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Partners in Reform : The Special Program of Assistance for Africa (SPA)

Jeffrey, Katz; Alison, Rosenberg
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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36.53%
It is essential to obtain a far more thorough understanding of how economic reforms affect household welfare, particularly the poor, and how households react to economic reform. It is therefore important to monitor the evolution of poverty levels and social conditions over time. The Working Group on Poverty and Social Policy in the Special Program of Assistance for Africa (SPA) has begun this monitoring process, and is supporting information gathering and analysis at the country level. This work will be expanded. Donor support for adjustment programs will continue to be the principal objective of SPA-3. It would be misleading to assume that SPA donors can address all the development issues that confront Africa. Ultimately, the resolution of these fundamental concerns will depend on the resolve and talent of the people and governments of Sub-Saharan Africa.

Protecting the Poor Through Programmatic Adjustment Lending in Peru, Brazil and Colombia

Javier, Evangeline; Paqueo, Vicente; Rawlings, Laura B.; Rodriguez, Alberto
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Social reforms typically require long-term, incremental policy changes. Traditional World Bank (WB) funding for discrete investments or technical assistance often had little broad policy impact. Even sector adjustment loans tended to be too inflexible and short-term to support ongoing social reforms. Some countries needed new kinds of financial and technical assistance to sustain reforms during crisis and beyond. Recognizing the need for steady, incremental reforms combined with institution building, the WB introduced Programmatic Structural Adjustment Loans/Credits (PSAL/PSAC) in 1998. In the social arena, this instrument has provided fast-disbursing, flexible, multi-year support to help countries preserve their social safety nets during crises and strengthen them in the long run through capacity building and institutional reforms. In the Latin America and the Caribbean region, loans to Peru, Brazil, and Colombia illustrate how the new multi-sector social reform efforts have worked in practice.

A Global Perspective on Effectiveness of Aid for Trade

Berrittella, Maria; Zhang, Jian
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.44%
Recent global initiatives on debt relief and development assistance call for increasing aid for trade to the poorest countries. The paper applies a multi-country computable general equilibrium model to measure the effectiveness of alternative aid for trade categories. The findings show that aid for trade policies expand trade and alleviate international income inequalities in the recipient countries, that will benefit mainly from aid for trade adjustment and technical assistance.

The Cost of Adjustment to Green Growth Policies : Lessons from Trade Adjustment Costs

Porto, Guido
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.31%
Green growth policies confront firms and workers with adjustments that may create welfare costs for different segments of the population and cause reductions in near-term actual versus potential gross domestic product. There is little evidence on the cost of adjustment to climate change measures, and only limited evidence for more general environmental policies, especially in developing countries. Therefore, this paper canvasses the research on adjustment costs to trade policies to draw analogies and highlight differences compared with the potential impacts of green growth policies. Trade policies affect prices and work directly on technology choice. In the presence of adjustment costs, firms may experience impacts on wages, employment, and incentives to adopt alternative technologies. Both types of trade policy impacts may be amplified by technology availability and credit constraints. Many green growth policies are likely to work via the same mechanisms, that is, taxes on emissions or changes in technology requirements. However...

How-to-Guide Note for the World Bank Technical Assistance to Burundi for the Adoption of a Semi-automatic Pricing Mechanism in the Petroleum Sector

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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In May 2008, the government of Burundi requested Bank assistance to review the situation of the petroleum market, and evaluate the existing pricing mechanism. Following three Bank missions, a draft report was prepared and submitted to the Burundian authorities. Both the Ministry of Commerce and the Ministry of Finance submitted comments on the draft report. The draft and the government s comments were discussed with a Bank economic mission in April 2009. The present note is focused on the petroleum pricing issue and takes into account the comments of the government and the conclusions of the discussions with the Bank mission in April. Following an analysis of the petroleum supply chain, the report presents the main conclusions and recommendations of the Bank s petroleum expert on the current pricing mechanism; summarizes the views of the authorities on recent changes in their management of domestic prices; and describes the new measures the government plans to take to consolidate the existing quasi-automatic price adjustment mechanism and to stabilize the market supply and the specific cost components. The report also discusses briefly how the social impact of price increases is already taken care of in the current pricing mechanism.

Sticky Feet : How Labor Market Frictions Shape the Impact of International Trade on Jobs and Wages

Hollweg, Claire H.; Lederman, Daniel; Rojas, Diego; Ruppert Bulmer, Elizabeth
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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This report analyzes the paths by which developing country labor markets adjust to permanent trade-related shocks. Trade shocks can bring about reallocation of labor between industries, but the presence of labor mobility costs implies economy-wide losses because they extend the period of economic adjustment. This report focuses primarily on the adjustment costs faced by workers after a trade shock, because of magnitude and welfare implications and policy relevance. From a policy viewpoint, understanding the relative magnitudes of labor mobility and adjustment costs can help policymakers design trade policies that are consistent with employment objectives, can be complemented by labor policies, or support programs to facilitate labor transitions, or both. To complement and validate the analysis based on structural choice models, the study designed a distinct empirical approach using reduced-form econometric estimation strategies. This approach examines the impact of structural reforms and worker displacement on labor market outcomes. This makes it possible to estimate the time required to adjust to a trade-related shock...

Uganda Country Assistance Evaluation, 2001-2007; Joint IEG/OPEV Country Assistance Evaluation

Independent Evaluation Group; Africa Development Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Book; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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36.23%
The World Bank’s assistance strategies showed strong client orientation and were aligned with Uganda’s poverty reduction strategy. The programs were substantially effective in decentralization, public sector reform, growth and economic transformation, education, and water and sanitation. However, more could have been done to help counter the perception of increasing corruption, improve power supply, reduce transport costs, enhance agricultural productivity, and help with family planning and reproductive health. The AfDB’s assistance was also relevant and aligned with the government’s development goals. Its support substantially achieved its objectives for decentralization, public sector finance, growth and economic transformation, improved competitiveness, agriculture, and water and sanitation, as well as education and health. However, there were some shortcomings in the assistance provided for power and roads and in reducing corruption. This report evaluates World Bank and African Development Bank assistance to Uganda during 2001-07. The motivation to undertake a joint evaluation was the shift to a common strategic framework...

Looking for More from Adjustment : Africa's Experience; Medidas para acentuar los beneficios derivados del ajuste : la experiencia recogida en Africa

Pape, Elizabeth
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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36.31%
By the mid-1990s, after more than 15 years of adjustment lending, it had become clear that adjustment programs in Africa had not accelerated growth or reduced poverty, except in a handful of countries. The main reasons? Recipient governments did not "own" the reform programs, and they perceived the conditionality attached to the programs as being imposed on them. Adjustment programs were often unresponsive to country conditions and changes in external circumstances. In most cases the World Bank and recipient governments did not have a shared vision of what adjustment programs were supposed to achieve. In response to this diagnosis, in 1995 the Bank's Africa Region introduced the Higher Impact Adjustment Lending (HIAL) initiative. The initiative aimed to achieve a quicker, stronger, broader, and longer supply response from structural adjustment programs by: 1) increasing country selectivity and strengthening government ownership; 2) allowing more flexibility in adjustment operations--in particular, introducing new tranching mechanisms; and 3) introducing performance indicators to define expected results and assess actual outcomes. This note describes how the approach and design of these operations were adapted to achieve higher impact.

Lebanon : Public Expenditure Review, Reform Priorities for Fiscal Adjustment, Growth and Poverty Alleviation

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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36.36%
Lebanon's current priority -- in the face of high public deficits and unsustainable debt dynamics -- is to contain and rationalize public expenditures in every possible sector while improving the efficiency of social spending. The needed containment of primary public expenditures should be understood as a transition to restore fiscal sustainability and enhance growth prospects. This Public Expenditure Review aims to assist Lebanon in its fiscal stabilization effort. The containment of public expenditures could entail painful choices, which will first require an analysis to identify where spending pressures lie (e.g., contingent liabilities, social sectors), and how to address them. And ideally, eliminating non productive spending should replace containment as the main instrument of adjustment. The report seeks to identify what critical and realistic short and longer term measures can be implemented to achieve this objective. The report is organized as follows. Chapter 1 provides the macro-economic framework and discusses the need for fiscal adjustment. Chapter 2 looks for possibilities to contain primary expenditures in the next five years. Chapter 3 reviews the efficiency for current social expenditures, and explores ways to improve their efficiency with the view to improving support for human development during the ordinary course o f the economy and preventing human capital deterioration during any possible economic crisis. Finally...

Some Simple Analytics of Trade and Labor Mobility

Artuc, Erhan; Chaudhuri, Shubham; McLaren, John
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This paper studies a simple, tractable model of labor adjustment in a trade model that allows researchers to analyze the economy's dynamic response to trade liberalization. Since it is a neoclassical market-clearing model, duality techniques can be employed to study the equilibrium and, despite its simplicity, a rich variety of properties emerge. The model generates gross flows of labor across industries, even in the steady state; persistent wage differentials across industries; gradual adjustment to a liberalization; and anticipatory adjustment to a pre-announced liberalization. Pre-announcement induces anticipatory flight from the liberalizing sector, driving up wages there temporarily and giving workers remaining there what this paper calls "anticipation rents." By this process, pre-announcement makes liberalization less attractive to export-sector workers and more attractive to import-sector workers, eventually making workers unanimous either in favor of or in opposition to liberalization. Based on these results...

Evaluation of World Bank Assistance to Pacific Member Countries, 1992-2002

Operations Evaluation Department
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The nine Pacific Member Countries (PMCs) of the World Bank Group are Fiji Islands, Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, Samoa, the Solomon Islands, Tonga , and Vanuatu. This evaluation covers Bank assistance to the PMCs since 1992. The Country Assistance Evaluation (CAE) examines whether:(a) the objectives of Bank and International Development Association (IDA) assistance were relevant; (b) the Bank's assistance program was effectively designed and consistent with its objectives; and (c) the Bank's program achieved its objectives and had a substantial impact on the country's development during this period. Examining these questions allows the CAE to draw lessons and offer recommendations for future Bank assistance. Annex F describes the methodological approach.

The World Bank’s Economic and Sector Work and Technical Assistance, FY00-06

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.35%
Economic and sector work (ESW) and non-lending technical assistance (TA) are two of the analytical and advisory services (AAA) through which the Bank provides knowledge support to its client countries. The objectives of ESW are to inform lending, inform government policy, build client capacity, stimulate public debate, and influence the development community. The objectives of TA are to assist in policy implementation, strengthen institutions, and facilitate knowledge exchange. ESW and TA are an essential part of the Bank's engagement with its clients it spent $910 million (or 26 percent of its spending on country services) on these products during FY00-06. The majority of ESW and TA met their objectives at least to an average extent during FY00-06, although there were substantial differences across countries and tasks. ESW and TA of higher technical quality were clearly more effective in meeting their objectives. Close collaboration with clients from task initiation through the formulation of recommendations was important for ESW and TA to be effective...

Where to Spend the Next Million? Applying Impact Evaluation to Trade Assistance

Cadot, Olivier; Fernandes, Ana M.; Gourdon, Julien; Mattoo, Aaditya
Fonte: London: Centre for Economic Policy Research and the World Bank Publicador: London: Centre for Economic Policy Research and the World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
EN_US
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36.41%
Trade policy has changed fundamentally since the days of structural adjustment and economy-wide trade reforms. Partly in reaction to the uneven results of trade policy reforms, the focus has shifted to more targeted interventions aimed at reducing trade costs and addressing market failures that inhibit exports. Significant national resources and international assistance are now devoted to trade facilitation and export promotion, and the international development community has galvanized around a new 'aid-for-trade' (AfT) mantra as a means of helping low-income countries integrate into the global economy. The rest of this chapter is organized as follows: in section two the report discusses the changing nature of trade policy. In section three the report reviews the available evidence on the impact of trade assistance. In section four the report considers a detailed menu of trade-related interventions and discusses the challenges to their evaluation. In section five the report addresses the data issues crucial to impact evaluation. Finally, in section six the report look at the future challenges to doing Independent Evaluation (IE) in trade assistance.

How Costly Is It for Poor Farmers to Lift Themselves Out of Subsistence?

Cadot, Olivier; Dutoit, Laure; Olarreaga, Marcelo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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The main objective of this paper is to provide estimates of the cost of moving out of subsistence for Madagascar's farmers. The analysis is based on a simple asset-return model of occupational choice. Estimates suggest that the entry (sunk) cost associated with moving out of subsistence can be quite large - somewhere between 124 and 153 percent of a subsistence farmer's annual production. Our results make it possible to identify farm characteristics likely to generate large gains, if moved out of subsistence, yielding useful information for the targeting of trade-adjustment assistance programs.

IEG Review of World Bank Assistance for Financial Sector Reform

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.46%
This evaluation presents an independent assessment of the Bank's support for financial sector reforms over the period FY93-03. It is the second part of a two-part evaluation; the first part of the assessment covered lines of credit. This volume focuses on Bank lending for financial sector reforms, including both lending categorized under the financial sector and financial sector components of multi-sector loans. The assessment examines trends in lending, the quality at entry of Bank assistance; and the outcomes of individual loans and components addressing financial sector reforms. It also assesses the extent to which the objectives of Bank assistance were achieved, including reducing government ownership of financial intermediaries, decreased market concentration, increased competition and efficiency, healthier and more stable financial intermediaries, and deeper, more developed financial systems. Finally, the assessment examines Bank support for financial sector reforms in countries under crisis.

Aid and Reform in Africa : Lessons from Ten Case Studies

Devarajan, Shantayanan; Dollar, David R.; Holmgren, Torgny
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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36.5%
This book synthesizes the findings from ten case studies that investigate whether, when, and how foreign aid affected economic policy in Africa, and reveals the range of African policy experience. Results varied enormously, for example, while Ghana and Uganda were successful reformers that grew rapidly reducing poverty, Cote d'Ivoire and Ethiopia have shown significant reform recently, but its sustainability remains to be seen, and, in other countries, policies changed little, or even worsened. Based on the World Bank's Country Policy and Institutional Assessment, the study relates foreign aid in the 1990s, to a measure of overall economic policy, a broad measure that covers macroeconomic management, as well as effectiveness of the public sector in providing essential services for growth, and poverty reduction. In assessing aid, and reform policy, the study subdivides these countries in three groups: the post-socialist reformers (Ethiopia, Mali and Tanzania); the mixed reformers (Cote d'Ivoire, Kenya and Zambia)...

World Bank Assistance to the Financial Sector : A Synthesis of IEG Evaluation

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This report is a synthesis of three evaluations carried out by the Independent Evaluation Group and completed between July 2005 and February 2006, on different aspects of Bank assistance to financial sector development in client countries. The three evaluation reports are World Bank Lending for Lines of Credit: An Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) Evaluation; IEG Review of World Bank Assistance for Financial Sector Reform; and Financial Sector Assessment Program: IEG Review of the Joint World Bank and IMF Initiative. This paper seeks to draw out common themes and issues that have arisen from the three evaluations, which reviewed major components of the Bank's assistance during more than a decade to the financial sectors of client countries.

Pakistan : An Evaluation of the World Bank's Assistance

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.32%
This book analyzes the objectives and content of the World Bank's assistance program during the period 1994-2003, the economic and social development outcomes in Pakistan, and the contributions of the Bank to development outcomes.

Using Knowledge to Improve Development Effectiveness : An Evaluation of World Bank Economic and Sector Work and Technical Assistance, 2000-2006

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.38%
In 1996, the World Bank committed itself to becoming a 'global knowledge bank,' using knowledge to improve the development effectiveness of its work. In fiscal 2008, the Bank reiterated its focus on knowledge and learning, naming it as one of its six strategic directions. This evaluation focuses on two of the analytical and advisory activities through which the Bank provides knowledge to its client countries: economic and sector work (ESW) and nonlending technical assistance (TA). This evaluation found that the majority of ESW and TA met their objectives at least to an average extent during fiscal 2000-06, although there were substantial differences across countries and tasks. ESW and TA of higher technical quality were clearly more effective in meeting their objectives. Close collaboration with clients during the process mattered for effectiveness, whether clients actually produced part of the task or not. Sustained follow-up after the completion of the tasks was important for effectiveness. Whether clients requested the tasks did not matter for effectiveness...

Trade Promotion Authority and the employment politics from the trade adjustment assistance on a threshold between the guarantee of internal economy and the disguised protectionism; A Trade Promotion Authority e as políticas de emprego da Trade Adjustment Assistance no limiar entre o asseguramento da economia interna e o protecionismo velado

Nascimento, Blenda Lara Fonseca do
Fonte: Fundação José Arthur Boiteux Publicador: Fundação José Arthur Boiteux
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2004 POR
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This article analyses the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Workers (TAAW) of the Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) 2002. The author questions this North-American program legality towards the World Trade Organisation (WTO) rules and, thus, proposes that the program may constitute a disguised form of protectionism.; Este artigo analisa os programas de reajuste comercial relativo a trabalhadores inserido no texto da Autoridade de Promoção Comercial (Trade Promotion Authority –TPA) de 2002. A autora questiona a licitude destes programas norte-americanos ante a normativa da Organização Mundial do Comércio (OMC), assinalando que estes podem constituir uma forma de protecionismo velado.