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Posterior paralysis due to fibrocartilaginous embolism in two weaner pigs.

Tessaro, S V; Doige, C E; Rhodes, C S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1983 EN
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36.25%
Acute posterior paralysis in two weaner pigs was attributed to ischemic infarction of the lumbar spinal cord due to fibrocartilaginous emboli. These arterial and venous emboli were assumed to have originated from the nucleus pulposus of one or more intervertebral discs. There was no indication of an initiating factor in either instance, although some form of trauma may have been involved. Lesions were not grossly evident and were limited to one or two lumbar segments. Although it appears to be a rare occurrence, fibrocartilaginous embolism of the spinal cord should be considered in cases of acute paralysis in pigs particularly when gross lesions are absent.

Genetic Analysis of Israel Acute Paralysis Virus: Distinct Clusters Are Circulating in the United States▿

Palacios, G.; Hui, J.; Quan, P. L.; Kalkstein, A.; Honkavuori, K. S.; Bussetti, A. V.; Conlan, S.; Evans, J.; Chen, Y. P.; vanEngelsdorp, D.; Efrat, H.; Pettis, J.; Cox-Foster, D.; Holmes, E. C.; Briese, T.; Lipkin, W. I.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
Israel acute paralysis virus (IAPV) is associated with colony collapse disorder of honey bees. Nonetheless, its role in the pathogenesis of the disorder and its geographic distribution are unclear. Here, we report phylogenetic analysis of IAPV obtained from bees in the United States, Canada, Australia, and Israel and the establishment of diagnostic real-time PCR assays for IAPV detection. Our data indicate the existence of at least three distinct IAPV lineages, two of them circulating in the United States. Analysis of representatives from each proposed lineage suggested the possibility of recombination events and revealed differences in coding sequences that may have implications for virulence.

The Inflammatory Cytokine, Interleukin-1 Beta, Mediates Loss of Astroglial Glutamate Transport and Drives Excitotoxic Motor Neuron Injury in the Spinal Cord During Acute Viral Encephalomyelitis

Prow, Natalie A.; Irani, David N.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.3%
Astrocytes remove glutamate from the synaptic cleft via specific transporters, and impaired glutamate reuptake may promote excitotoxic neuronal injury. In a model of viral encephalomyelitis caused by neuroadapted Sindbis virus (NSV), mice develop acute paralysis and spinal motor neuron degeneration inhibited by the AMPA receptor antagonist, NBQX. To investigate disrupted glutamate homeostasis in the spinal cord, expression of the main astroglial glutamate transporter, GLT-1, was examined. GLT-1 levels declined in the spinal cord during acute infection while GFAP expression was preserved. There was simultaneous production of inflammatory cytokines at this site, and susceptible animals treated with drugs that blocked IL-1β release also limited paralysis and prevented the loss of GLT-1 expression. Conversely, infection of resistant mice that develop mild paralysis following NSV challenge showed higher baseline GLT-1 levels as well as lower production of IL-1β and relatively preserved GLT-1 expression in the spinal cord compared to susceptible hosts. Finally, spinal cord GLT-1 expression was largely maintained following infection of IL-1β-deficient animals. Together, these data show that IL-1β inhibits astrocyte glutamate transport in the spinal cord during viral encephalomyelitis. They provide one of the strongest in vivo links between innate immune responses and the development of excitotoxicity demonstrated to date.

A potentially novel overlapping gene in the genomes of Israeli acute paralysis virus and its relatives

Sabath, Niv; Price, Nicholas; Graur, Dan
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/09/2009 EN
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46.3%
The Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) is a honeybee-infecting virus that was found to be associated with colony collapse disorder. The IAPV genome contains two genes encoding a structural and a nonstructural polyprotein. We applied a recently developed method for the estimation of selection in overlapping genes to detect purifying selection and, hence, functionality. We provide evolutionary evidence for the existence of a functional overlapping gene, which is translated in the +1 reading frame of the structural polyprotein gene. Conserved orthologs of this putative gene, which we provisionally call pog (predicted overlapping gene), were also found in the genomes of a monophyletic clade of dicistroviruses that includes IAPV, acute bee paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus, and Solenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant) virus 1.

West Nile Virus–associated Flaccid Paralysis

Sejvar, James J.; Bode, Amy V.; Marfin, Anthony A.; Campbell, Grant L.; Ewing, David; Mazowiecki, Michael; Pavot, Pierre V.; Schmitt, Joseph; Pape, John; Biggerstaff, Brad J.; Petersen, Lyle R.
Fonte: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Publicador: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2005 EN
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36.41%
The causes and frequency of acute paralysis and respiratory failure with West Nile virus (WNV) infection are incompletely understood. During the summer and fall of 2003, we conducted a prospective, population-based study among residents of a 3-county area in Colorado, United States, with developing WNV-associated paralysis. Thirty-two patients with developing paralysis and acute WNV infection were identified. Causes included a poliomyelitislike syndrome in 27 (84%) patients and a Guillain-Barré–like syndrome in 4 (13%); 1 had brachial plexus involvement alone. The incidence of poliomyelitislike syndrome was 3.7/100,000. Twelve patients (38%), including 1 with Guillain-Barré–like syndrome, had acute respiratory failure that required endotracheal intubation. At 4 months, 3 patients with respiratory failure died, 2 remained intubated, 25 showed various degrees of improvement, and 2 were lost to followup. A poliomyelitislike syndrome likely involving spinal anterior horn cells is the most common mechanism of WNV-associated paralysis and is associated with significant short- and long-term illness and death.

Metagenomic Detection of Viral Pathogens in Spanish Honeybees: Co-Infection by Aphid Lethal Paralysis, Israel Acute Paralysis and Lake Sinai Viruses

Granberg, Fredrik; Vicente-Rubiano, Marina; Rubio-Guerri, Consuelo; Karlsson, Oskar E.; Kukielka, Deborah; Belák, Sándor; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/02/2013 EN
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46.31%
The situation in Europe concerning honeybees has in recent years become increasingly aggravated with steady decline in populations and/or catastrophic winter losses. This has largely been attributed to the occurrence of a variety of known and “unknown”, emerging novel diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated that colonies often can harbour more than one pathogen, making identification of etiological agents with classical methods difficult. By employing an unbiased metagenomic approach, which allows the detection of both unexpected and previously unknown infectious agents, the detection of three viruses, Aphid Lethal Paralysis Virus (ALPV), Israel Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV), and Lake Sinai Virus (LSV), in honeybees from Spain is reported in this article. The existence of a subgroup of ALPV with the ability to infect bees was only recently reported and this is the first identification of such a strain in Europe. Similarly, LSV appear to be a still unclassified group of viruses with unclear impact on colony health and these viruses have not previously been identified outside of the United States. Furthermore, our study also reveals that these bees carried a plant virus, Turnip Ringspot Virus (TuRSV), potentially serving as important vector organisms. Taken together...

In Vitro Infection of Pupae with Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus Suggests Disturbance of Transcriptional Homeostasis in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera)

Boncristiani, Humberto F.; Evans, Jay D.; Chen, Yanping; Pettis, Jeff; Murphy, Charles; Lopez, Dawn L.; Simone-Finstrom, Michael; Strand, Micheline; Tarpy, David R.; Rueppell, Olav
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/09/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
The ongoing decline of honey bee health worldwide is a serious economic and ecological concern. One major contributor to the decline are pathogens, including several honey bee viruses. However, information is limited on the biology of bee viruses and molecular interactions with their hosts. An experimental protocol to test these systems was developed, using injections of Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV) into honey bee pupae reared ex-situ under laboratory conditions. The infected pupae developed pronounced but variable patterns of disease. Symptoms varied from complete cessation of development with no visual evidence of disease to rapid darkening of a part or the entire body. Considerable differences in IAPV titer dynamics were observed, suggesting significant variation in resistance to IAPV among and possibly within honey bee colonies. Thus, selective breeding for virus resistance should be possible. Gene expression analyses of three separate experiments suggest IAPV disruption of transcriptional homeostasis of several fundamental cellular functions, including an up-regulation of the ribosomal biogenesis pathway. These results provide first insights into the mechanisms of IAPV pathogenicity. They mirror a transcriptional survey of honey bees afflicted with Colony Collapse Disorder and thus support the hypothesis that viruses play a critical role in declining honey bee health.

Dynamics of the Presence of Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus in Honey Bee Colonies with Colony Collapse Disorder

Hou, Chunsheng; Rivkin, Hadassah; Slabezki, Yossi; Chejanovsky, Nor
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/05/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
The determinants of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a particular case of collapse of honey bee colonies, are still unresolved. Viruses including the Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) were associated with CCD. We found an apiary with colonies showing typical CCD characteristics that bore high loads of IAPV, recovered some colonies from collapse and tested the hypothesis if IAPV was actively replicating in them and infectious to healthy bees. We found that IAPV was the dominant pathogen and it replicated actively in the colonies: viral titers decreased from April to September and increased from September to December. IAPV extracted from infected bees was highly infectious to healthy pupae: they showed several-fold amplification of the viral genome and synthesis of the virion protein VP3. The health of recovered colonies was seriously compromised. Interestingly, a rise of IAPV genomic copies in two colonies coincided with their subsequent collapse. Our results do not imply IAPV as the cause of CCD but indicate that once acquired and induced to replication it acts as an infectious factor that affects the health of the colonies and may determine their survival. This is the first follow up outside the US of CCD-colonies bearing IAPV under natural conditions.

Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis and Implications for Honey Bee Health

Chen, Yan Ping; Pettis, Jeffery S.; Corona, Miguel; Chen, Wei Ping; Li, Cong Jun; Spivak, Marla; Visscher, P. Kirk; DeGrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Boncristiani, Humberto; Zhao, Yan; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Delaplane, Keith; Solter, Leellen; Drummond, Francis; K
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/07/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) is a widespread RNA virus of honey bees that has been linked with colony losses. Here we describe the transmission, prevalence, and genetic traits of this virus, along with host transcriptional responses to infections. Further, we present RNAi-based strategies for limiting an important mechanism used by IAPV to subvert host defenses. Our study shows that IAPV is established as a persistent infection in honey bee populations, likely enabled by both horizontal and vertical transmission pathways. The phenotypic differences in pathology among different strains of IAPV found globally may be due to high levels of standing genetic variation. Microarray profiles of host responses to IAPV infection revealed that mitochondrial function is the most significantly affected biological process, suggesting that viral infection causes significant disturbance in energy-related host processes. The expression of genes involved in immune pathways in adult bees indicates that IAPV infection triggers active immune responses. The evidence that silencing an IAPV-encoded putative suppressor of RNAi reduces IAPV replication suggests a functional assignment for a particular genomic region of IAPV and closely related viruses from the Family Dicistroviridae...

Assembly of Recombinant Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus Capsids

Ren, Junyuan; Cone, Abigail; Willmot, Rebecca; Jones, Ian M.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/08/2014 EN
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46.14%
The dicistrovirus Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV) has been implicated in the worldwide decline of honey bees. Studies of IAPV and many other bee viruses in pure culture are restricted by available isolates and permissive cell culture. Here we show that coupling the IAPV major structural precursor protein ORF2 to its cognate 3C-like processing enzyme results in processing of the precursor to the individual structural proteins in a number of insect cell lines following expression by a recombinant baculovirus. The efficiency of expression is influenced by the level of IAPV 3C protein and moderation of its activity is required for optimal expression. The mature IAPV structural proteins assembled into empty capsids that migrated as particles on sucrose velocity gradients and showed typical dicistrovirus like morphology when examined by electron microscopy. Monoclonal antibodies raised to recombinant capsids were configured into a diagnostic test specific for the presence of IAPV. Recombinant capsids for each of the many bee viruses within the picornavirus family may provide virus specific reagents for the on-going investigation of the causes of honeybee loss.

Normokalemic Thyrotoxic Periodic Paralysis with Preserved Reflexes- A Unique Case Report

Chakrabarti, Subrata
Fonte: JCDR Research and Publications (P) Limited Publicador: JCDR Research and Publications (P) Limited
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.31%
Although serum potassium levels are usually subnormal in Thyrotoxic Periodic Paralysis (TPP), but in exceptionally rare circumstances, it may be normal leading to the entity called normokalemic TPP. The diagnosis of normokalemic TPP is more often overlooked and/or delayed due to lack of awareness among the physicians and associated mild symptoms of hyperthyroidism. Here, the author describes the case of a 27-year-old male with newly diagnosed but untreated Grave’s disease and TPP who was normokalemic during the acute phase of paralysis. Hypokalemia was documented only after resolution of paralytic attacks during subsequent days of admission. The importance of the case report is to highlight upon the fact that TPP should always be considered in an “previously asymptomatic” young Asian individual with acute paralysis with or without hypokalemia , and thyroid function and serial potassium values should be evaluated for diagnosing the usual hypokalemic type or the more rarer variant normokalemic TPP. This case report also deserves mention as the patient of TPP had a notable feature of having preserved reflexes in the face of hypokalemia.

The occurence of chronic and acute bee paralysis viruses in bees outside Britain

Bailey, L.
Fonte: INRA - Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agronômica da França Publicador: INRA - Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agronômica da França
Tipo: Journal Article-postprint
EN; ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.44%
Honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus) from Austria and Switzerland, suffering from Waldtrachtkrankheit, and from Italy and Norway suffering from Mal Noir contained as much chronic bee paralysis virus as bees suffering from “paralysis” in Britain and Malta. These diseases appear to be etiologically the same, therefore, and the variable and unreliable signs sometimes exhibited are perhaps caused by factors secondary to infection by the virus. Apparently healthy bees from Canada and Italy were infected with the virus of acute paralysis, as they are in Britain.

Two viruses from adult honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus)

Bailey, L.; Gibbs, A.J.; Woods, R.D.
Fonte: INRA - Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agronômica da França Publicador: INRA - Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agronômica da França
Tipo: Journal Article-postprint
EN; ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.47%
Two viruses were isolated from honey bees. When fed to, sprayed on, or injected into healthy bees either virus made the bees become trembly within a few days, but whereas bees infected with one virus died quickly (acute “paralysis”), bees infected with the other survived for several days after first showing symptoms (chronic “paralysis”). Purified preparations of acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) contained isometric particles about 28 mμ in diameter, whereas those of chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) contained particles of irregular shape about 27 × 45 mμ. Both viruses occurred in apparently healthy bees, but only CBPV particles were numerous in diseased bees from colonies naturally affected with the disease called “bee paralysis.” On inoculation to healthy bees the symptoms caused by CBPV resembled those of the naturally occurring disease more than did those caused by ABPV.

Acute infection of bees with paralysis virus

Bailey, L.; Gibbs, J.
Fonte: INRA - Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agronômica da França Publicador: INRA - Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agronômica da França
Tipo: Journal Article-postprint
EN; ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) occurs commonly in adult honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus) in Britain. The amount of the virus in different bees differs, as does the proportion of infected bees in different colonies. No organ or part of a bee, or feces, was found to be invariably free of virus. Bees fed either by other bees that had been infected with pathogenic doses of ABPV, or with food containing up to 10(10) particles of ABPV, did not become obviously diseased but the virus content of their tissues temporarily increased. However, bees either fed with at least 10(11) ABPV particles each, or injected with at least 10(2) particles, became diseased and died, and their abnormal behavior was possibly attributable to the changes observed in their brains. Feeding bees with sublethal doses of infective virus or injecting them with large doses of virus that had been inactivated by ultraviolet radiation, did not alter their susceptibility to lethal doses of the virus. Bombus spp. are susceptible to ABPV and many apparently healthy individuals contain the virus. Several species of other genera of insects were unaffected by the virus. When apparently healthy bees were injected with some foreign substances their virus content increased and they developed acute paralysis.

Paralysis of the Honey Bee, Apis mellifera Linnaeus; La paralysie de l'abeille domestique, Apis mellifera Linnaeus

Bailey, L.
Fonte: INRA - Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agronômica da França Publicador: INRA - Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agronômica da França
Tipo: Journal Article-postprint
EN; ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.35%
Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) was differentiated from acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) by the symptoms it caused when injected into normal bees and by histological and serological means. It was isolated from naturally paralyzed bees from various parts of Britain and from Hong Kong, and, in one instance, from normal bees. Overt disease disappeared when the queens of naturally diseased colonies were replaced with others from normal colonies. Normal bees in colonies or cages were resistant to chronic paralysis when sprayed or fed with CBPV. Bees injected with CBPV transmitted it in the food they passed to normal bees.

Large-Scale Field Application of RNAi Technology Reducing Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus Disease in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera, Hymenoptera: Apidae)

Hunter, Wayne; Ellis, James; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Hayes, Jerry; Westervelt, Dave; Glick, Eitan; Williams, Michael; Sela, Ilan; Maori, Eyal; Pettis, Jeffery; Cox-Foster, Diana; Paldi, Nitzan
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
The importance of honey bees to the world economy far surpasses their contribution in terms of honey production; they are responsible for up to 30% of the world's food production through pollination of crops. Since fall 2006, honey bees in the U.S. have faced a serious population decline, due in part to a phenomenon called Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), which is a disease syndrome that is likely caused by several factors. Data from an initial study in which investigators compared pathogens in honey bees affected by CCD suggested a putative role for Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus, IAPV. This is a single stranded RNA virus with no DNA stage placed taxonomically within the family Dicistroviridae. Although subsequent studies have failed to find IAPV in all CCD diagnosed colonies, IAPV has been shown to cause honey bee mortality. RNA interference technology (RNAi) has been used successfully to silence endogenous insect (including honey bee) genes both by injection and feeding. Moreover, RNAi was shown to prevent bees from succumbing to infection from IAPV under laboratory conditions. In the current study IAPV specific homologous dsRNA was used in the field, under natural beekeeping conditions in order to prevent mortality and improve the overall health of bees infected with IAPV. This controlled study included a total of 160 honey bee hives in two discrete climates...

Acute flaccid paralysis in Australian children

Morris, A M S; Elliott, E J; D'Souza, Rennie; Antony, J; Kennett, Margery; Longbottom, H
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
Objectives: To describe the epidemiology and causes of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in Australian children, and the clinical features of the two most common causes of AFP, Guillain-Barré syndrome and transverse myelitis. Methods: Monthly active surveill

First report of Israeli acute paralysis virus in asymptomatic hives of Argentina

Reynaldi,Francisco J.; Sguazza,Guillermo H.; Tizzano,Marco A.; Fuentealba,Nadia; Galosi,Cecilia M.; Pecoraro,Marcelo R.
Fonte: Revista argentina de microbiología Publicador: Revista argentina de microbiología
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2011 EN
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66.37%
Honey bee mortality has recently been associated with Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), a proposed etiological agent for a new syndrome known as Colony Collapse Disorder. Bees infected with this virus show shivering wings, progress into paralysis, and finally die outside the hive. During the last years, honey bee mortality became a serious problem for Argentinean beekeepers. We herein report the preliminary results of a survey carried out to detect IAPV in samples taken from several Argentine provinces, by using a reverse transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction assay. Our data indicate the existence of high frequency of IAPV in asymptomatic hives of Argentina.

Using the two-source capture-recapture method to estimate the incidence of acute flaccid paralysis in Victoria, Australia

Whitfield,Kathryn; Kelly,Heath
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.31%
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence and the completeness of ascertainment of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in Victoria, Australia, in 1998-2000 and to determine its common causes among children aged under 15 years. METHODS:: The two-source capture-recapture method was used to estimate the incidence of cases of AFP and to evaluate case ascertainment in the routine surveillance system. The primary and secondary data sources were notifications from this system and inpatient hospital records, respectively. FINDINGS: The routine surveillance system indicated that there were 14 cases and the hospital record review identified 19 additional cases. According to the two-source capture-recapture method, there would have been 40 cases during this period (95% confidence interval (CI) = 29-51), representing an average annual incidence of 1.4 per 100 000 children aged under 15 years (95% CI = 1.1- 1.7). Thus case ascertainment based on routine surveillance was estimated to be 35% complete. Guillain-Barré syndrome was the commonest single cause of AFP. CONCLUSIONS: Routine surveillance for AFP in Victoria was insensitive. A literature review indicated that the capture-recapture estimates obtained in this study were plausible. The present results help to define a target notification rate for surveillance in settings where poliomyelitis is not endemic.

Active surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis in poliomyelitis high-risk areas in southern China

Chiba,Yasuo; Hikita,Kazuo; Matuba,Tsuyoshi; Chosa,Tooru; Shinji,Kyogoku; Jingjian,Yu; Zhao,Wang
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2001 EN
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OBJECTIVE: On 29 October 2000 poliomyelitis was officially declared to have been eradicated from the Western Pacific Region. This article describes the results of surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in China during the final phase of the eradication effort. METHODS: We conducted hospital-based active surveillance in high-risk areas for poliomyelitis in 5 provinces of southern China (Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi and Jiangxi) between 1995 and 1997 to determine the adequacy of reporting and laboratory diagnosis of cases of AFP. FINDINGS: A total of 1069 AFP cases occurring since 1993 were identified in 311 hospital visits. Less than 50% of AFP cases occurring in 1993 and 1994 had been reported by AFP surveillance, and laboratory diagnosis had been carried out on only a small proportion of these. However, improved cooperation between hospital sectors increased the rate of case reporting and laboratory diagnosis to 85% and 78%, respectively, in 1997. Despite this overall improvement, these two indicators were approximately 10-20% lower in Yunnan Province. Epidemiological analysis revealed that cases of clinical poliomyelitis accounted for as much as one-third of all AFP in 1993 and that some of these cases were clustered. Clusters were rarely observed after 1994. Active surveillance in the China-Myanmar border areas of Yunnan over 1995-96 detected 9 cross-border cases of clinical poliomyelitis...