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Efeitos do market timing sobre a estrutura de capital de companhias abertas brasileiras; Market timing effects on capital structure of Brazilian public companies

Albanez, Tatiana
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/10/2012 PT
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26.3%
De acordo com a teoria de market timing, as empresas aproveitam janelas de oportunidade para a captação de recursos, com a intenção de explorar flutuações temporárias no custo de fontes alternativas de financiamento. Assim, a estrutura de capital seria determinada por tentativas passadas de emitir títulos em momentos considerados favoráveis para a emissão. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo examinar o comportamento de market timing em companhias abertas brasileiras, buscando verificar a existência e persistência de um comportamento oportunista quando da escolha dentre diferentes fontes de financiamento. Para tanto, foram desenvolvidos dois estudos complementares. Primeiramente, investiga-se o comportamento de market timing por meio da análise da influência de valores de mercado históricos sobre a estrutura de capital de companhias brasileiras que realizaram IPO no período 2001-2011. Como principal resultado, verifica-se uma relação negativa entre valores de mercado históricos e alavancagem, evidenciando que, em momentos de altos valores de mercado, as empresas reduzem o endividamento, por ser mais vantajosa a emissão de ações, e vice-versa, o que pode indicar um comportamento oportunista na captação de recursos. No entanto...

The Ownership and Trading of Debt Claims in Chapter 11 Restructurings

Ivashina, Victoria; Iverson, Benjamin; Smith, David C.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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What is the ownership structure of bankrupt debt claims? How does the ownership evolve though bankruptcy? And how does debt ownership influence Chapter 11 outcomes? To answer these questions, we construct a data set that identifies the entire capital structure for 136 companies filing for U.S. Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection between 1998 and 2009 and that covers over 71,000 different investors. We categorize the investors in the capital structure of bankrupt firms according to their institutional type and track them from the initial filing until the vote on the plan of reorganization. We document several novel facts about the role of different institutional investors, the impact of debt ownership concentration, and the role of trading in bankruptcy. We find that trading during the case leads to higher concentration of ownership, particularly among debt claims that are eligible to vote on the bankruptcy plan of reorganization. Active investors, including hedge funds, are the largest net buyers of claims in bankruptcy. While initial ownership concentration is important for coordination of a prearranged bankruptcy filing, it is consolidation of ownership during bankruptcy—and specifically consolidation of ownership of voting classes—that has an impact on the speed of restructuring...

Managing State Debt and Ensuring Solvency : The Indian Experience

Rangarajan, C.; Prasad, Abha
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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The paper presents the policymakers perspective on the reforms undertaken to manage states debt and ensure solvency. While the sustained high growth rates of the Indian economy played a part in alleviating the interest burden on debt and ensuring that the debt does not grow in an explosive trajectory, major reforms were implemented to reverse the fiscal decline, develop fiscal responsibility rules to ensure sustained adjustment, and move toward a market-based financing of state deficits. The serious efforts at fiscal consolidation and institutional reforms have enabled states to set on the path toward fiscal correction. Nonetheless, weak global growth prospects and the risk of a further rise in global commodity and fuel prices could generate the dilemma of needing to compress expenditures for ensuring fiscal sustainability while simultaneously needing counter-cyclical spending to boost growth, and challenge the fiscal adjustment process.

Developing the Domestic Government Debt Market : From Diagnostics to Reform Implementation

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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46.25%
This is the second volume of a study on the insights from a 12-country pilot program on public debt management and domestic government debt market development. The discussion of domestic government debt market development in this book uses a building block approach to gain insights into development priorities and approaches across the 12 countries in the pilot program. Chapter 2 discusses the essential importance of money markets for the development of a government securities market. Chapter 3 addresses primary markets and describes how the authorities borrow in the domestic market, including the selection of instruments, issuance techniques, and relationships with financial intermediaries. Chapter 4 explains that the 12 pilot-program countries vary considerably in the composition of investors, but few have well-established contractual savings institutions and in all countries commercial banks play a dominant role. Chapter 5 considers the importance of well-functioning secondary markets for providing a cost-efficient environment in which market participants can trade government securities in a fair and transparent manner. Chapter 6 describes how an efficient securities custody and settlement infrastructure strengthens investor confidence...

Pakistan : Issues Related to the Government Securities Market and Government Debt Management

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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The government of Pakistan borrows in the domestic market through a range of instruments, and this market is a critical source of funding for both shorter-term cash management and longer-term deficit-financing. The government has taken actions over the past 18 months that have enhanced the effectiveness of the market as a source of funding, as well as its efficiency. These include the movement toward more predictable, volume-based, market-determined pricing of government securities. Taking account of the dynamics of demand will be important as the government continues to develop its medium-term debt management strategy. Doing so will help identify potential constraints that may impede the implementation of the chosen strategy. Specific actions that the government is recommended to take include: a) reducing the number of tenors issued, b) consolidating the debt stock so as to improve liquidity in individual bonds, c) reducing time delays in auction processing, and d) developing and investor-relations function...

Greco-Roman Lessons for Public Debt Management and Debt Market Development

Campanaro, Alessandra; Vittas, Dimitri
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
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36.39%
Greece and Italy initiated efforts to improve public debt management and develop their domestic debt markets respectively in the late 1970s and mid-1980s. At that time, both countries suffered from large and rapidly growing public debt, excessive reliance on short-term bills held by commercial banks, a strong preference of households to save in bank deposits, and a weak presence of institutional investors (pension funds, insurance companies, and mutual funds). Continuing large fiscal deficits, high levels of interest rates and inflation, and serious policy credibility problems impeded the use of long-term instruments. The authors provide a detailed analysis of the characteristics of the instruments that were used in these two countries, their pace of issuance, and their impact on the composition of public debt. The authors note that the main Greco-Roman lesson for developing and transition countries concerns the transition from an excessive reliance on short-term Treasury bills, held by captive banks, to a liquid market with long-term instruments held...

Understanding the Poverty Impact of the Global Financial Crisis in Latin America and the Caribbean

Grosh, Margaret; Bussolo, Maurizio; Freije, Samuel
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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26.33%
Any time there is an economic crisis; there is the very real potential that its consequences for human welfare will be severe. Thus when the developed world plunged into such a crisis in 2008 and growth rates in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) began to plummet, fears rose that the region will suffer rising unemployment, poverty, malnutrition, and infant mortality, among other things. This study confirms and quantifies many of the sobering links between crisis and poverty, but it also shows how powerful good policy in stable times is in attenuating those links. It thus underscores the need for sound growth policies, good macro prudential care, fiscal balance, low debt, reasonably flexible exchange rates, and the like to help prevent and manage crises. It equally shows how effective social protection responses built on adequate existing programs can be. This study documents the effects of the 2008-09 global financial crisis on poverty in 12 countries in the LAC region, and it comes away with six big picture messages...

African Debt since HIPC

Merotto, Dino; Stucka, Tihomir; Thomas, Mark Roland
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
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46.33%
The paper finds a moderate evolution in public debt ratios since debt relief among heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) and multilateral debt relief initiative (MDRI) recipient countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, with certain exceptions. For eight countries the authors find rapid rates of debt accumulation, which can return them to pre-HIPC debt levels in only a few years. Short-term domestic debt has, despite early fears, in general not filled the borrowing space created by debt relief. However, external debt accumulation on commercial terms in some cases presages repayment spikes, which may combine with short-term domestic obligations to amplify refinancing risk and cause abrupt reductions in public spending, with damaging consequences for development. Finally, despite reduced debt, African economies continue to be commodity dependent and prone to shocks. As global interest rates and commodity prices revert to historically more customary levels, these countries should remain prudent: avoid tax-base erosion, prevent large recurrent spending hikes...

Bulgaria : Public Expenditures for Growth and Competitiveness

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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36.21%
Bulgaria's economy performed relatively well during the crisis and the economy is reviving. In comparison with other Tenth European Union (EU10) countries, for Bulgaria the drop in Gross Domestic Product, or GDP growth was below the median, fiscal performance deteriorated less, and public debt stayed among the lowest in the entire EU. In late January 2011 the EC concluded that in 2010 Bulgaria had made significant progress in deficit reduction and is on track to exit the excessive deficit procedure in 2011. The large macroeconomic imbalances observed in 2005-08 had been corrected by 2010 with relatively little negative impact on growth relative to other EU10 countries. Since late 2010 Bulgaria's recovery has been driven by net exports; investment and consumption are recovering more slowly. As long as the economic environment remains favorable and structural reforms are implemented as planned, the economy should reach and even exceed its pre-crisis level in 2012. This report is intended to inform policy makers...

Republic of Tunisia : Strategy for Public Debt Management; Republique Tunisienne - Strategie de gestion de la dette publique

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Debt and Creditworthiness Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The need for an effective public debt management strategy has increased with Tunisia's stronger presence in the international financial markets and the larger exposure to changing borrowing conditions and exchange rate fluctuations. At the same time, there are better conditions today for public debt management, with the deepening the secondary market for Tunisian debt instruments on the international bond market, while the public debt management strategy would be greatly strengthened by the steps taken to develop the domestic government securities market. This study discusses options to the reform of the government public debt management practices, with the aim of increasing their efficiency, consolidating further the country's market access and containing the costs and risks of borrowing in both external and domestic markets. The study is intended to facilitate the introduction of an action plan for the implementation of the public debt management strategy, as part of the set of measures aiming at strengthening the macroeconomic framework in Third Economic Competitiveness Adjustment Loan Project (report no. P7489). Chapter One presents debt sustainability scenarios and discusses the underlying vulnerability factors. Chapter Two examines key principles of a strategy for public debt management...

Paving the Way for a Transformational Future : Lessons from Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission Phase I

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Renewable energy, especially solar power, has been garnering a lot of interest from governments, international development organizations, civil society, and the private sector for the last few years. There has been a huge surge in the popularity of this important energy source from various stakeholders in India as well. On the other hand, solar power presents a formidable option for addressing pertinent issues being faced in international geopolitical and national macroeconomic arenas for the Government of India (GoI). Though the World Bank, India considers all market segments of solar power to be important; this report specifically looks at the utility-scale grid-connected segment of solar power in India. As one of the eight missions under India's National Action Plan for Climate Change (NAPCC), the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) was launched in January 2010 with the aim of accelerating India's march toward grid parity in solar power. JNNSM envisages the achievement of grid parity through long-term and predictable policy...

Small States : Performance in Public Debt Management

Prasad, Abha; Pollock, Malvina; Li, Ying
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This paper analyzes the status of public debt management performance in 17 small states through the findings of the Debt Management Performance Assessment reports. Empirical evidence indicates that the higher the quality of a country's policies and institutions, the better is its capacity to carry debt and withstand exogenous shocks. Borrowing for productive purposes can be an important element in boosting growth of gross domestic product but, conversely, excessive borrowing or poorly structured debt in terms of maturity, currency, or interest rate composition can quickly offset the positive impact, deter new foreign and domestic investment, compromise reform programs, depress growth of gross domestic product, exacerbate the challenge of meeting debt service obligations, and may induce or propagate economic crises. Arguments in favor of sound debt management are especially compelling for small states that must mitigate the particular risks to which their economies are exposed. Against this backdrop, the paper identifies aspects of debt management where small states do relatively well and those where they perform poorly...

Republic of Kenya : Medium Term Debt Management Strategy, 2010/11-2012/13

Ministry of Finance
Fonte: Nairobi Publicador: Nairobi
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Sector Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The objective of debt management in Kenya is to finance the Government financing requirements at the least cost with a prudent degree of risk. The 2010 Medium Term Debt Strategy (MTDS) is a versatile public debt management tool linked to the medium term fiscal framework that contains prudent revenue projections and planned expenditures consistent with Kenya's economic recovery effort. The strategy seeks to address the terms of new borrowing, including the appropriate mix between domestic and external debt. This report explores the objectives of debt management in Kenya, an overview of the previous medium term debt strategy, key developments, characteristics of the existing debt portfolio, outcomes of analysis of strategies, debt sustainability and implementing the 2010 MTDS.

Tunisia's Global Integration : Second Generation of Reforms to Boost Growth and Employment; Integration Mondiale de la Tunisie : Une Nouvelle Generation de Reformes pour Booster la Croissance et l'Emploi

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: General Economy, Macroeconomics and Growth Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
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46.32%
This report addresses the following issues: Chapter one takes stock of the integration policies implemented since the early 1970s and assessed their impact on foreign direct investments (FDI), exports and employment. Chapter two looks at today's major challenges in the manufacturing sector and the specific policies needed to address them. Chapter three assesses the entry, business, and trade restrictions in Tunisia's key backbone services sectors (telecommunication, banking, air transport, accounting, auditing, and legal services) using a well-focused regulatory questionnaire. The restrictiveness indices calculated from the regulatory questionnaire are then used to benchmark Tunisia against Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and some emerging economies and to simulate the impact of various liberalization options on the price of services and the economy via a multi-region general equilibrium model. Finally, chapter four examines the prospect for increasing exports and off shoring of a large number of services for which Tunisia has demonstrated a strong capacity for export in recent years. The significant increase in real incomes in Tunisia is the result of solid gross domestic product (GDP) growth since the mid-1960s (5 percent a year)...

Debt Management Performance Assessment : Sao Tome and Principe; Sao Tome and Principe - Avaliacao do Desempenho da Gestao da Divida (DeMPA)

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Debt Management Performance Assessment
ENGLISH; EN_US
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46.33%
During February 2-14, 2008 a World Bank team comprised of Per-Olof Jonsson and Frederico Gil Sander traveled to Sao Tome e Príncipe to undertake an assessment of the government's debt management capacity and institutions using the Debt Management Performance Assessment Tool (DeMPA). The DeMPA is a methodology for assessing government debt management (DeM) performance through a comprehensive set of indicators spanning the full range of DeM functions. The assessment reveals that despite notable progress since the inception of the debt office in 2004, overall Sao Tome Príncipe meets the minimum requirements set out by the DeMPA only in the fields of evaluation of debt management operations and coordination with monetary policy. The Government does not meet the minimum requirements in the other indicators. The gap between existing practices and the minimum requirements is narrow in some areas. Among the areas for improvement where greater effort is required to reach good practices, the mission identified the legal framework and the managerial structures as key priorities in a reform program.

Sovereign Debt Distress and Corporate Spillover Impacts

Dailami, Mansoor
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
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36.31%
In much of the standard corporate finance literature in which sovereign debt is treated as a risk free asset, corporate bond prices are seen to depend on idiosyncratic risk factors specific to the issuing company, with public debt playing an indirect role to the extent that it affects the term structure of interest rates. In the corporate world, however, the ability of a borrower to access international capital markets and the terms according to which it can raise capital depend not only on its own creditworthiness, but also on the financial health of its home-country sovereign. In times of financial stress, when investors lose confidence in the government's ability to use public finances to stabilize the economy or provide a safety net for corporations in distress, markets' assessment of private credit risk takes on a completely different dynamic than during normal times, incorporating an additional risk premium to compensate investors for the potential consequences of sovereign default. Using a new database that covers nearly every emerging-market corporate and sovereign entity that has issued bonds on global markets between 1995 and 2009...

Africa's Macroeconomic Story

Hostland, Douglas; Giugale, Marcelo M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.31%
Much of Sub-Saharan Africa's post-independence macroeconomic history has been characterized by boom-bust cycles. Growth accelerations have been common, but short lived. Weak policy formulation and implementation led to large external and fiscal imbalances, excessive debt accumulation, volatile inflation, and sharp exchange rate fluctuations. This characterization changed, however, in the mid-1990s, when debt relief and better macroeconomic policy began to provide a source of stability that has helped sustain robust growth throughout much of the region. In resource rich countries, the process was supported over the past few years by a dramatic increase in commodity prices. But resources are only one part of the story. Growth has exhibited impressive resilience even in the face of negative external shocks, as in 2008-2009. While the short-term outlook remains positive, over the medium term policy makers face new challenges. Several countries have the potential to greatly expand natural resource production and become major commodity exporters; volatile resource revenue will complicate their fiscal and monetary planning. Rising investor appetite for financial assets of frontier markets and the development of domestic debt markets will continue to broaden the menu of and trade-offs among financing options at a time when global interest rates may start sloping upward. Complex financing arrangements -- notably for private-public or public-public partnerships in infrastructure -- will become more common and will generate new types of fiscal commitments and contingencies.

Republic of Kenya : Medium Term Debt Management Strategy, 2011/12-2013/14

Ministry of Finance
Fonte: Nairobi Publicador: Nairobi
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Sector Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.33%
The objective of debt management in Kenya is to finance the Government financing requirements at the least cost with a prudent degree of risk. The 2011 Medium Term Debt Strategy (MTDS) outlines the government's preferred strategy to guide debt management operations in FY2011-12. It seeks to balance the cost and risk of both the existing public debt portfolio and alternative borrowing mix. This report explores the objectives of debt management in Kenya, an overview of the previous medium term debt strategy, key developments, characteristics of the existing debt portfolio, outcomes of analysis of strategies, debt sustainability and implementing the 2011 MTDS.

Chile's State-Guaranteed Student Loan Program : Analysis and Evaluation; Programa de Credito Con Aval del Estado (CAE) de Chile

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Education Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.38%
Chile's Programa de Credito con Aval del Estado (CAE in its Spanish acronym) is uniquely positioned to help hundreds of thousands of qualified-but-financially-needy Chileans attend and finish tertiary education. The CAE program was designed to improve access to and equity in tertiary education. In 2010, after only four years of operation, the Program had 216,000 active borrowers or 23 percent of the 940,000 students in pre-grado. Even as the annual number of new beneficiaries levels off, the portfolio will increase for the next several years until reaching a steady state with approximately 460,000 active borrowers by 2016. This report is part of the 2010 Joint Studies Program between the Government of Chile and the World Bank. The purpose of the study is three-fold. First, to evaluate the impact of this program on access to and equity in higher education, taking into account the effectiveness of targeting qualified but financially needy students and its complementarities with other major student aid mechanisms. Second...

Inscrição em dívida ativa por erro em DCTF apresentada pelo contribuinte; Signup for debt error in DCTF presented by taxpayer

Moro Frigi, Natal
Fonte: Universidade Católica de Brasília Publicador: Universidade Católica de Brasília
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: Texto
PT_BR
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O presente Trabalho, de Conclusão de Curso, visa à realização do estudo no tocante à revisão de débito inscrito em dívida ativa, originado na prestação de informações fornecidas pelo sujeito passivo, através da Declaração de Débitos e Créditos Tributários Federais (DCTF). O contribuinte somente toma conhecimento dos erros, por ele cometidos, na DCTF, quando cobrado do valor ou comunicado da inscrição (diferenças) em dívida ativa. Objetiva o trabalho o estudo da possibilidade de ter estes valores revisados administrativamente, pela Receita Federal do Brasil (RFB). Preliminarmente será abordado o surgimento do processo administrativo Fiscal (PAF), regulado pelo Decreto nº 70.235/72, logo em seguida serão apresentados os princípios constitucionais informadores, princípios estes de total relevância ao processo administrativo tributário. Nos capítulos seguintes, serão abordados tais tópicos: atos administrativos, crédito tributário e sua constituição, dívida ativa, prevista no art. 201 do Código Tributário Nacional (CTN) e breves comentários sobre a DCTF. Tal trabalho nos remete ao questionamento de que não teria a RFB, em constatando erro na DCTF, mesmo tendo este sido cometido pelo contribuinte...