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Barreiras comerciais sobre os produtos agroindustriais brasileiros na União Européia. ; European Union trade barriers on brazilian agricultural products.

Freitas, Rogerio Edivaldo de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/07/2004 PT
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Esta tese realizou-se com o intuito de melhor conhecer a proteção tarifária agrícola da União Européia (UE) e sua eventual associação com a Política Agrícola Comum (PAC). A hipótese implícita nesse trabalho é a de que há uma discriminação tarifária na pauta agrícola da UE; discriminação essa que estaria associada à estrutura da PAC. Nesses termos, o trabalho teve três objetivos complementares. Em primeiro lugar, buscou-se medir a magnitude das tarifas praticadas pela União Européia sobre os produtos agrícolas exportados pelo Brasil. Como segundo ponto, procurou-se identificar a existência de discriminação tarifária entre os grupos de produtos agrícolas presentes na pauta de tarifas do bloco europeu. E, por fim, avaliou-se a eventual existência de simultaneidade entre a proteção tarifária e as políticas domésticas de suporte à agricultura comunitária. A teoria visitada e os trabalhos já realizados com tal pano de fundo sugeriram que há grupos de produtos particularmente protegidos pelas tarifas agrícolas do bloco europeu. Esses mesmos trabalhos também apontaram para o caráter de permanência das políticas de apoio à agricultura da União Européia, mesmo após as reformas da PAC em 1992 e 2000. Tais políticas não são homogêneas; antes disso...

Efeitos do fim do Acordo Multifibras sobre a produção e o emprego dos setores têxtil e de vestuário no Brasil; Effects of the end of the Multifibre Agreement on production and employment in the textiles and clothing sectors in Brazil

Amaral, Daniel Furlan
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/02/2008 PT
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A importância das indústrias têxtil e de vestuário é fundamentada nas suas elevadas capacidades de geração de empregos e renda, dada a sua característica de reduzida possibilidade de automatização dos seus processos produtivos, fato que ocorre principalmente na cadeia do vestuário. Além disso, os setores são responsáveis por uma parcela importante dos empregos menos qualificados em países desenvolvidos. Diante disso, as indústrias conseguiram receber um tratamento diferenciado, relativamente aos demais bens manufaturados, nas regras de liberalização comercial definidas no Acordo Geral de Tarifas e Comércio - GATT. O Acordo de Têxteis e Vestuário (Agreement on Textiles and Clothing - ATC) da Organização Mundial do Comércio, com vigência a partir de 1995, pôs início à eliminação gradual de quotas bilaterais de exportação existentes até a referida data durante um prazo de dez anos. Após 1º de janeiro de 2005, portanto, tal acordo completou seus objetivos, devendo o comércio internacional de produtos têxteis e de vestuário estar sob as demais regras de manufaturados do GATT 1994. Com a eliminação das barreiras quantitativas, os custos de exportação e, conseqüentemente, os seus preços de exportação...

Competição na indústria do cimento no Brasil; Competition in the Brazilian cement industry

Lima, Tatiana de Macedo Nogueira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/04/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
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O cimento é um produto utilizado na maior parte das obras civis, sendo consumido, portanto, em todo o país. Apesar de ser um produto homogêneo e de seu processo produtivo ser simples, são necessários elevados investimentos iniciais na produção, o que tende a diminuir a quantidade de fabricantes. Os custos de transporte - relativamente altos em comparação aos preços finais do produto - também são mencionados como limitadores da competição nessa indústria. Esse trabalho pretende analisar três aspectos da competição nessa indústria no Brasil: os custos de transação e a probabilidade de arbitragem entre estados; a estrutura competitiva no varejo de construção civil; o impacto da diminuição tarifária no poder de mercado da firma localizada no estado do Amazonas e nos preços na região norte. Os custos de transação para envio de cimento de um estado a outro, ambos localizados na mesma região geográfica, e a probabilidade de arbitragem entre esses estados são estimados simultaneamente por meio de modelos de regressão com mudança (switching regression model). Os resultados mostram que os custos de transação variam de 5% a 27% do preço final do produto, sendo, portanto, altos. As probabilidades de arbitragem estimadas são bastante baixas...

As políticas públicas antitabagistas e os efeitos à competição no mercado brasileiro de cigarro : uma análise crítica para debate

Nascimento, Rodrigo Zingales Oller
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Dissertação
PT_BR
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Neste trabalho faz-se uma análise crítica sobre a atual política antitabagista brasileira e propõe-se sua reformulação de forma a compatibilizar, de um lado, os interesses de saúde pública e arrecadatórios e, de outro, os interesses dos agentes econômicos instalados no mercado, especialmente aqueles de pequeno e médio porte, de forma a se evitar a monopolização privada do setor e incentivar a inovação de produtos que não façam mal à saúde dos indivíduos. Para contextualizar a análise, faz-se uma revisão histórica sucinta do crescimento do consumo de cigarro em nível mundial, dos efeitos desse consumo à saúde pública e das principais medidas implementadas em nível global para o combate ao consumo, fabricação e comercialização de cigarros, explicitadas na Convenção-Quadro da Organização Mundial da Saúde de 2003, e que conta atualmente com a adesão de mais de 170 países. Apresenta-se também a política brasileira para erradicação do consumo de cigarro, que contempla, dentre outras medidas, restrições à propaganda e venda de cigarros, à entrada de novos fabricantes, ao teor de nicotina, alcatrão e de monóxido de carbono liberado, ao consumo em locais públicos e, ainda, medidas de natureza fiscal para elevação do preço do bem e o combate ao contrabando. Discutem-se as consequências das políticas antitabagistas brasileiras na estrutura de mercado e na dinâmica competitiva doméstica...

Three applications of the marginal cost of public funds concept

Dahlby, Bev
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
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This paper illustrates the use of the marginal cost of public funds concept in three contexts. First, we extend Parry’s (2003) analysis of the efficiency effects excise taxes in the U.K., primarily by incorporating the distortion caused by imperfect competition in the cigarette market and distinguishing between the MCFs for per unit and ad valorem taxes on cigarettes. Our computations show, contrary to the standard result in the literature, that the per unit tax on cigarettes has a slightly lower MCF than the ad valorem tax on cigarettes. Second, we calculate the MCF for a payroll tax in a labour market with involuntary unemployment, using the Shapiro and Stiglitz (1984) efficiency wage model as our framework. Our computations, based on Canadian labour market data, indicate that incorporating the distortion caused by involuntary unemployment raises the MCF by 25 to 50 percent. Third, we derive expressions for the distributionally-weighted MCFs for the exemption level and the marginal tax rate for a “flat tax”, such as the one that has been adopted by the province of Alberta. This allows us to develop a restricted, but tractable, version of the optimal income tax problem. Computations indicate that the optimal marginal tax rate may be quite high...

Trade Dimensions of Logistics Services : A Proposal for Trade Agreements

Kunaka, Charles; Mustra, Monica Alina; Saez, Sebastian
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Services have a direct impact on the competitiveness of the goods sector. This paper illustrates the importance of logistics services, their trade dimension, and how regulatory issues act as perhaps one of the most significant barriers to competitiveness. The paper discusses recent developments and the role and benefits of logistics services and argues that from a trade agreement standpoint, logistics is a network industry that ultimately provides one service to a final client. It analyzes logistics services from a services trade perspective and proposes that trade agreements should ensure access to and use of the infrastructure required to provide these services recognizing their interconnectedness. The paper offers suggestions on additional policies World Trade Organization members, and countries negotiating services agreements regionally or bilaterally, could follow in order to fully exploit the opportunities provided by logistics services. Local regulations and complementary policies in areas such as trade facilitation will always remain important.

Economics of Tobacco Toolkit, Tool 4 : Design and Administer Tobacco Taxes

Yurekli, Ayda
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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The purpose of this tool is to help the reader understand the structure, design, and administration of tobacco taxes. There is no doubt about the adverse health impacts of tobacco use. In both developed and developing countries, the Ministries of health, tobacco interest groups, academia, and advocates against tobacco strongly believe that tobacco consumption should be reduced, and that tobacco taxes are the single most cost-effective policy tool to achieve this goal. This tool discusses some of the issues surrounding tobacco taxes from the perspectives of consumers, public health advocates, politicians, and government administrators. Guidance is provided in how to satisfy the goals of these players without compromising their interests. This tool is intended primarily for public health advocates, policy makers, tax administration staff, and government officials. Public health advocates will gain information on the various types of tobacco taxes and which type can best reduce cigarette consumption. The tool also discusses whether and how increased tobacco taxes create a financial burden on consumers...

Economics of Tobacco Toolkit, Tool 6 : Equity Issues, Tobacco, and the Poor

Peck, Richard M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Currently there are approximately 4 million tobacco related deaths annually. If present trends continue, by the year 2030 the number of deaths will soar to about 10 million annual deaths, with 7 million in low-income countries. However, government action to establish various tobacco control initiatives can prevent this from happening and save a significant number of lives. Tobacco control measures include: i) raising tobacco prices by imposing higher excise taxes; ii) advertising and marketing bans and restrictions; and iii) clean indoor air provisions. A popular and valid concern holds that raising tobacco excise taxes for the purposes of tobacco control imposes an untenable and unfair burden on the poor. In short, it is argued that higher tobacco excise taxes increase inequality in the post-tax distribution of income and reduces the real incomes of a particularly vulnerable group, the poor. This tool discusses a number of approaches in which to examine the validity of this argument. Techniques to analyze the impact of tobacco consumption and tobacco taxes on the poor are explained. And analytical methods using country-specific data are examined so that policy analysts can effectively address concerns about the poor...

Technical Measures to Trade in Central America : Incidence, Price Effects, and Consumer Welfare

Kelleher, Sinead; Reyes, Jose-Daniel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Despite the widespread tariff reductions sparked by the Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement, borders in the region remain thick, with many hurdles standing in the way of regional trade. Although anecdotal evidence suggests that nontariff measures raise trade costs and inhibit trade in the region, little is known about the magnitude of these economic effects. This paper uses a newly collected data set to quantify the incidence of sanitary and phytosanitary measures and technical barriers to trade in the region and benchmarks it with other parts of the world. The results indicate that the Central American region has the lowest prevalence of technical nontariff measures in the world. However, there is significant heterogeneity of trade-related regulations in Central America; for instance, 48 percent of Salvadoran imports are subject to at least one nontariff measure, compared with just 16 percent of Honduran imports. The paper estimates the impact of these technical measures on border prices and finds that the price impact of sanitary and phytosanitary measures is equivalent to an ad-valorem tariff of 11.6 percent. This price-rising effect is further investigated by looking in detail at the impact of sanitary and phytosanitary measures on the prices of beef...

Reducing Trade Costs in East Africa : Deep Regional Integration and Multilateral Action

Balistreri, Edward J.; Tarr, David G.; Yonezawa, Hidemichi
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
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There is substantial evidence that with the progressive global decline in tariffs over several decades, trade costs are a more significant barrier to trade than tariffs, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper decomposes trade costs into three categories: costs that can be lowered by trade facilitation, nontariff barriers, and the costs of business services. The paper develops a 10-region, 18-sector, global trade model that includes Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and Rwanda of the East African Customs Union. The analysis finds that deep integration in the East African Customs Union that lowers these trade costs results in significant gains for the four countries, especially from improved trade facilitation. Extending the lowering of nontariff barriers and services liberalization multilaterally would increase the gains between two and seven times, depending on the country. that the analysis also finds that reducing nondiscriminatory services barriers in Kenya and Tanzania would increase welfare even more than multilateral reduction of discriminatory services barriers. The paper is innovative both conceptually and empirically. It contains foreign direct investment in services and is the first paper to numerically assess liberalization of barriers against domestic and multinational service providers in a multi-sector...

Estimates of Ad Valorem Equivalents of Barriers Against Foreign Suppliers of Services in Eleven Services Sectors and 103 Countries

Jafari, Yaghoob; Tarr, David G.
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
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A new database on the barriers faced by foreign suppliers of services has been produced by the World Bank. Data for 103 countries are available on 11 of the most important services sectors in international trade. Based on these data and building on the methodology and publications supported by the Australian Productivity Commission, this paper produces estimates of the ad valorem equivalents of the barriers for all these sectors and countries. Compared with estimates available in the literature that are based on assessments of country- and sector-specific barriers to services providers, the estimates expand the set of sectors and more than triple the set of countries for which estimates of the ad valorem equivalents of the services barriers are available.

Unpacking Trade Costs: Theory and Evidence; Handelskosten: Theorie und Evidenz

Jung, Benjamin
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
EN
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There is a common perception that trade liberalization unlocks welfare gains. Consequently, politicians have undertaken a huge effort to abolish tariff barriers. Trade impediments, however, may appear in various guises. In their survey article, Anderson and van Wincoop (2004) argue that trade costs other than direct policy measures are important. Among others, they refer to costs associated to regulatory barriers, the lack of enforceable contracts, and information barriers. In total, trade costs of an average rich country amount to an alarming 170% ad valorem tax equivalent. This doctoral thesis aims at contributing to the ongoing process of unpacking various typed of trade costs. Technical barriers to trade. Technical barriers to trade (TBTs) may play an effciency-increasing role. This result arises in a model where the degree of external scale effects can be parameterized independently of the elasticity of substitution. Then, there is a second-best rationale for the existence of TBTs since they can be used as an instrument to restrain excessive entry of monopolistic firms. Information costs. Using newly available panel data on developing countries diaspora to rich OECD nations in a theory-grounded gravity model, it uncovers a robust...

The Optimal Structure of Commodity Taxation in a Monopoly with Tax Avoidance or Evasion

Goerke, Laszlo
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: ResearchPaper; info:eu-repo/semantics/other
EN
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If tax obligations are met, the balanced-budget substitution of an ad valorem tax on output for a specific tax not only raises a monopolist's production, but also represents a Pareto improvement. However, if tax avoidance or evasion is feasible and the marginal costs of such actions decline with the legal tax burden, a monopolist will respond to a balanced-budget substitution of an ad valorem tax for a specific tax by reducing output, while profits remain constant. Therefore, in the presence of tax avoidance or evasion activities a move towards specific taxation can represent a Pareto improvement.

What Do We Know About Preferential Trade Agreements and Temporary Trade Barriers?

Bown, Chad P.; Karacaovali, Baybars; Tovar, Patricia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Two of the most important trade policy developments to take place since the 1980s are the expansion of preferential trade agreements and temporary trade barriers, such as antidumping, safeguards, and countervailing duties. Despite the empirical importance of preferential trade agreements and temporary trade barriers and the common feature that each can independently have quite discriminatory elements, relatively little is known about the nature of any relationships between them. This paper surveys the literature on some of the political-economic issues that can arise at the intersection of preferential trade agreements and temporary trade barriers and uses four case studies to illustrate variation in how countries apply the World Trade Organization's global safeguards policy instrument. The four examples include recent policies applied by a variety of types of countries and under different agreements: large and small countries, high-income and emerging economies, and free trade areas and customs unions. The analysis reveals important measurement and identification challenges for research that seeks to find evidence of systematic relationships between the formation of preferential trade agreements...

China in the World Trade Organization : Antidumping and Safeguards

Messerlin, Patrick A.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Journal Article; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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China finds itself in a unique situation on antidumping and safeguard issues. It is by far the main target of antidumping measures, but (so far) one of the smallest users of such measures. China's World Trade Organization (WTO) accession protocol includes stringent antidumping and safeguard provisions that its trading partners may use against its exports. The article examines three related concerns: how quickly large developing economies can become intensive users of antidumping measures, an evolution raising concerns about China's recent antidumping enforcement; how China could minimize its exposure to foreign antidumping cases, a recipe for both improving trade outcomes and for China's taking a leading role in reforming WTO antidumping; and the opportunities that the Doha round of trade negotiations offer to China for negotiating stricter disciplines both on WTO contingent protection and on the use by China's trading partners of the special provisions included in China's accession protocol.

The Structure of Import Tariffs in the Russian Federation : 2001-05

Shepotylo, Oleksandr; Tarr, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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The Russian tariff structure contains over 11,000 tariff lines of which about 1,700 use the so-called "combined" tariff rate system. For the combined system tariff lines, the actual tariff applied by Russian customs is the maximum of the ad valorem or specific tariff. The lack of available data and the difficulty in calculating the ad valorem equivalence of the specific tariffs have resulted in some previous efforts that have simply ignored the specific tariffs. This is the first paper to accurately assess the tariff rates. The authors show that ignoring the specific tariffs results in an underestimate of the actual tariff rates by about 1 to 3 percentage points, depending on the year. The average tariff in Russia has increased between 2001 and 2003 from about 11.5 to between 13 and 14.5 percent, but it has held steady in 2004 and 2005. This places Russia's tariffs at a level slightly higher than other middle-income countries and considerably higher than the OECD countries. The trade weighted standard deviation of the tariff approximately doubled from 9.5 percent in 2001 to 18 percent in 2003...

A formação da Alca e seu impacto no potencial exportador brasileiro para os mercados dos Estados Unidos e do Canadá; Texto para Discussão (TD) 991: A formação da Alca e seu impacto no potencial exportador brasileiro para os mercados dos Estados Unidos e do Canadá; The formation of the FTAA and its impact on Brazilian export potential to markets in the United States and Canada

De Negri, João Alberto; Arbache, Jorge Saba; Silva, Maria Luiza Falcão
Fonte: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (Ipea) Publicador: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (Ipea)
Tipo: Texto para Discussão (TD)
PT-BR
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Este estudo tem dois objetivos. O primeiro é calcular o equivalente ad valorem das tarifas específicas que são cobradas sobre os produtos exportados para os Estados Unidos e o Canadá. O segundo objetivo é quantificar o impacto sobre as exportações brasileiras para esses mercados decorrente da formação de uma zona de livre comércio nas Américas em que as barreiras tarifárias (tarifas e tarifas específicas) caíssem a zero. As estatísticas descritivas mostraram que as tarifas específicas têm efeitos restritivos ao comércio mais relevantes que os das tarifas em geral. Para os Estados Unidos, a média da alíquota da tarifa para os produtos em que não há incidência de tarifas específicas é de 4,62%, bastante inferior à média do equivalente ad valorem das tarifas específicas, que é de 15,07%. A média do equivalente tarifário das tarifas específicas do Canadá foi de 63,11%, e a média das tarifas foi de 4,4%. A formação da Área de Livre Comércio das Américas (Alca) e a eliminação completa das tarifas e das tarifas específicas representariam um aumento das exportações brasileiras de U$ 699 milhões para o mercado dos Estados Unidos, e de U$ 53,7 milhões para o mercado do Canadá. Isso significaria um aumento de 4...

Ciclos econômicos na taxa de crescimento do ICMS

Ferreira, Roberto Tatiwa
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade de RP Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade de RP
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/03/2009 POR
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The main objective of this work is to investigate if there are and what are the principal features in the business cycle of ad valorem tax's growth rate. To do that, Markov-switching and threshold models were used to estimate and analyze the business cycle in the monthly growth rate of Ceará's ad-valorem tax and to forecast. The results show that there are three regimes in the business cycle on the variable under analysis, and the growth rate of tourism and industrial activity may be used as threshold variables, which gives information about Ceará's ad-valorem tax business cycle and its future values.; O objetivo principal deste trabalho é investigar a existência e as principais características de ciclos econômicos na taxa de crescimento do ICMS. Para alcançar esse objetivo, modelos de mudança de regime de Markov e com efeito limiar (threshold) foram utilizados para quantificar e analisar os ciclos econômicos na taxa de crescimento mensal da arrecadação do ICMS no Estado do Ceará, bem como realizar previsões para esta variável. Os resultados indicam que o ciclo econômico da variável em questão apresenta três regimes (decrescimento, crescimento moderado e crescimento acelerado) e que a taxa de crescimento da demanda turística e da atividade industrial serve como variáveis threshold...

Uma estimativa da contribuição tarifária para o efeito-fronteira no Brasil

Silva, Orlando Monteiro da; Almeida, Fernanda Maria de
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade de RP Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade de RP
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/09/2009 POR
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The objective of this paper was to analyze, explicitly, the effect of tariffs and non-tariff barriers (NTBs) on the Brazilian exports and its contribution to the border effect. It was used a gravity model with a procedure to calculate the tariff equivalent of non-tariff barriers. In the simplest model, estimated border effect showed that Brazilian states trade on average 33 times more among themselves than with the rest of the world. Explicit introduction of tariffs in the model showed that exports suffered a greater reduction than the increase on tariffs. The isolation of the influence of tariffs on the border-effect indicated that Brazilian states would still trade 26 times more among themselves. The calculated tariff equivalent of non-tariff barriers showed that those NTBs correspond to a tariff ad valorem of approximately 29%.; O objetivo desse trabalho foi analisar, explicitamente, o efeito das tarifas e das barreiras não-tarifárias (BNTs) nas exportações brasileiras e sua contribuição para o efeito-fronteira. Utilizou-se um modelo de gravidade e um procedimento para calcular o equivalente tarifário das barreiras não-tarifárias. No modelo mais simples, o efeito-fronteira estimado mostrou que os estados brasileiros comercializam...

Optimal taxation, tax evasion and rent-seeking.

Nava, Mario
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1996 EN
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This thesis is made of five different chapters. Chp 1: OPTIMAL FISCAL AND PUBLIC EXPENDITURE POLICY IN A TWO CLASS ECONOMY This paper deals with optimal taxation and provision of public goods in a two-class economy with non linear income and linear commodity taxes. As far as optimal taxation is concerned, we first show that with two private goods the good complementary with leisure should be taxed more heavily. Second the standard income tax rules are shown to be augmented by considerations for offsetting the distortions created on the commodity markets. As to the provision of public goods we extend recent results for a two class economy with public funds raised entirely by means of a non-linear income tax system. The standard Samuelson rule is modified by two additional terms related to the self selection constraint and to the revenue of indirect taxes. They are both shown to vanish when the agents' utility functions are weakly separable between public and private goods (taken together) and leisure. Chp 2: DIRECT AND INDIRECT TAX EVASION: A SURVEY OF THE LITERATURE The purpose of this selective survey of the literature on both income and commodity tax evasion is to show in which directions, the literature has evolved. Two main approaches are identified for both direct and indirect tax evasion literature. The so-called taxpayer's point of view approach which is basically an exercise of maximization under uncertainty and the so-called tax collector's point of view which is a refinement of the Mirrlees-Stiglitz approach to income taxation and of the Ramsey approach to commodity taxation. The current state of the art is such that both approaches share similar strengths and weaknesses. Chp 3: TAX STRUCTURE...