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Opportunities for Men and Women : Emerging Europe and Central Asia

Sattar, Sarosh
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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55.64%
The countries of Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia have a long history of striving for gender equality, especially in the public sphere. Not only was this an important goal during the socialist era, but governments continued to pursue gender equality even during the difficult years of transition. The governments in the region allocated substantial resources toward the health and education of both women and men. They also adopted legislation that treated women and men equally in the labor market and they provided child care services. During much of the last century, the region surpassed countries both developing and developed in establishing the equal treatment of women and men. This report reviews changes in gender inequalities in Europe and Central Asia over the last decade, with a particular focus on economic opportunities both in labor markets and in entrepreneurial activity. In addition, given the importance of health and education in opening up opportunities for men and women in the economic sphere...

Making Transport Work for Women and Men : Tools for Task Teams

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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55.62%
The primary objective of this report is to provide brief, relevant, and practical tools for World Bank task teams and their country counterparts to facilitate their work in addressing gender issues in transport policies and projects. This responds to the need, expressed by task teams, to repackage and condense existing gender and transport tools in formats more relevant to transport operations. These tools can also be used for training on gender and transport. The term tool was selected to convey the notion that these materials are nuts and bolts resources to be used when needed, and to emphasize that they are not requirements or directives.

Social Insurance Reform in Jordan : Awareness and Perceptions of Employment Opportunities for Women

Brodmann, Stefanie; Jillson, Irene; Hassan, Nahla
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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55.64%
The new social insurance law introduced by the Jordanian government in 2010 was created in part to improve the likelihood of women s employment through non- and gender specific changes. This study, which comprised individual interviews and focus groups with Jordanian women and men, employers and opinion leaders, was designed to elicit an understanding of their awareness and knowledge of the new law, designed to increase women s employment - primarily the maternity insurance provision. Those affected by the law remained largely uninformed. Many employers communicated that they did not perceive it as cost neutral for their firms. Participants who were aware of the law, viewed the changes positively and believed with the right circumstances, the law could increase female employment.

Violence Against Women and Girls : Introduction

Gennari, Floriza; McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Hidalgo, Nidia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Violence against women and girls (VAWG) is one of the most oppressive forms of gender inequality and stands as a fundamental barrier to equal participation of women and men in social, economic, and political spheres. Such violence impedes gender equality and the achievement of a range of development outcomes. VAWG is a complex and multifaceted problem that cannot effectively be addressed from a single vantage point. The prevention of, and response to, such violence requires coordinated action across multiple sectors. This resource guide was developed through a partnership between the Global Women s Institute (GWI) at George Washington University, the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), and the World Bank Group (WBG). The primary audiences for the guide are IDB and WBG staff and member countries, as well as other development professionals who do not yet have experience addressing VAWG. The purpose of this guide is to provide the reader with basic information on the characteristics and consequences of VAWG, including the operational implications that VAWG can have in several priority sectors of the IDB and WBG. It also offers guidance on how to integrate VAWG prevention and provide quality services to violence survivors across a range of development projects. Lastly...

The salience of the body: transition in sexual self-identity for women living with multiple sclerosis

Kralik, D.; Koch, T.; Eastwood, S.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 EN
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55.69%
AIM: The purpose of this paper is to outline understandings about the construction of sexuality and the impact of a changing body for women living with multiple sclerosis (MS). We suggest that the process of transition towards incorporating the experience of chronic illness into one's life is influenced by the (re)construction of self-identity. DESIGN AND METHODS: A participatory action process guided the research. The women joined the authors for five group sessions that totalled 15 hours of contact time. In addition, we offered women the opportunity for one-to-one interviews at home. Nine women volunteered to participate. This allowed us to gain additional in-depth data about individual experiences. The interpretive framework was guided by the self-identity literature. When reading the transcripts we questioned: What is going on here? What does this say about the construction of self? What does this say about the construction of identity? What influence does the body have in the construction of self-identity? Analysis was collaborative (with the women) and the resultant emerging construction of sexuality is shared in this paper. Data generated during one-to-one interviews are privileged and we include two accounts from women who live with MS. The women's stories focus on sexuality...

Affirmative action for men: 'A test of common sense'?

Bacchi, C.
Fonte: Victorian Council of Social Service Publicador: Victorian Council of Social Service
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 EN
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55.48%

Union of Australian Women 9th Triennial National Conference for peace, equality and higher living standards. UN Decade of Women towards 1985.

Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Physical object Formato: 96cm x 300cm; banner; full colour
EN_AU
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Women make up more than half the world's population, yet perform two thirds of its work, receive one tenth of its income and own less than one hundredth of its property. Increasing global awareness of these and other inequities between the sexes was one of the goals of the United Nations Decade for Women, 1976-1985.

Women, violence & the city: addressing gender-based violence in urban settlements

Oldfield, Rebekah
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.65%
Violence against women is a universal epidemic. It does not discriminate between age, income, ethnicity or religion. One in three women worldwide will experience violence in their lifetime. Despite the monolithic universality of the problem at the global level, the lived experience of being violently abused in the workplace, public spaces or the home is intensely personal. This tension between the particularity of local manifestations of violence against women and the overwhelming prevalence of the issue worldwide confounds traditional aid interventions. Navigating between the local and the global provokes questions about management and governance in aid. Should development be 'top-down' or 'bottom-up'? How can local custom and tradition be reconciled with a 'universal' human rights approach to aid? How do we target an individual's specific encounter with violence, while developing models of aid and assistance that can be replicated on a wider scale? This report seeks to determine how comprehensive the nascent UN Women Safe Cities for Women and Girls Global Programme (2008-2015) will be in addressing key factors contributing to gender-based violence in urban settlements. The 'Port Moresby: A Safer City for Women' pilot initiative (as an intervention representative of the Global Programme) is examined through the conceptual lens of governance...

Zambia's Credit Management Services : Micro-Credit Schemes for Women Enterpreneurs; Services de gestion du credit en Zambie : programmes de microcredit en faveur des femmes chefs d'entreprise

Amuah, Alexander
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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55.57%
Credit Management Services Limited (CMS) was established in 1992 as a subsidiary of Molver and Company, a Zambian accounting company. It provides lending services through four schemes. This Action Research best practice study focuses on micro-credit schemes for women entrepreneurs. CMS lends to members of existing women's clubs. The success of CMS is to a large extent attributable to its innovative approach to micro-credit delivery -- portfolio diversification, use of existing institutions, transparent MIS, and regular club meetings. The CMS management has learned these lessons: a) high potential for rural savings, b) close supervision improves performance; c) women are a lower credit risk; d) the value of strict contract enforcement; and e) critical minimum loan size.

Levelling the Field : Improving Opportunities for Women Farmers in Africa; Harmoniser les règles du jeu : améliorer les perspectives des femmes agricultrices en afrique

World Bank; ONE Campaign
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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55.63%
There is a growing recognition of agriculture's potential to spur growth and reduce poverty in Africa. Agriculture accounts for one-third of the continent's gross domestic product (GDP), and two-thirds of its citizens rely on the sector for their incomes. Investments in agriculture will hence not only improve productivity and the continent's ability to feed a growing population, but will also lift families out of poverty. Over 90 percent of sub-Saharan Africa's extreme poor are engaged in agriculture, and growth originating in the sector is 2-4 times more effective at directly reducing poverty than growth originating in other sectors. Yet agriculture in Africa has not fulfilled its potential, suffering from a lack of investment and insufficient attention from policy-makers. A key hindrance to agricultural development and broader growth is a wide and pervasive gender gap in agricultural productivity. Women comprise nearly half of the labor force in Africa's agriculture sector, and more than half in several countries...

Women's Economic Empowerment in Latin America and the Caribbean : Policy Lessons from the World Bank Gender Action Plan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Country Gender Assessment (CGA)
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Group s gender action plan (GAP) trust fund has financed a series of programs to promote gender equality by empowering women to compete in key markets: land, labor, agriculture, finance and the private sector. Work and family: Latin American and the Caribbean women in search of a new balance offer new analysis of how household decision-making and allocation of resources affects female labor market outcomes in the region. This project summarizes over half a decade of gender-related activities, training, research and results in Latin America and the Caribbean. All of the GAP-funded cases chosen for this project provide succinct policy lessons that were: innovative; results-driven (impact was measured or documented); policy relevant (clear indications for policy makers); methodologically strong; have potential for scaling up or replication. The chapters present policy lessons organized around four themes of vital importance to women and their families: (A) access to labor markets; (B) improved workplace conditions...

Regional Gender Action Plan for the Middle East and North Africa Region, FY13-FY16

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Women in Development and Gender Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is experiencing a time of momentous change. Some countries are in the midst of a profound political, economic, and demographic transition, others are striving to emerge from protracted conflict, yet others are experiencing internal tensions and rising demands for more citizen voice. This period of change and uncertainty presents challenges and opportunities, including with regard to gender issues. Yet some governments may not prioritize gender issues, while in others there could be a regression. MENA Regional Gender Action Plan (RGAP) is part of the World Bank's institutional commitment to operationalize the policy priorities identified in the WDR 2012 and the regional companion to the World Development Report (WDR) 2012. The MENA Regional Gender Action Plan (RGAP) will require that the Bank be nimble and practical in its approach to advancing gender equality in the region. The MENA RGAP provides a two-pronged approach to supporting MENA countries in advancing gender equality: Prong 1: through country programs; and Prong 2: championing dialogue.

Building Capacity to Make Transport Work for Women and Men in Vietnam : Gender and Transport Challenges

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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Women and men use rural and urban transport for different purposes based on their socially determined roles and responsibilities. Poor rural transport systems limit access to markets, education, and health services for all, but even more so for women and girls. Female mobility is often constrained by heavy domestic work-loads and time spent traveling by foot, carrying heavy loads over rough trails. Time poverty combines with cultural restrictions to limit women's and girls' economic, educational opportunities and participation in community decision-making, particularly for ethnic minority women in remote mountainous areas. Gender differences in mobility and access are also affected by ability to pay for transport services. Most women have more limited access to financial and other resources, and inadequate voice in local level transport priority setting than men. Gender and Transport capacity building needs to be grounded in practical, on-the ground country realities in the transport sector and draw on the experience of transport specialists who have addressed gender in their work or clearly understand the entry points. Participatory gender and transport capacity building that provides opportunities for applying what is learned to transport problems is more effective than a lecture format.

Women in Vanuatu : Analyzing Challenges to Economic Participation

Bowman, Chakriya; Cutura, Jozefina; Ellis, Amanda; Manuel, Clare
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
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55.75%
Women's contributions to poverty reduction, economic growth, and private sector development are increasingly recognized globally. A growing amount of research demonstrates the link between women's empowerment and societal well-being. Yet research also indicates that woman's economic contributions continue to lag behind their achievements in health and education, and a variety of barriers still prevent women in many parts of the world from fully contributing to the economy. Women in Vanuatu: analyzing challenges to economic participation is a step toward filling this gap, spurred by the growing recognition in Vanuatu and the broader pacific region of the need to better address gender inequalities. The publication presents a comprehensive analysis of institutional, legal, and regulatory barriers to women's full economic participation in Vanuatu and proposes measures to address these to ensure a level playing field for both women and men. This work has been a collaborative effort between Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) and the World Bank's Gender Group...

Equality for Women : Where Do We Stand on Millennium Development Goal 3?

Buviníc, Mayra; Morrison, Andrew R.; Ofosu-Amaah, A. Waafas; Sjöblom, Mirja
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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55.64%
There is compelling evidence of the importance of gender equality for poverty reduction and sustainable growth. So it should come as no surprise that most development actors-international agencies, bilateral donors, and most developing countries, have an official policy for promoting gender equality. Millennium Development Goal 3 (MDG3) on gender equality and women's empowerment is shared global commitment. With only seven years remaining until the end date for the MDGs, it is an opportune time to take stock of where the world stands in terms of progress toward gender equality. This volume documents trends both on the official MDG3 indicators and on an expanded set of indicators that provide a more complete measure of gender equality, especially in the area of women's economic empowerment. The message that emerges is both hopeful and sobering: progress toward equality in capabilities has been considerable, but progress toward equality of opportunities for women's economic livelihoods leaves much to be desired. Beyond tracking trends toward gender equality...

'We Want What the Ok Tedi Women Have!' Guidance from Papua New Guinea on Women's Engagement in Mining Deals

Menzies, Nicholas; Harley, Georgia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.71%
Despite global gender equality gains in education, life expectancy, and labor force participation, two areas of persistent inequality remain: asset gaps and women's agency. In many developing countries, including Papua New Guinea (PNG), land and natural resources are citizens' key assets. This briefing note, centered on field research in north fly district explores the process of negotiation and the progress in implementation of the Community Mine Continuation Agreements (CMCAs). The purpose of the research and the resulting brief is to understand how the CMCAs came about, assess whether their promise is being realized in practice, and provide guidance for mining and gender practitioners looking to use mining agreements to improve development outcomes for women, both in PNG and further afield. Revised compensation agreements at the Ok Tedi mine, called CMCAs, concluded in 2007 are an encouraging innovation. In these revised CMCAs, women had a seat at the negotiating table and secured an agreement giving them 10 percent of all compensation...

More than Mainstreaming : Promoting Gender Equality and Empowering Women through Post-Disaster Reconstruction

MDF-JRF Secretariat
Fonte: World Bank, Jakarta Publicador: World Bank, Jakarta
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.64%
The Multi Donor Fund for Aceh and Nias (MDF) and the Java Reconstruction Fund (JRF) have played significant roles in the remarkable recovery of Aceh, Nias and Java, following some of the worst disasters in Indonesia in recent years. The MDF and the JRF, which is patterned after it, are each considered a highly successful model for post-disaster reconstruction. This paper presents lessons from the MDF and JRF's efforts to facilitate women's empowerment and gender equality during the reconstruction process. The reconstruction process presented opportunity to address gender issues and other social inequalities. Enhancing the role of women under the MDF and JRF programs saw significant results, such as improved and sustained outcomes in housing and infrastructure, faster economic and livelihood recovery and increased productivity, strengthening of women's legal rights, more representative decision making and enhanced resilience for women and communities.

Gender and Economic Growth in Tanzania : Creating Opportunities for Women

Ellis, Amanda; Blackden, Mark; Cutura, Josephine; MacCulloch, Fiona; Seebens, Holger
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.62%
The World Bank Group recognizes the critical importance of women's contribution to shared economic growth, especially in Africa. Women's important contribution to economic activity in Tanzania is well recognized: In the 2006 World Economic Forum Global Gender Gap report Tanzania was ranked number 1 globally, out of 115 countries, in terms of women's economic participation. This paper includes the following headings: gender and economic growth in Tanzania; starting and closing a business; access to land and site development; access to finance; operating a business -- taxation, infrastructure, and access to day care; labor laws -- how they affect women; access to commercial justice; access to international trade; and the way forward.

Collective Action and Women's Agency : A Background Paper

Evans, Alison; Nambiar, Divya
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.81%
Following the findings and policy messages of the World Development Report (WDR) on gender equality and development 2012, the World Bankapos;s gender and development group are seeking to deepen the evidence base on promoting womenapos;s agency as a basis for enhanced action on gender equality. A component of this work is a review of evidence on the relationship between collective action and womenapos;s agency: whether and how different forms of collective action enhance womenapos;s ability to exercise agency in key domains and the operational implications for Bank policies and programs. The paper seeks to clarify the conceptual terrain of collective action; identify the links with womenapos;s agency; and draw lessons from the evidence on what works and what does not for boosting development and gender-equality outcomes. It draws attention on the somewhat smaller body of empirical research examining the mechanics of collective action and its links with economic and social wellbeing, particularly within developing societies. The findings are complex...

Reactions Toward Affirmative Action Measures for Women

Moscoso,Silvia; García-Izquierdo,Antonio L.; Bastida,María
Fonte: Revista de Psicología del Trabajo y de las Organizaciones Publicador: Revista de Psicología del Trabajo y de las Organizaciones
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2010 ENG
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This paper examines whether there are differences between women and men in their reactions towards different types of specific affirmative action measures (AAMs) for women. 192 women and 128 men from a variety of jobs responded to a survey. We conclude that women react more positively than men towards AAMs, although the reactions of both men and women vary depending on the type of AAM. Thus, reactions become increasingly positive when personnel decisions were made on the basis of merit and increasingly negative when decisions were made on the basis of gender. We also found that reactions towards AAMs are related to the variables "unfairness perception" and "threat perceived to men", and especially to the former. Also, reactions towards the generic concept of affirmative action are more positive than towards specific AA measures. Implications of these results for research and practice are discussed.