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An Integrated Framework for Assessing Vulnerability to Climate Change and Developing Adaptation Strategies for Coffee Growing Families in Mesoamerica

Baca, María; Läderach, Peter; Haggar, Jeremy; Schroth, Götz; Ovalle, Oriana
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/02/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
The Mesoamerican region is considered to be one of the areas in the world most vulnerable to climate change. We developed a framework for quantifying the vulnerability of the livelihoods of coffee growers in Mesoamerica at regional and local levels and identify adaptation strategies. Following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concepts, vulnerability was defined as the combination of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. To quantify exposure, changes in the climatic suitability for coffee and other crops were predicted through niche modelling based on historical climate data and locations of coffee growing areas from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua. Future climate projections were generated from 19 Global Circulation Models. Focus groups were used to identify nine indicators of sensitivity and eleven indicators of adaptive capacity, which were evaluated through semi-structured interviews with 558 coffee producers. Exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity were then condensed into an index of vulnerability, and adaptation strategies were identified in participatory workshops. Models predict that all target countries will experience a decrease in climatic suitability for growing Arabica coffee...

A agricultura familiar do Seridó potiguar: vulnerabilidade, percepção e adaptação às mudanças climáticas; Family farming at the Serido s region of Rio Grande do Norte: vulnerability, perception and adaptation to climate change

Andrade, Anna Jéssica Pinto de
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa Regional de Pós-Graduação em Desenvolvimento e Meio Ambiente PRODEMA; Meio Ambiente, Cultura e Desenvolvimento Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa Regional de Pós-Graduação em Desenvolvimento e Meio Ambiente PRODEMA; Meio Ambiente, Cultura e Desenvolvimento
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
At the semiarid regions of developing countries the rural population has always been vulnerable to the climatic variations e its consequences. The effects of the semiarid climate, together with other biophysics, social and political-economic factors, impair the agricultural production, generating a situation of food insecurity and poverty in the rural areas. With the occurrence of climate change, natural resources of the semiarid regions can became scarcer, what would directly affect the agricultural production and those who depend on it. Therefore, the present study sought to study one of the most susceptible areas to the effects of the semiarid climate and desertification of Rio Grande do Norte, the potiguar s Serido. The study aimed to analyze the socioeconomic and environmental factors that put farmers in a position of vulnerability to the effects of climate; assess their perceptions about climate variations that have already occurred and their knowledge about climate change and global warming, also to identify which adaptation strategies to climate they have adopted at the rural establishment. The survey was conducted in 29 communities of four counties of the potiguar s Serido Caico, Parelhas, Lagoa Nova and Acari. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with local leaders and 241 questionnaires were applied with the family farmers. It was found that in addition to environmental factors such as the scarcity of water resources and climatic conditions...

Designing Climate Change Adaptation Policies : An Economic Framework

Hallegatte, Stephane; Lecocq, Franck; de Perthuis, Christian
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.32%
Adaptation has long been neglected in the debate and policies surrounding climate change. However, increasing awareness of climate change has led many stakeholders to look for the best way to limit its consequences and has resulted in a large number of initiatives related to adaptation, particularly at the local level. This report proposes a general economic framework to help stakeholders in the public sector to develop effective adaptation strategies. To do so, it lays out the general issues involved in adaptation, including the role of uncertainty and inertia, and the need to consider structural changes in addition to marginal adjustments. Then, it identifies the reasons for legitimate public action in terms of adaptation, and four main domains of action: the production and dissemination of information on climate change and its impacts; the adaptation of standards, regulations and fiscal policies; the required changes in institutions; and direct adaptation actions of governments and local communities in terms of public infrastructure...

Climate Policy Processes, Local Institutions, and Adaptation Actions : Mechanisms of Translation and Influence

Agrawal, Arun; Perrin, Nicolas; Chhatre, Ashwini; Benson, Catherine; Kononen, Minna
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.31%
This paper focuses on the experience of the national-level adaptation planning efforts and the lessons that can be derived for more effective adaptation from an examination of local governance of development and natural resources. After examining national level adaptation plans, particularly the NAPAs (National Adaptation Programmes of Action), the paper analyzes the range of institutional instruments and relationships visible in contemporary decentralization reforms. The analysis derives four important lessons for adaptation planning, with special attention to the articulation between local and national level adaptation processes. The paper underlines: a) the diversity of local institutions; b) adaptation strategies, and identifies factors that promote; c) greater accountability; and d) greater equity in national/local relationships.

Building Response Strategies to Climate Change in Agricultural Systems in Latin America

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
This report, Building Response Strategies to Climate Change in Agricultural Systems in Latin America, reports the results of action research to identify and prioritize stakeholder driven, locally relevant response options to climate change in Latin American agriculture. The study has three primary objectives. The first is to develop and apply a pilot methodology for assessing agricultural vulnerability to climate change and for formulating adaptation response strategies to inform private and public sector decisions in the Latin America region. The study is principally concerned with adaptation responses to climate change, rather than mitigation. The second objective is to formulate recommendations for investments in each of the selected agro-ecosystems in a range of areas including agricultural technology adaptation, infrastructure investments, public and private sector support activities, and institutional and policy changes. The final objective is to disseminate the study results in the Latin America region and other parts of the world to help increase understanding of the impacts of climate change and alternative adaptation response strategies. This methodology can be used by the Bank to support client countries in defining response strategies...

Economic of Adaptation to Climate Change : Bangladesh, Volume 2. Annexes

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries in the world to climate risks. Two-thirds of the nation is less than 5 meters above sea level and is susceptible to river and rainwater flooding, particularly during the monsoon. The Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan (BCCSAP), adopted by the government of Bangladesh in 2009, seek to guide activities and programs related to climate change in Bangladesh. Until the past few years, climatic risks have been poorly reflected in national policies and programs Bangladesh. The objective of this study is to help decision makers in Bangladesh to better understand and assess the risks posed by climate change and to better design strategies to adapt to climate change. The study takes as its starting point the BCCSAP. It builds upon and strengthens the analytical models and quantitative assessment tools already in use in Bangladesh in support of the research and knowledge management theme of BCCSAP. The scope of this study is more limited than the BCCSAP, so the reported costs represent a lower bound on the total adaptation costs in Bangladesh. The study was developed in four discrete and somewhat independent components with varying degrees of analytical depth and quantification.

Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change : Synthesis Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
To address these objectives, the study was conducted on two parallel tracks: (1) a global tracka top-down approach, in which national databases were used to generate aggregate estimates at a global scale, drawing on a wide variety of sector studies; and (2) a country level track: a bottom-up approach, in whichsub-national data were aggregated to generate estimates at economywide, sectoral, and local levels. This Synthesis Report integrates and summarizes the key findings of a global study report and seven country case study reports covering Bangladesh, Bolivia, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mozambique, Samoa, and Vietnam(Figure ES-1). By providing information on lessons learned and insights gained on adaptation to climate change from global, country, and sector-level analyses,the hope is to help policymakers worldwide prioritize actions, along with developing a robust, integrated approach for greater resilience to climate risks. The Report begins with the concepts and methodology used for analyses in both the global and the country case studies...

Adaptation to Climate Change -- Vulnerability Assessment and Economic Aspects : Plurinational State of Bolivia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.28%
The Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change (EACC) study estimates that it will cost $75 - $100 billion each year for developing countries to adapt to climate change from 2010 to 2050 (World Bank 2009a). The study funded by the governments of the Netherlands, United Kingdom, and Switzerland has two specific objectives. The first is to develop a global estimate of adaptation coststo inform the international community s efforts on how to tailor adequate and sustainable support regarding new and additional resources to help vulnerable developing countries meet adaptation costs. The second objective is to support decision makers in developing countries to better evaluate and assess the risks posed by climate change and to better design strategies to adapt to climate change. The EACC study includes a global track to meet the first study objective and a case study track to meet the second objective. The country track comprises seven countries: Ethiopia, Mozambique, Ghana, Bangladesh, Vietnam, The Plurinational State of Bolivia...

The Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change : Methodology Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.22%
The proposed methodology begins with a consistent downscaling of projected climatic changes from a multiplicity of General Circulation to local levels. Subsets of the suite of downscaled climatic factors are then to be used to estimate the vector of impacts on key economic sectors of each country, using sector-specific impact assessment models. Based on this information, alternative government adaptation projects will be specified and optimally chosen subject to a government budget constraint. Thereafter, direct impacts of climate change will serve as inputs into a macroeconomic framework to examine the indirect inter-sectoral impacts of climate change as well as adaption strategies. Finally, at each step the analysis will be complemented with perspectives and insights of people whose livelihoods are being or will be affected by changes in climate. Impacts of the climate change and the benefits of specific adaptation measures will be examined in the context of sub-populations defined by livelihood profiles. Local-level analysis of past and present autonomous adaptation measures for a range of groups stratified by sets of livelihood profiles will be conducted using participatory rural appraisal based primary fieldwork in addition to holding participatory workshops and consultations.

Using Forests to Enhance Resilience to Climate Change : What Do We Know About How Forests Can Contribute to Adaptation?

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
The global dialogue surrounding the United Nations framework convention for climate change has focused on two strategies for addressing challenges associated with climate change: (1) mitigation (reducing the accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere); and (2) adaptation (reducing the vulnerability of societies and ecosystems to the impacts of climate change). Forests feature in both of these strategies. The role of forests as stores of carbon and therefore in reducing GHG emissions has been captured in the efforts associated with reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation and enhancing carbon stocks (REDD+). The report points to how forests will respond to climate change, and advocates strengthening the ability of institutions to deliver on sustainable forest management, which will help with the resilience of forest systems. This working paper presents a review of relevant work on forests and the services, and the use of forests and trees in adaptation. The paper starts with a brief discussion about climate change. It also provides a conceptualization of how to link forest services with their use for adaptation (more specifically...

ICTs for Climate Change Adaptation in Africa

Creech, Heather; Akoh, Ben; Parry, Jo-Ellen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
Like other regions of the world, Africa is beginning to experience the impacts of human-induced climate change. These observed changes in climate parameters have not occurred uniformly across Africa. Mitigation is concerned with reducing the level of greenhouse gas emissions in the Earth's atmosphere that are the principal causes of climate change. Adaptation is concerned not with prevention but, in the words of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, with adjustments in human and or natural systems to reduce adverse impacts or take advantage of opportunities that may arise from it. Information and communication technology (ICT) have had an increasing impact on economic and social development over the past two decades, resulting from their capacity to generate and disseminate information, to facilitate the coordination of different actors in and beyond government, and to make government, business, and development processes more efficient. ICTs also have a complex relationship with sustainability and with the underlying cause of climate change. This relationship can be described in terms of the effects of ICTs: first order (direct) effects concern the impacts which ICTs have on climate change...

Overcoming Drought in India : Adaptation Strategies for the State of Andhra Pradesh

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.21%
The study objectives were designed to enhance the state's capacity to assess long-term effects of drought and increase resilience to drought risks at state, district, and community levels. The process for development of study objectives featured extensive consultation with affected sectors, and with state and national programs that aim to address the effects of drought. The study aimed to: (i) develop a framework for simulating long-term impacts of drought in drought-prone areas and at state levels; (ii) conduct risk assessments of the impacts under different scenarios; and (iii) assist the Government of Andhra Pradesh (GoAP) in development of a strategy for adapting to frequent drought and water deficits. During the study, a model was developed as a powerful tool for thorough drought risk assessments and for investigation of risk coping strategies and climate scenarios on crop yield and production. The model was calibrated using local farming practices and crop selection (that is, rice, maize, jowar (sorghum)...

Pro-Poor Adaptation to Climate Change in Urban Centers : Case Studies of Vulnerability and Resilience in Kenya and Nicaragua

Moser, Caroline; Norton, Andrew; Stein, Alfredo; Georgieva, Sophia
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.36%
The objective of this economic sector work (ESW) is to address these gaps by piloting a methodology capable of quickly and cost-effectively introducing into adaptation planning processes an appreciation of the significance of climate change impacts for poor people in informal urban settlements. Specifically in the two case study sites (Mombasa in Kenya and Esteli in Nicaragua) sought to: a) make visible climate change impacts of various kinds on poor people; b) illustrate what poor households, small businesses and groups in communities are doing to cope with such climate change impacts (experienced as increasingly variable and capricious weather patterns); and c) identify how policy and institutional systems can best build on local realities to develop pro-poor urban climate change adaptation actions, particularly relating to resilience. The report introduces an asset-based framework to analyze the vulnerability of urban poor people to severe weather events whose frequency or intensity climate change may be increasing...

A Risk Management Approach to Climate Adaptation in China

Sall, Chris
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
This discussion paper provides the analytical backdrop for a series of papers on managing climate- and weather-related risks in China. It reviews and synthesizes the growing literature on risk-based management approaches to climate change adaptation and offers guidance on a process for decision making. Managing risks from severe weather, present-day climate variability, and future climate change is integral to China's development. While the effects of future climate change are deeply uncertain, this uncertainty should not preclude action. Risk management is in essence a process for designing, implementing, and evaluating policies in the face of such uncertainty. The paper begins by defining key concepts and establishes the context for climate risk management and adaptation in China. It then outlines a step-by-step process for a risk centered approach to adaptation. The focus of the process is on planning for adaptation, not policy implementation. The papers that follow in the series take the general framework set out by this paper and apply it to different sectors...

Adaptation of agriculture to climate change in Quebec : the co-construction of agricultural policies in the RCM of Haut-Richelieu

Akkari, Cherine
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
Les facteurs climatiques ainsi bien que les facteurs non-climatiques doivent être pris en considération dans le processus d'adaptation de l'agriculture aux changements et à la variabilité climatiques (CVC). Ce changement de paradigme met l'agent humain au centre du processus d'adaptation, ce qui peut conduire à une maladaptation. Suite aux débats sur les changements climatiques qui ont attiré l'attention scientifique et publique dans les années 1980 et 1990, l'agriculture canadienne est devenue un des points focaux de plusieurs études pionnières sur les CVC, un phénomène principalement dû à l’effet anthropique. Pour faire face aux CVC, ce n’est pas seulement la mitigation qui est importante mais aussi l’adaptation. Quand il s'agit de l'adaptation, c'est plutôt la variabilité climatique qui nous intéresse que simplement les augmentations moyennes des températures. L'objectif général de ce mémoire de maîtrise est d'améliorer la compréhension des processus d'adaptation et de construction de la capacité d'adaptation ai niveau de la ferme et de la communauté agricole à travers un processus ascendant, c’est-à-dire en utilisant l'approche de co-construction (qui peut également être considéré comme une stratégie d'adaptation en soi)...

Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for the State of Oaxaca, Mexico

Muñoz, Sofia
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 19/04/2012 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
Policy Question: What policy strategies should the government of the state of Oaxaca implement to adapt to climate change? The Mexican government and the international community have identified climate change as one of the most difficult challenges of the century. This is especially true for developing countries and their poor populations, since climate change impacts will be a constant threat to achieve international and national development goals. Although climate change mitigation strategies are essential to reduce these impacts in the future, the historic and present emissions level will have impact in the short, medium, and long term. Therefore, adaptation strategies are critical to overcome these impacts and to be able to achieve development. The World Bank in Mexico, through the Latin America and Caribbean Regional Environmental Unit, is working with the Mexican federal and state governments to develop climate change adaptation plans. Together with the World Bank, the government of the state of Oaxaca is creating a climate change adaptation plan that will be an instrument to face the challenges that climate change will have in the state. As part of that project, this policy paper provides a broad perspective of climate change impacts for the state of Oaxaca...

Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for the State of Oaxaca, Mexico

Munoz, Sofia
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 20/04/2012 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
Policy Question: What policy strategies should the government of the state of Oaxaca implement to adapt to climate change? The Mexican government and the international community have identified climate change as one of the most difficult challenges of the century. This is especially true for developing countries and their poor populations, since climate change impacts will be a constant threat to achieve international and national development goals. Although climate change mitigation strategies are essential to reduce these impacts in the future, the historic and present emissions level will have impact in the short, medium, and long term. Therefore, adaptation strategies are critical to overcome these impacts and to be able to achieve development. The World Bank in Mexico, through the Latin America and Caribbean Regional Environmental Unit, is working with the Mexican federal and state governments to develop climate change adaptation plans. Together with the World Bank, the government of the state of Oaxaca is creating a climate change adaptation plan that will be an instrument to face the challenges that climate change will have in the state. As part of that project, this policy paper provides a broad perspective of climate change impacts for the state of Oaxaca...

Cultural Perceptions of Climate Change and Sea Level Rise Adaptation Strategies in Maryland, North Carolina, and the Baltic Sea Coast

Donargo, Alexandra; Ducklow, Kelsey; Morison, Nathalie
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 25/04/2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.26%
Climate change and sea level rise pose significant threats to both the natural and built environment. Thus, it is becoming increasingly important for coastal communities to develop strategies that facilitate adaptation efforts in order to reduce their vulnerability. This research, in conjunction with the work of our client, Dr. Grit Martinez with Ecologic Institute, and the Regional Adaptation Strategies for the German Baltic Sea Coast (RADOST) project, involved a comparative analysis of the cultural perceptions of climate change and sea level rise adaptation strategies in Maryland and North Carolina. Through the completion of a literature review and in-person interviews with key informants and public citizens, this project investigated how differences in local perceptions affect current efforts to plan for and adapt to sea level rise. The study employed a “total ecology” framework in order to determine whether differences in the existing biophysical conditions, social demographics, and institutional frameworks of our study areas influence local perceptions of climate change and its associated impacts and, subsequently, whether these differences in perceptions affect current and future adaptation efforts. Several important themes emerged from the literature review and interview findings...

Analysis of Climate Adaptation Strategies for Southeast U.S. Coastal Cities

Reeves, Ulla-Britt
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project Formato: 444227 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.25%
The realities of climate change are no longer future predictions to address in years to come. Impacts to Southeast coastal communities from rising sea levels, strange weather, and stronger storms caused by a warming planet are occurring today. Trends in scientific measurements clearly indicate that temperatures are rising, sea ice is melting, and storm intensity is increasing. The Southeast coastline is particularly vulnerable to these changes and local communities are the first to feel the impacts and address the needs. Yet many conversations about adaptation to climate change impacts are only occurring at high levels of government concerning international issues. Local decision-makers in the Southeast U.S. need tools to identify strategies that will provide adequate protection to their citizens as well as to manage environmental quality and prepare for any uncertainties. This Master’s project identifies primary and secondary climate change impacts to coastal areas of the Southeast U.S. A preliminary analysis was conducted to identify the societal implications incurred from impacts and the specific sector of society to which those impacts correspond. A resiliency criterion analysis was then created to qualitatively examine climate adaptation response strategies through three core evaluation mechanisms: adequate adaptive capacity...

Local adaptation strategies in semi-arid regions: study of two villages in Karnataka, India

Kattumuri, Ruth; Ravindranath, Darshini; Esteves, Tashina
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
Rural people in India, particularly farmers, are exposed to climate variability and risk, which is likely to increase due to climate change. This study assessed current adaptation strategies adopted by rural households in two dryland villages of Bagepalli Block, Chikballapur district, Karnataka, in southern India. The adequacy of adaptation strategies was also assessed. The study showed that rural households, and farmers in particular, adopted several practices to cope with current climate risks which include irrigation provisioning (depending on groundwater), shifting cropping pattern (to more resilient but low economically valued crops and varieties), mixed cropping, agroforestry (as a long-term strategy), diversified livestock holdings, and reliance on government development programmes. The adaptation measures also included leaving croplands fallow, sale of assets such as livestock and trees, and migration. Current climate-related responses to agricultural distress are not adequate to cope with even existing climate risks. This further indicates that rural households may not be able to cope with increasing climate variability and climate change. Thus, there is an urgent need to better understand current adaptation strategies and to enhance resilience...