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Effects of the preventive and corrective adjustments in economical designs for online process control for attributes with misclassification errors

QUININO, Roberto C.; HO, Linda Lee
Fonte: TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD Publicador: TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.17%
The procedure for online process control by attributes consists of inspecting a single item at every m produced items. It is decided on the basis of the inspection result whether the process is in-control (the conforming fraction is stable) or out-of-control (the conforming fraction is decreased, for example). Most articles about online process control have cited the stoppage of the production process for an adjustment when the inspected item is non-conforming (then the production is restarted in-control, here denominated as corrective adjustment). Moreover, the articles related to this subject do not present semi-economical designs (which may yield high quantities of non-conforming items), as they do not include a policy of preventive adjustments (in such case no item is inspected), which can be more economical, mainly if the inspected item can be misclassified. In this article, the possibility of preventive or corrective adjustments in the process is decided at every m produced item. If a preventive adjustment is decided upon, then no item is inspected. On the contrary, the m-th item is inspected; if it conforms, the production goes on, otherwise, an adjustment takes place and the process restarts in-control. This approach is economically feasible for some practical situations and the parameters of the proposed procedure are determined minimizing an average cost function subject to some statistical restrictions (for example...

Abordagem sócio-cognitiva do ajustamento à carreira no ensino superior : o papel das actividades em grupo, da auto-eficácia e dos interesses

Miranda, Maria Cristina Queiroz da Costa Lobo
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em 07/10/2011 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.21%
Tese de doutoramento em Psicologia (área de conhecimento em Psicologia Vocacional); O presente trabalho aborda o processo de ajustamento à carreira no ensino superior em Portugal, numa perspectiva sócio-cognitiva. Pretende-se contribuir para o desenvolvimento do modelo sócio cognitivo de adaptação académica proposto por Lent (2005), o qual adopta uma perspectiva integrativa do bem-estar sob condições de vida normativas. Pretende-se, além disso, enquadrar a investigação do impacto do processo de Bolonha no ensino superior, através do estudo do potencial da aprendizagem cooperativa, das expectativas de auto-eficácia e dos interesses vocacionais como fontes de bem-estar, bem como prosseguir os contributos de Lent, Taveira, Sheu e Singley (2009). A amostra desta investigação é constituída por 368 participantes, de ambos os sexos (n=355; 96% homens; 13; 4% mulheres), com idades compreendidas entre os 19 e os 46 anos, tendo 50% dos participantes idade inferior a 24 anos, maioritariamente estudantes que frequentavam o 2º ano (N= 328; 89%) da licenciatura de Engenharia Mecânica do Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, no ano lectivo de 2008/2009. Foram administrados três questionários para recolha de dados sócio-demográficos e caracterização dos processos e experiências pessoais do trabalho em grupo realizado em sala de aula por alunos do ensino superior...

Processo de ajustamento de estudantes angolanos ao contexto do ensino superior; Academic adjustment process in angolan college students

Elias, Ana Paula Tuavanje
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em 07/04/2014 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.29%
Tese de doutoramento em Psicologia (ramo de conhecimento em Psicologia Vocacional); O ajustamento dos estudantes ao contexto do ensino superior tem mostrado ser um fenómeno com implicações relevantes no processo de ensino/aprendizagem. Cabe assim à Universidade considerar esta problemática e adotar critérios e desenvolver ações que facilitem a adaptação dos estudantes à nova condição académica. Esta investigação tem por objetivo contribuir para a compreensão dos processos de ajustamento ou adaptação académica dos alunos do ensino superior, a partir de uma perspetiva sociocognitiva da carreira (Lent, 2004; Lent, Taveira, Sheu & Syngley, 2009). Nesse sentido, procurou-se validar uma medida e um modelo estrutural de ajustamento académico no contexto do ensino superior angolano, bem como caraterizar o processo de ajustamento académico de alunos universitários angolanos e analisar diferenças individuais, em função de sexo, etnia, ano escolar, especialidade académica e instituição de ensino superior. A amostra global é constituída por 317 participantes, sendo 165 (49,7%) mulheres e 152 (45,8%) homens, com uma média de 170 (51,2%) residem em Luanda e pertencem maioritariamente à etnia Kimbundo (n = 74...

Historias de vida de meninas com experiência pregressa nas ruas: perspectivas do processo de inclusão social; Life histories of girls with former experience in the streets: perspectives of the process of social inclusion

OLIVEIRA, Normalene Sena de
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Enfermagem; Cuidado em Enfermagem Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Enfermagem; Cuidado em Enfermagem
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
In this inquiry, we sought for answers to some questions about social adjustment process for children and adolescents in street situation, especially for female adolescents that had found alternatives for a better quality of life out of the treets. The main objective was to analyze the meaning for social adjustment; to identify the institutional pedagogic programs in the social adjustment process; and to analyze the meaning of the social adjustment and the consequences to female adolescents that lived in street situation. The method has qualitative approach by Oral Live History principles. The data was collect by semi structured interview and participant observation with eight adolescents from 16 to 24 years old, with previous history of life in streets, and analyzed by content analysis thematic modality background. The results was organized and presented through the following categories: 1) coming to street; 2) living in street; 3) life beyond the street. In accordance with the subjects, the social adjustment process occurred in pregnancy consequence. However, the awakening of new live perspectives occurred due significant persons in a specific sheltering institution and the pedagogical actions there developed that accompany, motivate and articulate the values of these persons in the whole process. Therefore...

Cyclical Movements in Unemployment and Informality in Developing Countries

Bosch, Mariano; Maloney, William
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.99%
This paper analyzes the cyclical properties of worker flows in Brazil and Mexico, two important developing countries with large unregulated or informal sectors. It generates three stylized facts that are critical to the accurate modeling of the sector and which suggest the need to rethink the approaches to date. First, the unemployment rate is countercyclical essentially because job separations of informal workers increase dramatically in recessions. Second, the share of formal employment is countercyclical because of the difficulty of finding formal jobs from inactivity, unemployment and other informal jobs during recessions rather than because of increased separation from formal jobs. Third, flows from formality into informality are not countercyclical, but, if anything, pro-cyclical. Together, these challenge the conventional wisdom that has guided the modeling the sector that informal workers are primarily those rationed out of the formal labor market. They also offer a new synthesis of the mechanics of the cyclical adjustment process. Finally...

The Social Dimensions of Adjustment : A General Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
Inevitable as structural adjustment has been, and successful as it might be, the engagement with poverty in Africa is going to be a long-term affair. If growth does not restart, the reverse trickle-down may further jeopardize the most vulnerable groups in the population, involving high transitional costs of adjustment. Those costs arise from the reduction in real incomes engendered by tighter monetary and fiscal policies, from increased unemployment resulting from lags in supply responses, from price adjustment in product and factor markets, and from reduced availability of social services following the contraction of public expenditures. The Social Dimensions of Adjustment (SDA) program is to be reviewed as a strategic reaction to that nascent concern about the position of the poor in the process of structural adjustment. It is seen as a catalyst of effective action aimed at poverty reduction in the framework of structural adjustment programs. SDA delineated four components: analytical research, information gathering...

The Cost of Adjustment to Green Growth Policies : Lessons from Trade Adjustment Costs

Porto, Guido
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.11%
Green growth policies confront firms and workers with adjustments that may create welfare costs for different segments of the population and cause reductions in near-term actual versus potential gross domestic product. There is little evidence on the cost of adjustment to climate change measures, and only limited evidence for more general environmental policies, especially in developing countries. Therefore, this paper canvasses the research on adjustment costs to trade policies to draw analogies and highlight differences compared with the potential impacts of green growth policies. Trade policies affect prices and work directly on technology choice. In the presence of adjustment costs, firms may experience impacts on wages, employment, and incentives to adopt alternative technologies. Both types of trade policy impacts may be amplified by technology availability and credit constraints. Many green growth policies are likely to work via the same mechanisms, that is, taxes on emissions or changes in technology requirements. However...

Public Policy and Industrial Transformation in the Process of Development

Agenor, Pierre-Richard; Dinh, Hinh T.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.79%
This paper studies the role of public policy in promoting industrial transformation from an imitationbased, low-skill economy to an innovation-based, high-skill economy, where technological progress now occurs through the domestic invention of ideas. Industrial transformation is measured by changes in an index of industrial structure, defined as the ratio of the variety of imitation- to innovation-based intermediate goods. A key mechanism through which productivity increases initially in both the imitation and innovation sectors is through a knowledge externality associated with learning by doing in the imitation sector. The process of industrialization increases the demand for high-skill labor, inducing individuals to invest in education. The model also emphasizes the distinction between basic or core infrastructure, which promotes imitation, and advanced infrastructure, which promotes innovation. A calibrated version for a low-income country is used to perform several policy experiments, including an increase in investment in infrastructure...

Republic of Tajikistan : Evaluation of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Process and Arrangements Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.16%
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank introduced the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) process in 1999 to strengthen the poverty alleviation focus of their assistance to low-income countries. This report reviews Tajikistan s experience with the PRSP process, focusing on the effectiveness of IMF and World Bank support to the process and the extent to which the two institutions lending and non-lending activities in the country are aligned to the objectives of the PRSP approach. The rest of the report is organized as follows. Part two provides brief background accounts of political and economic developments since independence in 1991, including poverty incidence in the late 1990s. The relevance of the PRSP approach, application of the underlying principles, and preliminary evidence on results, are examined in part three. Part four considers the effectiveness of World Bank support, including alignment of that support to the objectives of the PRSP approach. The effectiveness of IMF support, including alignment of programs supported under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) and its predecessor...

Information transmission and adjustment process during the technology bubble

Zamin Ali, S.
Fonte: China Publishing House; China Publicador: China Publishing House; China
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Publicado em //2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.09%
It is widely accepted that speculative bubbles lead to prolonged deviations in the securities prices from their intrinsic values. Stock mispricing due to such deviations may not only lead to adverse wealth effects for the investors but also towards overall economic stability of the economy. However, it is not clear whether the level and magnitude of mispricing varies across economies for a particular economic event. The Technology bubble formation during the late Nineties, and its subsequent deflation during the early Twenties, provides an opportunity to examine the information transmission, adjustment and the extent of mispricing across different economies. This paper addresses these issues using Variance Decomposition and, Impulse Response methodology provided by Sims (1980) and Corrected Damodaran (1993) methodology. We find differences in price adjustment process in the two markets; for instance, we find that it takes a longer period for information adjustment in the Indian Technology equity market compared with US Technology equities. Also, Indian stocks on average overreact to information arrival where as US stocks on average underreact to information arrival. Interestingly, we find that the US and the Indian technology markets were not cointegrated over the observations period and that the US market led the Indian market in the price discovery process in all periods except during the bubble formation period. Finally...

Lessons from Large Adjustment Loans; Ensenanzas recogidas de los prestamos para fines de ajuste de gran magnitud

Morrow, Daniel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.02%
This note presents the lessons from the assessments that are likely to be most useful to country directors, and task teams preparing new adjustment operations. The five adjustment loans (two in Argentina, and one each in Korea, Malaysia, and Russia) show that applying basic lessons is not always straightforward, however, and, sometimes involves making tradeoffs among Bank objectives. It is stipulated policy objectives are more likely to be achieved, if there is substantial borrower ownership. To this end, support for new policies should be established, towards generating broad political ownership, including engaging key players in incoming administrations, to help build ownership of reforms. Moreover, combined, the Bank's country knowledge and global expertise, can generate quality operations, that forge local partnerships, draws on prior experience, and maintains a minimum knowledge base. This is to say, setting priorities, and sequencing reforms should be carefully included during the design phase, with particular attention to avoid excessively broad conditionality...

Some Simple Analytics of Trade and Labor Mobility

Artuc, Erhan; Chaudhuri, Shubham; McLaren, John
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.16%
This paper studies a simple, tractable model of labor adjustment in a trade model that allows researchers to analyze the economy's dynamic response to trade liberalization. Since it is a neoclassical market-clearing model, duality techniques can be employed to study the equilibrium and, despite its simplicity, a rich variety of properties emerge. The model generates gross flows of labor across industries, even in the steady state; persistent wage differentials across industries; gradual adjustment to a liberalization; and anticipatory adjustment to a pre-announced liberalization. Pre-announcement induces anticipatory flight from the liberalizing sector, driving up wages there temporarily and giving workers remaining there what this paper calls "anticipation rents." By this process, pre-announcement makes liberalization less attractive to export-sector workers and more attractive to import-sector workers, eventually making workers unanimous either in favor of or in opposition to liberalization. Based on these results...

Protection, Openness and Factor Adjustment : Evidence from the manufacturing sector in Uruguay

Casacuberta, Carlos; Gandelman, Néstor
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.21%
The authors use a panel of manufacturing firms to analyze the adjustment process in capital blue collar and white collar employment in Uruguay during a period of trade liberalization when average tariff protection fell from 43 to 14 percent. They calculate the desired factor levels arising from a counterfactual profit maximization in the absence of adjustment costs, generating a measure of factor shortages or surpluses. The average estimated output gap for 1982-95 is 2 percent. The authors' policy analysis shows that trade openness affected the adjustment functions of all three factors of production. Highly protected sectors adjust less when creating jobs (reducing labor shortages) than sectors with low protection. This may be due to fears of policy reversal in highly protected sectors. Also, highly protected sectors adjust more easily (than low protection sectors) when destroying jobs (reducing labor surpluses), especially in the case of blue collar labor. This suggests that trade protection may in fact destroy rather than create jobs within industries, as firms in highly protected sectors are more reluctant to hire and more ready to fire than firms in sectors with low protection. The results for capital are qualitatively similar but quantitatively smaller...

Gender and Economic Adjustment in Sub-Saharan Africa; L'Ajustement economique et les considerations des differences des sexes en Afrique Subsaharienne

Grieco, Margaret
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
Gender bias, or "neutrality" in the underlying concepts, and tools of economics, has led to "invisibility" of women's economic, and non-economic work, thus, to an incomplete picture of total economic activity. This is predominantly so in Africa, where women articulated their concern regarding the social costs of adjustment, and the impact of adjustment on women. This drove to consolidating the adjustment experience with documented findings on the effects of structural adjustment, and to address the absence of attention to gender in up-stream macroeconomic analysis, and policy formulation, which are at the core of designing adjustment programs, and sectoral strategies. The note reviews the implications, or lack thereof, in considering gender as a distinguishing factor in the design of economic adjustment measures, whose analysis suggests that the improvement in the content of adjustment to include social dimensions, still has to go farther in incorporating gender concerns. In moving toward action in adjustment...

In vitro rapid intraoral adjustment of porcelain prostheses using a high-speed dental handpiece

Song, Xiao-Fei; Yin, Ling; Han, Yi-Gang; Wang, Hui
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.96%
In vitro rapid intraoral adjustment of porcelain prostheses was conducted using a high-speed dental handpiece and diamond bur. The adjustment process was characterized by measurement of removal forces and energy, with scanning electron microscopic (SEM) o

On the Scarf-Hirota model in the price-scaled price adjustment process

Yamamoto, Tatsuro; Asano, Masanari; Togawa, Yoshio; Ohya, Masanori
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/02/2008
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.9%
Hirota's results given in (Hirota.M.,1981) on the asymptotically stability are generalized to the price-scaled price adjustment process.

Global adjustment for the Gravity Calibration Line Madrid-Valle de los Caídos

Vieira, Ricardo; Camacho, Antonio G.; Ortiz, E.
Fonte: Universidad Complutense de Madrid Publicador: Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 4613008 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.99%
A gravity difference of 121 mGal is to be found on the Madrid-Valle de los Caídos gravimetric calibration line, which is formed by 16 stations and streches 60 km from Madrid to the north-western mountains. The line includes two absolute gravity stations, one in each terminal zone and both repeatedly observed (1989, 1992, 1994, 1997) by absolute meter, giving an absolute scale reference. Moreover, large continuous gravity records in each terminal zone provide empirical models for tidal response. This paper gives additional details about the calibration line and presents the adjustment process carried out for the gravity data bank obtained from 1979 with a total of 16 relative meters. Adjusted gravity values for the stations of the line are obtained with a standard deviation of around 7 μGal. Furthermore, the fit process provides instrumental parameters such as drift factors, scale factor and recording jumps for the meters in question.; The gravity stations in the Valle de los Caídos zone, and mainly the absolute station Valle Absoluta, are located in an area run by the National Heritage Board, which helps with their maintenance. The absolute measurements were accomplished with the meter JILA n.5, in collaboration with the Finnish Geodetic Institute.; Peer reviewed

Psychological adjustment in families affected by Autism Spectrum Disorder

Whitehead, K.; Dorstyn, D.; Ward, L.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.91%
There is extensive evidence that parents and carers of children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are vulnerable to experiencing mental health issues including having high risk of depression, anxiety and familial stress. Research also suggests that this stress can coexist with positive experiences of caregiving. However, the capacity to remain resilient, or thrive during difficult emotional experiences, is a relatively new concept in the ASD literature. The present study adds to current understanding of the mental health needs of female caregivers by evaluating data from a nationwide survey (N=438). The findings suggest that psychological outcome is primarily determined by individual coping responses, with avoidant strategies (disengagement, self-blame, denial, emotional venting) contributing to depressed mood in addition to anxiety and stress symptomatology. In comparison, action-oriented strategies (planning, acceptance, positive reframing) characterised resilience. Perceived support needs and, to a lesser extent, child behaviour, also had important contextual influences. Future longitudinal research will help to refine the variables implicated in the adjustment process, including changes in caregivers’ repertoire of cognitive and behavioural coping responses over time.; Katherine Whitehead...

Glacial isostatic adjustment and the radial viscosity profile from inverse modeling

Kaufmann, Georg; Lambeck, Kurt
Fonte: American Geophysical Union Publicador: American Geophysical Union
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.91%
A formal inverse procedure is used to infer radial mantle viscosity profiles from several observations related to the glacial isostatic adjustment process. The data sets consist of Late Pleistocene and Holocene sea level data from Scandinavia, the Barents Sea, Central Europe, Canada, and the far field, as well as observations of changes in the Earth's rotation and gravitational field, and present-day uplift and gravity changes in Scandinavia. Inferences of mantle viscosity are robust against assumptions such as the a priori viscosity model and model discretization. However, the quality of ice sheet reconstruction remains crucial for the inverse inference. The importance to discuss regional mantle viscosity models in view of the lateral variability in mantle properties has been evident. Our inference suggests a two order of magnitude increase of mantle viscosity with depth, and volume-averaged upper and lower mantle viscosities around 7 × 1020 and 2 × 1022 Pa s, respectively. Mantle viscosity does not need to increase sharply across the 660-km seismic discontinuity. The viscosity profiles suggested are also able to reconcile the large-scale geoid anomaly related to mantle convection.

Numerical experiments on geostrophic adjustment

WIIN-NIELSEN,A.
Fonte: Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, UNAM Publicador: Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, UNAM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.08%
The well known geostrophic adjustment problem has been reinvestigated using first a model of a homogeneous atmosphere with a free surface. The basic equations in this model are the two equations of motion for the horizontal velocity components modified to contain only the east-west variations and the continuity equation treated in the same way. A linear frictional term is included in the equations, and the forcing of the model atmosphere is included in the continuity equation. The zonal case is described in Sections 2 and 3. The equations are integrated numerically from an initial state of rest and a horizontal upper surface. If geostrophic adjustment should be obtained, the zonal velocity components should be small, while the meridional velocity components should be in approximate balance with the geostrophic component computed from the zonal geopotential gradient. It is found by integrating the equations for 20 days that the above requirements are satisfied. The numerical integrations of the set of primitive equations are carried out in wave number space, but the results are presented as continuous variations in the west-east directions. It is shown that geostrophic adjustment is reach after a couple of days. The final state of the adjustment process is obtained using several specifications of the forcing. While the final states naturally are different...