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A Primer on Policies for Jobs

Nallari, Raj; Griffith, Breda; Wang, Yidan; Andriamananjara, Soamiely; Chen, Derek H. C.; Bhattacharya, Rwitwika
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.41%
A primer on policies for jobs is based on materials and input provided during the labor market courses conducted during the past 10 years. Its objective is to provide government policy makers, researchers, and labor market practitioners and other specialists with a practical guide on how to strengthen labor market institutions, especially in light of the global financial crisis. This primer emphasizes six pillars of labor market institutions: global trends, job creation, labor market policies, education, entrepreneurship, and globalization. Chapter one addresses current labor market trends and job creation, particularly in tough conditions. Chapter two examines channels of job creation and ways to strengthen labor market institutions to ensure sustainable job growth, considering factors such as investment climate, job policy, industrial policy, social protection, and other labor market issues. Chapter three focuses on labor market policies in developing countries. Chapter four highlights the impact of education and skills on labor market outcome. Chapter five discusses entrepreneurship along three key dimensions: development and growth...

Unemployment and Worker-Firm Matching : Theory and Evidence from East and West Europe

Munich, Daniel; Svejnar, Jan
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.38%
The paper tests three hypotheses about the causes of unemployment in the Central-East European transition economies and in a benchmark market economy (Western part of Germany). The first hypothesis (H1) is that unemployment is caused by inefficient matching. Hypothesis 2 (H2) is that unemployment is caused by low demand. Hypothesis 3 (H3) is that restructuring is at work. Our estimates suggest that the west and east German parts of Germany, Czech Republic and Slovakia are consistent with H2 and H3. Hungary provides limited support to all three hypotheses. Poland is consistent with H1. The economies in question hence contain one broad group of countries and one or two special cases. The group comprises the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovak Republic and (possibly) East Germany. These countries resemble West Germany in that they display increasing returns to scale in matching and unemployment appears to be driven by restructuring and low demand. The East German case is complex because of its major active labor market policies and a negative trend in efficiency in matching. In some sense...

Labor Market Policy in Developing Countries : A Selective Review of the Literature and Needs for the Future

Fields, Gary S.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.37%
This paper presents a selective overview of the literature on modeling labor market policies in developing countries. It considers welfare economics, theoretical models, and empirical evidence to highlight the three general features needed in future research on labor market policy in developing countries. The author identifies desirable research components (welfare economics, theoretical modeling, and empirical modeling) and pitfalls in the literature (inappropriate use of productivity, reliance on wrong kinds of empirical studies, lack of cost-benefit analysis, attention to only a subset of the goods and bads, and fallacy of composition). The paper concludes with suggested topics and methods for future research. The author states that sound labor market policy requires sound labor market models. The paper makes a case for developing policy based on explicit evaluation criteria, specific theoretical models, and comprehensive empirical evidence.

The Roles of Openness and Labor Market Institutions for Employment Dynamics during Economic Crises

Gamberoni, Elisa; Uexkull, Erik Von; Weber, Sebastian
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.29%
Employment effects of the recent global economic crisis have differed significantly across countries. An active public debate currently focuses on external shocks and the role of labor market policies as a driver of those differences. In this note, the authors analyze the roles of integration into the global economy and different labor market institutions during different phases of past global economic downturns and domestic banking and debt crises. The authors find that domestic debt and banking crises were much more severe in their impact on employment than were global economic downturns: on average, the reduction in employment growth was more than twice as strong. The authors also find that openness to trade has both deepened the contractionary effects on employment and allowed for a faster recovery. High severance pay dampened the employment effect in both domestic crises and global economic downturns, whereas very high unemployment benefits were associated with stronger reductions in employment growth.

The Labor Market Policy Reform Agenda in MENA

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.34%
Despite positive economic growth in recent years, basic labor market outcomes in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) remained stagnant and have only improved slightly in the past 10 years. A number of recent and ongoing analyses have stressed the pressing need for many economies in the region to identify new and sustainable sources of growth, create more and higher value-added employment, and absorb the fast growing number of university graduates into the labor market. Structural transformation towards higher productivity and the creation of qualified jobs requires far reaching reforms in multiple sectors, including innovation, science and technology; education quality; labor market flexibility and mobility; and entrepreneurial incentives allowing investors to innovate, invest, and create higher value added jobs. Within this broad context, this note focuses on labor market policies and the agenda for labor market reform in MENA.

Africa Development Indicators 2008-09 : Youth and Employment in Africa--The Potential, the Problem, the Promise

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.34%
The first part of the report presents stylized facts of youth and labor markets in Africa. The second part discusses past youth employment interventions in the region. It argues for the need of an integrated approach should governments want to tackle youth employment issues in a sustainable manner. Indeed, in African countries, with large informal sectors and dominance of rural population, solely reforming labor market institutions and implementing active labor market policies are likely to have limited impact. It argues that the most needed and well-rounded approaches are: expanding job and education alternatives in the rural areas, where most youth live; promoting and encouraging mobility; creating a conducive business environment; encouraging the private sector; improving the access and quality of skills formation; taking care of demographic issues that more directly affects the youth; and reducing child labor.

Active Labor Market Programs : How, Why, When, and To What Extent are they Effective?

Brown, Alessio J.G.; Koettl, Johannes
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.27%
Active labor market programs (ALMPs) aim to keep workers employed, bring them into employment, increase their productivity and earnings, and improve the functioning of labor markets. ALMPs to retain employment, for example, work-sharing schemes, should be used only for short periods during severe recessions. More cost-effective and useful during recoveries are ALMPs to create employment, which strengthen outsiders labor market attachment and support the outflow out of unemployment. Training programs are especially effective over the long term, particularly the more they target disadvantaged outsiders. ALMPs that improve labor market matching are highly beneficial, but effective only in the short run. ALMPs in general might be more cost effective over the long term (3-10 years) and some may even be self-financing, suggesting that long-term evaluations are needed to better ascertain the impact of individual policies.

Labor Market Policies under a Youth Bulge : How to Benefit from Demographic Dividend in Pakistan

Robalino, David; Cho, Yoonyoung
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.34%
This paper assesses labor market trends and outcomes in Pakistan over the past decade. It shows that despite a high rate of employment growth, labor market outcomes have been disappointing: most jobs have been created in low productivity sectors/activities, and even if they provide a minimum level of income to often avoid poverty, they remain low quality jobs providing little or no protection to workers against shocks. In addition, female participation rates for women are very low and there are large income disparities between rural and urban areas, and across sectors. A fundamental part of the problem is the low level of education of the labor force. Pakistan is currently in the midst of a demographic transition that is bringing a growing number of youth into the labor market. This youth bulge that is unwinding opens both challenges and opportunities. Challenges because of the need to create enough jobs to employ new entrants; Opportunities, because if this is done the country will enjoy a demographic dividend ...

Social Assistance and Labor Market Programs in Latin America : Methodology and Key Findings from the Social Protection Database

Cerutti, Paula; Fruttero, Anna; Grosh, Margaret; Kostenbaum, Silvana; Oliveri, Maria Laura; Rodriguez-Alas, Claudia; Strokova, Victoria
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.28%
How much do countries spend on social protection? Do social protection programs cover all poor people? And, how well are they targeted? It is notoriously hard to find comprehensive cross-country data on social protection programs which can help answer such questions and allow to benchmark social protection systems. The World Bank s Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) Social Protection Database attempts to fill these knowledge gaps by collecting and systematizing data on social protection programs from both administrative sources and household surveys. The data assembled provides a powerful tool to study trends and analyze program performance as well as benchmark countries social protection systems. We found both expected and unexpected trends in spending on social protection and coverage of social protection programs across countries. Between 2000 and 2010 expenditure on social assistance nearly tripled. At a program level, conditional cash transfer programs ceased to dominate social assistance spending...

Portraits of Labor Market Exclusion

Sundaram, Ramya; Hoerning, Ulrich; De Andrade Falcao, Natasha; Millan, Natalia; Tokman, Carla; Zini, Michele
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.35%
The financial crisis that hit the global market in the middle of 2008 gave way to the sharpest contraction of the European economies since the Great Depression. In 2009 the economic output in the countries of the European Union shrank 4.5 percent, the largest reduction in GDP since its creation. Since then, the economies have slowly recovered, but unemployment has continued to rise, reaching 11 percent in 2013, up from 7.1 percent in 2008. The economy of the European Union shrank 4.5 percent, the largest reduction in its GDP since the Union s creation. Furthermore, for the European Union as a whole, long-term unemployment among 15- to 64-year-olds has increased from 37.2 percent in 2008 to 47.5 percent of total unemployment in 2013. In several countries more than half of those unemployed are long-term unemployed, that is, they have been looking for jobs for more than 12 months. In Greece and Bulgaria the share of long-term unemployed in 2013 was 67.5 percent and 57.3 percent, respectively. Youth unemployment, on the other hand...

Labor Policy to Promote Good Jobs in Tunisia : Revisiting Labor Regulation, Social Security, and Active Labor Market Programs

Angel-Urdinola, Diego F.; Nucifora, Antonio; Robalino, David
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.39%
Tunisians are striving for the opportunity to realize their potential and aspirations in a country that is rich in both human and physical capital, but whose recent economic growth has failed to create enough opportunities in the form of good and productive jobs. This report highlights the main barriers that hinder the Tunisian labor market from providing income, protection, and prosperity to its citizens and proposes a set of labor policies that could facilitate the creation of better, more inclusive, and more productive jobs. The weak economic performance and insufficient and low-quality job creation in Tunisia is primarily the result of an economic environment permeated by distortions, barriers to competition, and excessive red tape, including in the labor market. This has resulted in the creation of a insufficient number of jobs, especially in the formal sector. To change this situation, policy makers need to address five strategic directives that can promote long-term inclusive growth and formality: foster competition; realign incentives...

Labor Market Regulations and Outcomes in Sweden

Ulku, Hulya; Muzi, Silvia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.39%
This paper analyzes recent trends in Swedens labor market regulations in relation to comparator economies and examines the relationship between labor market regulations and outcomes. The paper finds that the Swedish labor market responded more rapidly to the recent global financial crisis than the majority of the European Union economies, which helped Sweden to recover quickly. Swedens hiring regulations are more flexible than those of many comparator economies, however, fixed-term contracts of short duration might have adverse consequences for the economy. In addition, Swedens regulations on work during the weekly holidays and mandatory paid annual leave are stricter than those of the majority of comparator economies. Moreover, among the economies of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Sweden has one of the largest differences in employment protection between permanent and temporary employees, which could lead to a segmented labor market, where insiders enjoy high job security and outsiders are largely marginalized. This could be cause for concern...

Electoral Cycles in Active Labor Market Policies

Mechtel, Mario; Potrafke, Niklas
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: ResearchPaper
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
126.13%
We examine how electoral motives influence active labor market policies that promote job-creation. Such policies reduce unemployment statistics. Using German state data for the period 1985 to 2004, we show that election-motivated politicians pushed job-promotion schemes before elections.

Africa Development Indicators 2008-09 : Youth and Employment in Africa--The Potential, the Problem, the Promise

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.34%
The first part of the report presents stylized facts of youth and labor markets in Africa. The second part discusses past youth employment interventions in the region. It argues for the need of an integrated approach should governments want to tackle youth employment issues in a sustainable manner. Indeed, in African countries, with large informal sectors and dominance of rural population, solely reforming labor market institutions and implementing active labor market policies are likely to have limited impact. It argues that the most needed and well-rounded approaches are: expanding job and education alternatives in the rural areas, where most youth live; promoting and encouraging mobility; creating a conducive business environment; encouraging the private sector; improving the access and quality of skills formation; taking care of demographic issues that more directly affects the youth; and reducing child labor.

Promoting Labor Market Participation and Social Inclusion in Europe and Central Asia's Poorest Countries

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.33%
This report, funded by the Trust Fund for Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development (TFESSD), seeks to identify labor market inequalities in the ten countries outlined above, to relate these inequalities to other forms of social exclusion, and to propose areas for policy action aimed at boosting labor market participation. The remainder of the report is structured as follows. Chapter two describes the role that jobs play in fostering good living standards, productivity and social cohesion, and contextualizes the discussion on jobs and participation in the ten countries. Chapter three zooms in, highlighting inequalities in labor force participation across demographic groups. Chapter four shifts the focus to the factors explaining unequal labor force participation across groups, and discusses a policy agenda for these ten countries, drawing on experiences from the rest of the world. Chapter five concludes.

'Green' Growth, 'Green' Jobs and Labor Markets

Bowen, Alex
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.35%
The term 'green jobs' can refer to employment in a narrowly defined set of industries providing environmental services. But it is more useful for the policy-maker to focus on the broader issue of the employment consequences of policies to correct environmental externalities such as anthropogenic climate change. Most of the literature focuses on direct employment created, with more cursory treatment of indirect and induced job creation, especially that arising from macroeconomic effects of policies. The potential adverse impacts of green growth policies on labor productivity and the costs of employment tend to be overlooked. More attention also needs to be paid in this literature to how labor markets work in different types of economy. There may be wedges between the shadow wage and the actual wage, particularly in developing countries with segmented labor markets and after adverse aggregate demand shocks, warranting a bigger and longer-lasting boost to green projects with high labor content. In these circumstances...

Employment Protection Legislation and Labor Market Outcomes : Theory, Evidence and Lessons for Croatia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.31%
In response to prolonged recession, in April 2010 the Croatian Government adopted an Economic Recovery Program to safeguard macroeconomic stability and support faster recovery of the private sector. A central element of the program is revision of labor regulations to create a more dynamic labor market by ensuring labor force flexibility and job security. The goal is to increase the labor force participation rate and ensure that it has the skills and competencies required by the evolving and dynamic private sector. The Croatian Ministries of Finance and labor asked the World Bank for support in design of possible labor legislation reform. The objective of this note is to benchmark Croatia's legislation and help identify legal constraints on achieving a more dynamic and flexible labor market. Changes to employment protection legislation (EPL) can be politically difficult. They therefore need to be preceded by a public information campaign explaining their rationale and by dialogue with social partners. The central message to be conveyed to the public is that relaxing the most rigid provisions of the labor law will eventually lead to better employment prospects...

Public Employment Services, and Activation Policies

Kuddo, Arvo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.39%
One of the responses to new challenges in the labor market has been the development and expansion of employment services and active labor market policies based on activation principles. The objective of this study is to document and review international experiences, predominantly from selected emerging market economies and developing countries, with the design and implementation of activation programs, provided by Public Employment Services, through the prism of incentives and sanctions. Employment promotion legislation from the reviewed countries is a major source of information. Participation of beneficiaries in relevant services and programs is also analyzed. The study finds that the countries use a variety of instruments, be it specific employment services, active labor market programs, or benefit and other sanctions, to 'activate' jobseekers with an aim to encourage them to become more active in their efforts to find work and/or improve their employability. In practice, the activation policies vary considerably across countries.

The active turn in Danish welfare policy: Employment and Social Protection in Denmark; The active turn in Danish welfare policy: Employment and Social Protection in Denmark

Abrahamson, Peter
Fonte: UnB-BCE Publicador: UnB-BCE
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Avaliado por Pares; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/05/2010 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.34%
Flexicurity is viewed as the best way of securing both agood investment environment and a secure workforce. Flexicurity combines a flexible labor market, where employers have few or no restrictions with regard to firing workers, with generous welfare benefits; and the two are facilitated through active labor market policies. Denmark really has a flexible labor market; but benefits in case of unemployment and activation cannot be described as generous in a European context. Activation is often perceived as a punishment for being unemployed and has mainly been undertaken because it is mandatory, and one is in risk of losing benefits if one refuses an activation offer. There is a price to be paid for a high degree of flexibility, and it comes in the form of marginalization and exclusion. 25 percent of the Danish population of working ages is for long spells or permanently existing on not very generous benefits outside the labor market.; Flexicurity is viewed as the best way of securing both agood investment environment and a secure workforce. Flexicurity combines a flexible labor market, where employers have few or no restrictions with regard to firing workers, with generous welfare benefits; and the two are facilitated through active labor market policies. Denmark really has a flexible labor market; but benefits in case of unemployment and activation cannot be described as generous in a European context. Activation is often perceived as a punishment for being unemployed and has mainly been undertaken because it is mandatory...

O retorno das medidas de ativação na política de bem-estar dinamarquesa: Emprego e Proteção Social na Dinamarca; The active turn in Danish welfare policy: Employment and Social Protection in Denmark

Abrahamson, Peter
Fonte: UnB-BCE Publicador: UnB-BCE
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Avaliado por Pares; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/05/2010 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.18%
A flexicurity é divulgada como a melhor forma de assegurar tanto um bom ambiente de investimentos quanto uma força de trabalho protegida. A flexicurity combina mercado de trabalho flexível, no qual os empregadores têm grande liberdade de despedir os trabalhadores, com benefícios de bem-estar generosos; e essa combinação é facilitada pSelas políticas ativas de mercado de trabalho. Na realidade, a Dinamarca possui um mercado de trabalho flexível, mas os benefícios, em caso de desemprego e ativação para o trabalho, não podem ser descritos como generosos em um contexto europeu. A ativação é frequentemente percebida como punição pelo trabalhador, por estar desempregado, e tem sido aceita por ser obrigatória, ou seja, a pessoa correrá o risco de perder os benefícios se ela recusar medidas de ativação. Há um preço a ser pago pelo alto grau de flexibilidade e esse preço se traduz em marginalização e exclusão. 25% da população dinamarquesa em idade produtiva estão por muito tempo ou permanentemente vivendo fora do apoio público generoso do mercado de trabalho.; Flexicurity is viewed as the best way of securing both a good investment environment and a secure workforce. Flexicurity combines a flexible labor market...