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Armenia - Labor Market Dynamics : Volume 1. Overview

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.36%
This study is intended to help Armenian policymakers better understand the main factors behind modest labor market outcomes and to identify policy options to create more and better jobs. The report is based on data from administrative statistics, labor force surveys, and household surveys. The objective of the study is to determine the main factors behind poor labor market outcomes in Armenia: high unemployment of long duration despite rapid economic growth. To do so, it will assess, first, the key characteristics of the demand for labor. These include (a) the impact of macroeconomic policies on job growth; (b) wage flexibility and unit labor costs; (c) cost-of-doing-business factors, including costs, risks, and barriers to competition faced by firms; and (d) employment promotion legislation and labor market institutions. Recommendations are made on policies that can promote an effective and sustainable increased demand for labor; second, the key characteristics of the supply of labor, including the impact of long-term demographic developments and labor migration...

Recent Labor Market Performance in Vietnam through a Gender Lens

Pierre, Gaëlle
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.31%
This paper provides an overview of the recent performance of the labor market in Vietnam during the Great Recession. The analysis uses data from the Labor Force Survey and the Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey. The author finds that, notwithstanding the global crisis and domestic volatility, job creation has been sustained in Vietnam, especially in the formal sector, but that the overall quality of employment has suffered. Gender differentials are found to affect older women especially, while educated women benefit from a skills wage premium. Reassuringly given the large youth share of the total workforce, the youth labor market is dynamic and outcomes for youths have improved. Meanwhile, participation in poverty alleviation programs and labor market programs has not changed, and few workers use the newly created employment services and unemployment benefits.

Unemployment Registration and Benefits in ECA Countries

Kuddo, Arvo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.27%
Public Employment Services (PES) in several Europe and Central Asia (ECA) countries are severely limited by underfunded labor market programs, understaffing, and fragmented networks of employment offices. Cash benefits and other entitlements like health insurance often act as incentives to job seekers to register with PES. However, such benefits can and often do encourage unemployment registration by economically inactive individuals. Registered unemployment exceeds survey based unemployment rates in about half of ECA countries (mostly Central Europe and Western Balkans). Registered unemployment is much lower than survey-based unemployment in the Baltic States and Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries, primarily due to low access to unemployment benefits and active labor market programs (ALMPs). The numbers of unemployment assistance beneficiaries vary significantly across ECA. In 2009, for example, 85 percent of the registered unemployed in Russia received benefits but, in eight ECA countries...

Employment-Related Mitigation Measures in ECA Countries

Kuddo, Arvo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.33%
There are growing constraints on public finances in many countries due to the actual and projected build-up of public debt, which limits the scope of labor market interventions. Only a few Europe and Central Asia (ECA) countries (most notably Estonia, Kazakhstan and Russia) had set aside resources that can now be used to cushion an externally driven economic slowdown. Currently, the labor market situation in many ECA countries can be characterized as lack of demand for labor. Overall, in 27 ECA countries for which data are available for June 2008 to June 2009, registered unemployment increased from 8.460 million to 11.354 million, or around 34 percent. The number of registered unemployed increased the most in three Baltic States, Turkey and Moldova. Nevertheless, most governments in ECA have responded to the global economic crisis by making additional resources available for labor market and social policies, and with discretionary policy measures to cushion the negative effects of the crisis on workers and low-income households. Spending on unemployment benefits has increased automatically as job losses have mounted...

Jobs for Brazil’s Poor : Social Protection Programs and Labor Supply Impacts on the Poor in Brazil

Robalino, David; de la Brière, Bénédicte; Lindert, Kathy
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.35%
The World Bank is carrying out a program of Analytic and Advisory Activities (the Labor AAA) focused on the interface between social protection programs and labor supply and productivity. This focus relates to the debates in Brazil surrounding the issue of helping transfer beneficiaries graduate from poverty and from dependence on transfer incomes. The AAA is structured along two pillars. Pillar I addresses questions related to the impacts of explicit and implicit public transfers on labor supply and savings decisions. In particular, what is the effect of public transfers such as Bolsa Familia and those related to the social insurance system (pensions and unemployment) on work incentives, early entry and retirement, sector choice, and ultimately, public expenditures, human capital accumulation and growth. Pillar II focuses on program design and evaluation. The and goal is to identify how the portfolio of transfer and active labor market programs can be optimized to enhance the employability of the poor, help promote their graduation from poverty...

Active Labor Market Programs for Youth : A Framework to Guide Youth Employment Interventions

Cunningham, Wendy; Sanchez-Puerta, Maria Laura; Wuermli, Alice
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
126.34%
Youth are three times more likely to be unemployed than adults, even in economies with strong economic growth. This note is a tool to provide policymakers and youth-serving organizations with a framework to better diagnose short- to medium-run constraints facing the stock of unemployed youth and to design evidence based youth employment interventions. The note only addresses youth employment; strategies to affect wages, productivity, underemployment, or job quality are not directly discussed. This note presents youth-oriented Active Labor Market Programs (ALMPs) that conform to one of two criteria. Each intervention either has been shown to have predominately positive impact, as measured by rigorous impact evaluations, or has weaker evidence of impact-rigorous evaluations with mixed evidence of impact or strong positive monitoring data-and is theoretically sound. Cost-effectiveness information is presented when available. The note focuses on programs that are appropriate to address constraints faced by youth from disadvantaged backgrounds.

Impact Evaluation : Techniques for Evaluating Active Labor Market Programs

Dar, Amit
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
126.17%
Over the past 40 years, "active" labor market programs (ALMPs) have emerged as an important employment policy tool. Their objective is primarily economic - to increase the probability that the unemployed will find jobs or that the underemployed will increase their productivity and earnings. ALMPs include job search assistance, training and retraining, and job creation programs (public works, micro-enterprise development, and wage subsidies). With economic reform, increasing liberalization of markets and growing concerns about the problems of unemployment, ALMPs have increasingly become an attractive option for policymakers. Expenditure on these programs has, however, not increased substantially over the 1990s, remaining fairly constant at around 0.7% of GDP. This reflects to some extent the ambivalence of policymakers about the effectiveness of ALMPs. A frequently asked question is, "Are these programs effective?" This note will focus on impact evaluations of ALMPs. It will discuss the objectives and importance of rigorous evaluations...

Public Employment Services and Publicly Provided ALMPs in Egypt

Semlali, Amina; Angel-Urdinola, Diego F.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.33%
This note presents a brief overview of Public Employment Services (PES) in Egypt and describes the institutional framework for public delivery of Active Labor Market Programs (ALMPs) in Egypt. Egypt has the fourth largest economy in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region and has implemented economic reforms since 2004 which have led to some economic growth (e.g. a fast growing technology sector and the country has been recognized as one of the top offshoring destinations for international companies).

Republic of Lebanon--Good Jobs Needed : The Role of Macro, Investment, Education, Labor and Social Protection Policies

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.31%
This report develops a strategy to support employment creation in Lebanon and improve labor market opportunities for its work force. The analysis is based on a new survey of the labor force and employers, and a General Equilibrium Model of the Lebanese economy, both developed in the context of this Technical Cooperation Program. The policy recommendations are the result of consultations with counterparts and different stakeholders. The report is organized in six chapters. Chapter 1 summarizes the main findings of the analysis and policy recommendations. Chapter 2 analyzes the main characteristics of the Lebanese labor market and identifies key issues that require attention. Chapter 3 focuses on ways to improve macroeconomic conditions and investment opportunities in order to enhance growth potential and promote the creation of high quality jobs. Chapter 4 discusses how current initiatives regarding active labor market programs (ALMPs) could be transformed into an integrated system of employment and training services that would be managed and monitored by the public employment agency (the National Employment Office) but implemented by private providers that would help individuals access jobs - whether wage or self-employment. Chapter 5 deals with the labor market distortions created by social insurance and regulations on types of contracts...

Improving Access to Jobs and Earnings Opportunities : The Role of Activation and Graduation Policies in Developing Countries

Almeida, Rita; Arbelaez, Juliana; Honorati, Maddalena; Kuddo, Arvo; Lohmann, Tanja; Ovadiya, Mirey; Pop, Lucian; Sanchez Puerta, Maria Laura; Weber, Michael
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.37%
Throughout the developing world there is a growing demand for advice on the design of policies to facilitate access of the most vulnerable individuals to jobs, while reducing their dependency from public income support schemes. Even though these policies are common to both the activation and graduation agendas, a separation is needed as the graduation of beneficiaries out of poverty is a much more ambitious agenda. This paper proposes a simple policy framework highlighting the most common barriers for productive employment. It also reviews the topic of incentive compatibility of income support schemes and employment support programs that are used to address them. The paper finds that, especially in middle income countries, activation and active labor market programs play an important role connecting individuals to jobs and improving earnings opportunities. In low income countries, these programs are far from being a panacea to graduate beneficiaries out of poverty. Furthermore, only scant evidence is available on the pathways to graduation and significant knowledge gaps remain. More cross-disciplinary research is needed to strengthen the evidence base and develop recommendations for different contexts and capacity levels.

Building Effective Employment Programs for Unemployed Youth in the Middle East and North Africa

Angel-Urdinola, Diego F.; Kuddo, Arvo; Semlali, Amina
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.4%
This study surveys active labor market programs (ALMPs) in selected countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, identifies key challenges to their effective and efficient delivery, and proposes a policy framework for reforming public service provision. This study draws on data collected through surveys administered to public social, employment, and education agencies in selected MENA countries to identify key constraints and options for reforming publicly provided employment programs. Recent political transitions arising from the Arab Spring have contributed to the deterioration of labor market outcomes in the MENA region. In this context, ALMPs could become an important policy lever to address some of the challenges facing labor markets. These include: joblessness, skills mismatches, lack of labor market mobility, large and expanding informal sector, and lack of formal employment networks. The study also provides specific details on the beneficiaries, targeting, and expenditures of ALMPs during this same period.

Active Labor Market Programs : How, Why, When, and To What Extent are they Effective?

Brown, Alessio J.G.; Koettl, Johannes
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
126.34%
Active labor market programs (ALMPs) aim to keep workers employed, bring them into employment, increase their productivity and earnings, and improve the functioning of labor markets. ALMPs to retain employment, for example, work-sharing schemes, should be used only for short periods during severe recessions. More cost-effective and useful during recoveries are ALMPs to create employment, which strengthen outsiders labor market attachment and support the outflow out of unemployment. Training programs are especially effective over the long term, particularly the more they target disadvantaged outsiders. ALMPs that improve labor market matching are highly beneficial, but effective only in the short run. ALMPs in general might be more cost effective over the long term (3-10 years) and some may even be self-financing, suggesting that long-term evaluations are needed to better ascertain the impact of individual policies.

Labor Market Policies under a Youth Bulge : How to Benefit from Demographic Dividend in Pakistan

Robalino, David; Cho, Yoonyoung
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.3%
This paper assesses labor market trends and outcomes in Pakistan over the past decade. It shows that despite a high rate of employment growth, labor market outcomes have been disappointing: most jobs have been created in low productivity sectors/activities, and even if they provide a minimum level of income to often avoid poverty, they remain low quality jobs providing little or no protection to workers against shocks. In addition, female participation rates for women are very low and there are large income disparities between rural and urban areas, and across sectors. A fundamental part of the problem is the low level of education of the labor force. Pakistan is currently in the midst of a demographic transition that is bringing a growing number of youth into the labor market. This youth bulge that is unwinding opens both challenges and opportunities. Challenges because of the need to create enough jobs to employ new entrants; Opportunities, because if this is done the country will enjoy a demographic dividend ...

Social Assistance and Labor Market Programs in Latin America : Methodology and Key Findings from the Social Protection Database

Cerutti, Paula; Fruttero, Anna; Grosh, Margaret; Kostenbaum, Silvana; Oliveri, Maria Laura; Rodriguez-Alas, Claudia; Strokova, Victoria
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
106.39%
How much do countries spend on social protection? Do social protection programs cover all poor people? And, how well are they targeted? It is notoriously hard to find comprehensive cross-country data on social protection programs which can help answer such questions and allow to benchmark social protection systems. The World Bank s Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) Social Protection Database attempts to fill these knowledge gaps by collecting and systematizing data on social protection programs from both administrative sources and household surveys. The data assembled provides a powerful tool to study trends and analyze program performance as well as benchmark countries social protection systems. We found both expected and unexpected trends in spending on social protection and coverage of social protection programs across countries. Between 2000 and 2010 expenditure on social assistance nearly tripled. At a program level, conditional cash transfer programs ceased to dominate social assistance spending...

Labor Policy to Promote Good Jobs in Tunisia : Revisiting Labor Regulation, Social Security, and Active Labor Market Programs

Angel-Urdinola, Diego F.; Nucifora, Antonio; Robalino, David
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
106.34%
Tunisians are striving for the opportunity to realize their potential and aspirations in a country that is rich in both human and physical capital, but whose recent economic growth has failed to create enough opportunities in the form of good and productive jobs. This report highlights the main barriers that hinder the Tunisian labor market from providing income, protection, and prosperity to its citizens and proposes a set of labor policies that could facilitate the creation of better, more inclusive, and more productive jobs. The weak economic performance and insufficient and low-quality job creation in Tunisia is primarily the result of an economic environment permeated by distortions, barriers to competition, and excessive red tape, including in the labor market. This has resulted in the creation of a insufficient number of jobs, especially in the formal sector. To change this situation, policy makers need to address five strategic directives that can promote long-term inclusive growth and formality: foster competition; realign incentives...

Botswana Labor Market Signals on Demand for Skills

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
106.31%
Botswana has an official unemployment rate of 17.8 percent. The low labor-intensity of growth is a potential explaining factor for this high level of unemployment. It is thus essential to analyze the role of education and training in the access to employment. This note finds that the role of education has changed under the effect of schooling expansion and persistent unemployment. Labor market institutions appear to have a limited impact on employment and wage levels, while the importance of active labor market programs is growing. This note aims to identify labor market signals that point to demand for specific current and future skills. The note seeks to answer the following questions: does the labor market place a higher premium on workers literacy and numeracy skills, technical skills, or behavioral skills?; is the labor market more in need of secondary or tertiary education graduates?; and will growing economic sectors (for example, tourism) benefit more by increasing the supply of sector-specific skills (for example...

Labor Market Regulations and Outcomes in Sweden

Ulku, Hulya; Muzi, Silvia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.35%
This paper analyzes recent trends in Swedens labor market regulations in relation to comparator economies and examines the relationship between labor market regulations and outcomes. The paper finds that the Swedish labor market responded more rapidly to the recent global financial crisis than the majority of the European Union economies, which helped Sweden to recover quickly. Swedens hiring regulations are more flexible than those of many comparator economies, however, fixed-term contracts of short duration might have adverse consequences for the economy. In addition, Swedens regulations on work during the weekly holidays and mandatory paid annual leave are stricter than those of the majority of comparator economies. Moreover, among the economies of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Sweden has one of the largest differences in employment protection between permanent and temporary employees, which could lead to a segmented labor market, where insiders enjoy high job security and outsiders are largely marginalized. This could be cause for concern...

Effectiveness of Interventions Aimed atImproving Women’s Employability and Quality of Work : A Critical Review

Todd, Petra E.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.39%
This paper examines the effectiveness of a variety of policy interventions that have been tried in developing and transition economies with the goal of improving women's employability and quality of work. The programs include active labor market programs, education and training programs, programs that facilitate work (such as childcare subsidies, parental leave programs and land titling programs), microfinance programs, entrepreneurship and leadership programs, and conditional cash transfer programs. Some of these policy interventions were undertaken to increase employment, some to increase female employment, and some for other reasons. All of these programs have been subjected to impact evaluations of different kinds and some also to rigorous cost-benefit analyses. Many were found to be effective in increasing women's quantity of work as measured by increased rates of labor market participation and number of hours worked. In some cases, the programs also increased women's quality of work, for example, by increasing the capacity for women to work in the formal rather than the informal sector where wages are higher and where women are more likely to have access to health...

Promoting Labor Market Participation and Social Inclusion in Europe and Central Asia's Poorest Countries

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.33%
This report, funded by the Trust Fund for Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development (TFESSD), seeks to identify labor market inequalities in the ten countries outlined above, to relate these inequalities to other forms of social exclusion, and to propose areas for policy action aimed at boosting labor market participation. The remainder of the report is structured as follows. Chapter two describes the role that jobs play in fostering good living standards, productivity and social cohesion, and contextualizes the discussion on jobs and participation in the ten countries. Chapter three zooms in, highlighting inequalities in labor force participation across demographic groups. Chapter four shifts the focus to the factors explaining unequal labor force participation across groups, and discusses a policy agenda for these ten countries, drawing on experiences from the rest of the world. Chapter five concludes.

Public Employment Services, and Activation Policies

Kuddo, Arvo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.38%
One of the responses to new challenges in the labor market has been the development and expansion of employment services and active labor market policies based on activation principles. The objective of this study is to document and review international experiences, predominantly from selected emerging market economies and developing countries, with the design and implementation of activation programs, provided by Public Employment Services, through the prism of incentives and sanctions. Employment promotion legislation from the reviewed countries is a major source of information. Participation of beneficiaries in relevant services and programs is also analyzed. The study finds that the countries use a variety of instruments, be it specific employment services, active labor market programs, or benefit and other sanctions, to 'activate' jobseekers with an aim to encourage them to become more active in their efforts to find work and/or improve their employability. In practice, the activation policies vary considerably across countries.