19 years old in Karu Local Government Authority (LGA), a peri-urban area near the capital city of Abuja.

Intergenerational influences and Migration: Ruality and Adolescent Fertility in Lujan, Argentina

Justman, Cydney Elizabeth
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.59%

This cross sectional study explores migration, intergenerational influences and social isolation as determinants of early pregnancy in Lujan's rural communities, which are home to generations of migrants from neighboring nations and northern provinces. Results suggest that, even when controlling for socioeconomics, migrant families and individuals experience higher levels of social isolation than their native-born neighbors; that migrant females are more likely to have a pregnancy before the age of 17; and that although first-generation born females (daughter of at least one migrant parent) have a lower average of age at first pregnancy, first-generation born females show a stronger trend of delaying first pregnancy than native-born and migrant females, diverging from the fertility norms of their parents' place of origin, and adopting the fertility norms of Lujan.

Addressing both migrant health and adolescent health can be challenging in low-resource settings. However, as the results of this study show, addressing the determinants of social isolation, which is significantly associated with high levels of adolescent fertility and adverse health outcomes, may be as simple as extending opportunities to engage in extracurricular activities...

Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health in Niger

Barroy, Helene; Cortez, Rafael; Karamoko, Djibrilla
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Brief; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.58%
Today’s adolescents and youth face substantial physical, social, and economic barriers to meeting their sexual and reproductive health (SRH) potential. Niger has the highest fertility rate in the region and the world, as well as lowest age for marriage and childbearing. Early marriage and childbearing have been identified as key contributors to high fertility and maternal mortality in the region. To understand how countries are addressing adolescent SRH and rights (SRHR), the World Bank conducted a quantitative and qualitative study in several countries with a high adolescent’s SRH burden including Niger. The specific objectives of the study were to: (i) investigate adolescent’s socio-economic profile; (ii) analyze adolescent’s sexual and reproductive health status and its determinants from a demand and supply-side perspective; (iii) assess effectiveness of existing adolescent friendly initiatives and programs; and (iv) recommend a set of policy options to improve access and use of services for adolescents in Niger. This knowledge brief provides a brief background on adolescent SRH in Niger and summarizes the results of this study.

The evolution of the socioeconomic gap in fertility among adolescents in Chile, 1990-2011

Castro,Ruben
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.47%
For research and policy issues, it is very important to measure the evolution of socioeconomic differences in the adolescent fertility rate over time (AFER) in order to be able to provide a quantitative description of such an evolution. By combining well reputed Chilean data, this study computes a ratio of AFER (15-17 years-old) between the 30% of the population living in economically worst off areas (the numerator) against the corresponding 30% better off segment of the population (the denominator). This ratio of AFER by relative socioeconomic status shows a stable evolution from 1.45 in the year 1990 to 1.10 in 2011. Sexual initiation, whose association with AFER is well established, also shows a dropping ratio, from 1.24 in 1997 to 1.01 in 2012. The size of some dimensions of socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent fertility and sexual initiation has being decreasing between 1990 and 2011. This exercise shows that even in Chile, the most unequal country among the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, there are some improvements in health inequality.