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Ato de preenchimento de orgão de administração: natureza jurídica da relação entre o administrador e a sociedade anônima.; Act of fulfilling the administration body

Sacramone, Marcelo Barbosa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/05/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.3%
Com o propósito de conceituar a natureza da relação jurídica entre o administrador e as sociedades anônimas, expõem-se, inicialmente, os centros institucionalizados de poder, suas formas de estruturação e funções desenvolvidas na companhia. Delimita-se, então, a quais desses núcleos de poder as atividades de direção, execução e supervisão ordinárias da atividade corporativa foram atribuídas pela Lei. Caracterizado o administrador, aprecia-se a qualidade na qual este age e produz determinados efeitos com seu comportamento. Para a definição dessa posição ocupada na companhia, afere-se a natureza da atribuição da personalidade jurídica ao ente coletivo e sua independência em face dos membros subjacentes. O vínculo criador dessa posição jurídica, entretanto, não possui fundamento teórico uníssono da doutrina estrangeira, tampouco é consenso entre os doutrinadores brasileiros. Aprecia-se, assim, a adequação dos principais argumentos de cada teoria frente ao ordenamento jurídico pátrio mediante a abordagem dos elementos estruturais do ato de preenchimento de órgão. A modalidade do referido ato é definida pela análise da natureza da eleição, mediante a apreciação da deliberação dos órgãos legitimados...

O Código Florestal e os processos de formulação do mecanismo de compensação de reserva legal (1996-2012): ambiente político e política ambiental; The Forest Act and the formulating processes of the mechanism Compensation of Legal Forest Reserve (1996-2012): political environment and environmental policy.

Cunha, Paulo Roberto
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/05/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.35%
Esta dissertação tem como objetivo analisar os processos político-legislativos que culminaram na criação e nas modificações do mecanismo de compensação de reserva legal, previsto no revogado Código Florestal Brasileiro (Lei Federal nº 4.771/1965) e na lei que o substituiu (Lei Federal nº 12.651/2012). A questão central que orienta esta pesquisa é a seguinte: por que, desde o seu surgimento, a compensação de reserva legal sofreu constantes modificações? As hipóteses para a pergunta formulada consideram que, no complexo jogo político de alteração do Código Florestal, prevaleceram as proposições de dois agrupamentos de atores: o agronegócio (e de outros interesses associados, como mineradoras e hidrelétricas) e a bancada ruralista do Congresso Nacional. Assim, focalizando na compensação de reserva legal, estabeleceu-se um recorte temporal de 1996 a 2012, onde se analisou os processos políticos das seguintes etapas: (i) a formação da agenda governamental em 1996, que culminou na alteração do Código Florestal por medida provisória; (ii) a criação da compensação em 1998; (iii) a modificação desse instrumento no anteprojeto de lei do Conselho Nacional de Meio Ambiente (CONAMA) (2000); e (iv) a alteração proposta pelo projeto de lei aprovado na Comissão Especial Temporária do Código Florestal (2010)...

Ato administrativo invalido e a restauração da legalidade; Invalid administrative act and the restoration of legality

Ciampaglia, Marcia Cristina Nogueira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/05/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.33%
O objetivo da presente dissertação é demonstrar quais são as formas em que a legalidade pode ser restaurada, diante de um ato administrativo inválido, bem como quais os critérios e interesses a serem considerados na opção por uma destas formas. Para tanto, iniciamos pelo estudo do ato administrativo, seus elementos e requisitos de validade. Em seguida, passamos ao estudo do ato administrativo inválido e os diferentes graus de invalidade dependendo do elemento do ato atingido pelo vício. Na sequencia, analisamos os dois princípios que são fundamentais para nortear o administrador na escolha do melhor meio de restaurar a legalidade: o princípio da legalidade e o da segurança jurídica. A partir daí, elencamos as formas de restauração da legalidade por meio da manutenção dos efeitos do ato administrativo inválido (convalidação e suas espécies) e da retirada do ato e extinção dos seus efeitos (revogação e anulação). Ainda sob a ótica da restauração de legalidade, analisamos os institutos da prescrição e decadência, uma vez que estes constituem limites à invalidação. Por fim, demonstramos a imprescindibilidade da instauração do processo administrativo para restauração da legalidade, que em tese pode lesar direitos e interesses de terceiros.; The objective of this dissertation is to demonstrate what are the ways in which legality can be restored before an invalid administrative act...

Publicidade : o consumo e sua lingua; Advertising : the act of consuming and its language

Newton Guilherme Vale Carrozza
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/04/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.33%
Este estudo tem como proposta refletir sobre os efeitos da publicidade no processo de subjetivação que caracteriza a forma-sujeito histórica contemporânea. Para tanto, procuramos articular os pressupostos teóricos e analíticos da Analise de Discurso que nos permitem pensar nessa forma-sujeito de direito se estruturando a partir das relações que se estabelecem dentro de uma formação ideológica capitalista. Nesse sentido, o consumo não pode ser tomado separadamente nessa relação, assim como a publicidade não deve ser pensada como um simples instrumento a ser por ele utilizada. Nessa incursão, é possível tomar o consumo como gesto, onde se articulam elementos históricos, políticos e simbólicos, capazes de inscreverem os sujeitos em determinadas formações discursivas no momento mesmo em que se constituem como consumidores de determinados produtos e não de outros. Esse deslocamento do olhar sobre o consumo possibilita se pensar as contradições latentes produzidas no funcionamento conjunto que se estabelece entre o consumo e a publicidade. Partindo disso, as análises demonstraram que se trata de tomar a publicidade em sua especificidade, como forma material que apresenta estruturas-funcionamentos próprios, que nos possibilitam formular a idéia de que ela se configura como a forma pela qual o consumo se diz...

Enhancing surveillance through the PATRIOT Act and the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Amendment Act, and their impact on civil liberties : can human security be compromised by securitization?

Silva, Ana Vanessa Miranda Antunes da
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.35%
Dissertação de mestrado em Relações Internacionais; The post-9/11 period, particularly in the US, is demarcated by exacerbated security concerns and the emergence of a state of exception that marked the proliferation of exceptional legislative measures. The enhancement of surveillance surfaced as one the main tools to prevent future terrorist attacks. Therefore, the analysis of this dissertation will focus specifically on exceptional provisions that reinforce surveillance capabilities of American authorities: section 215 of the PATRIOT Act and section 702 of the FAA. Focusing on the US case-study and combining the securitization theory and human security framework, this dissertation intends to demonstrate that an intensification of terrorism securitization occurred after September 2001 generating exceptional legislative measures, whose impact upon civil liberties, and subsequently human security was felt. A contextual operationalization of human security is thus presented, defining it as the freedom from material violence – physical threats to security – and the freedom from immaterial violence – the disrespect for civil and political rights. The transnational character of terrorism, the ever-increasing dynamics of globalization and technological development have all contributed to the increment of transnational mass surveillance. Consequently...

Missed Opportunities: The Vaccine Act of 1813

Singla, Rohit K.
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Paper (for course/seminar/workshop)
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This Paper simply exposes discontinuities between the theories and the history of the Vaccine Act, suggesting lines of further study. The focus throughout this Paper is on "getting the facts right," i.e., thoroughly recounting the history of the Vaccine Act. Part II of the paper provides some necessary historical background regarding the horrors of smallpox, the breakthrough of vaccination, and the difficulties encountered in implementing vaccination in early 19th century America. In particular, the problem of maintaining a steady supply of vaccine is described. Part III analyzes the very limited role assumed by state and local governments in the opening decades of the 19th century. Part IV deals at length with the legislative history of the 1813 Act itself including historical explanations for the Act and public opposition to Dr. Smith. Part V discusses Congressional efforts between 1816 and 1820 to expand the scope of the Vaccine Act. Part VI details the facts of the Tarboro Tragedy and the analyzes the causes of the ensuing repeal of the Vaccine Act in 1822. Part VII very briefly recounts two later 19th century efforts to revive the idea of a "National Vaccine Institution." Part VIII contains a brief conclusion.

The Lanham Act and the FD&C Act: Shaping the Law of False Advertising into a Tool for Drug Manufacturers to Self-Regulate Their Industry and Protect Consumers

Turko, Jessica
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Paper (for course/seminar/workshop)
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.33%
While Section 43(a) of the Lanham Act has the potential to become an extremely useful tool to ensure competitive fairness and consumer safety in the pharmaceutical industry, recent cases show that numerous obstacles prevent Lanham Act plaintiffs from prevailing in their lawsuits. In this Paper, I will examine how the procedural requirements of false advertising law and substantive FDA doctrines combine to hinder drug manufacturer-plaintiffs’ chances for success in Lanham Act claims. I will advocate greater clarification of the evidentiary standards and standing requirements for Lanham Act claims and suggest reforms for FDA’s regulations regarding manufacturers of generic drugs and foreign manufacturers whose drugs are not approved for use in the United States. I will describe the elements necessary for a successful claim under the Lanham Act using the recent case of Zeneca, Inc. v. Eli Lilly & Co., 1999 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 10852 (S.D.N.Y. July 19, 1999) as an example. Finally, I will explore alternatives to private litigation for false advertising cases, including trademark infringement litigation, lawsuits initiated by FDA and the Federal Trade Commission (“FTCâ€)...

Trends in Availability and Prices of Subsidized ACT over the First Year of the AMFm: Evidence from Remote Regions of Tanzania

Alphs, Sarah; Arkedis, Jean; Larson, Peter S; Massaga, Julius; Sabot, Oliver; Cohen, Jessica L; Yadav, Prashant
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Background: The Affordable Medicines Facility for malaria (AMFm) is a pilot supra-national subsidy program that aims to increase access and affordability of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) in public sector clinics and private retail shops. It is unclear to what extent the AMFm model will translate into wide scale availability and price reductions in ACT, particularly for rural, remote areas where disparities in access to medicines often exist. This study is the first to rigorously examine the availability and price of subsidized ACT during the first year of the AMFm, measured through retail audits in remote regions of Tanzania. Methods: Periodic retail audits of Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets (ADDOs) were conducted in two remote regions of Tanzania (Mtwara and Rukwa). Temporal and spatial variation in ACT availability and pricing were explored. A composite measure of ADDO remoteness, using variables, such as distance to suppliers and towns, altitude and population density, was used to explore whether ACT availability and price vary systematically with remoteness. Results: Between February 2011 and January 2012, the fraction of ADDOs stocking AMFm-ACT increased from 25% to 88% in Mtwara and from 3% to 62% in Rukwa. Availability was widespread...

Improving Channels of Communication with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Residents in the ACT

Goodman, Jake
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.35%
Since the European colonization of Australia, they have had problems in their interactions with the Indigenous people. From exiling them from their land to the Stolen Generation, Europeans have continuously failed to find ways to work with the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people who originally lived across Australia. In part due to these failures, the current Indigenous population leads a far more difficult life than their non-Indigenous neighbors. On average they tend to have a lower life expectancy, face higher rates of teen pregnancy, and have more problems in caring for their children. Because of these failings the country has taken notice and has started to take steps to improve communication with the community, in order to better understand their problems and find ways to remedy them. Within the ACT these steps are beginning to take shape, with the recent election of a body of Indigenous people to represent their community. This however, on its own, is only one necessary action for the improvement of the lives of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait slanders within the territory. In order to improve the communication with the Indigenous community within the ACT, steps other than working through the ACT Indigenous Elected body are possible and primarily straightforward to achieve. By looking at steps other states and countries have done with to improve their interaction with their Indigenous populations and applying the lessons from them to the ACT. With this in mind...

The Export Administration Act of 1979 and computer exports to China

Perez, Elizabeth D.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Thesis; Thesis Formato: xvi, 113p. : ill. ;
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited.; Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited.; The importance of computers to the US military and national defense is significant and multifaceted. The statute that regulates computer exports, the Export Administration Act of 1979 (EAA79), has been interpreted both strictly and loosely by policymakers, executive agencies, and export control regimes. The result has been a persistent struggle in balancing the competing interests of national security and commerce. An urgent need exists to rewrite EAA79, yet Congress has not been able to come to a consensus due to overlapping and conflicting committee interests within and across the chambers. While Congress continues to debate rewriting EAA79, the President has been able to adjust the impact of US export control laws on foreign countries, utilizing export controls as means of advancing US foreign policy abroad. In the case of the People's Republic of China, the White House has loosened export controls for high-performance computers to that country in order to encourage free trade and private enterprise.; Captain, United States Marine Corps

Mainstreaming equality in the ACT: an equality duty for the ACT Discrimination Act

Szabo, Gabrielle
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.46%
The Discrimination Act has played an essential role in protecting the right to equality in the ACT but has not been substantially reviewed since its enactment in 1991 . The HRC requested this report to aid that review process. The report considers the need to include an equality duty in the Discrimination Act and formulates a duty based on examples in proposed and existing discrimination legislation. Part 1: Why the ACT Discrimination Act needs a positive duty All existing Australian discrimination law prohibits discrimination on listed grounds. Those laws are 'negative' because they create a duty not to discriminate. 'Positive' duties require duty-bearers to act, an equality duty might for example, require duty-bearers to promote equality. The Discrimination Act prohibits discrimination rather than imposing positive duties. Aside from the HRC's own-motion inquiry power, the Act is a 'complaintsled' model that only applies once a complaint has been received. Legislation that depends on complaints is only as powerful as the people who rely on it. Victims of discrimination often come from the most vulnerable groups in society, while those responsible for discrimination can be well-financed, experienced litigants. Positive duties shift the responsibility to implement discrimination law to duty-bearers...

Desenho de um cenário educativo para museus com o uso de TRIZ e ACT; Diseño de un escenario educativo para museos con el uso de TRIZ y ACT; Design of a Learning Scenario for Museums Using TRIZ and ACT

Ochoa Angrino, Solanlly; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali; Aguilar Zambrano, Jaime A.; Navarro Newball, Andrés A.; Jaramillo Ramírez, Andrés; Henao Romero, Leonardo
Fonte: Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali Publicador: Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; "Artículo revisado por pares"; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artículo Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf; application/pdf
SPA; ENG; POR
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Escopo. Foi feito um trabalho interdisciplinar que utilizou a Teoria de solução de problemas inventivos (TRIZ) e o Análise cognitivo de tarefas (ACT) para orientar o desenho de um cenário de aprendizagem para um museu de ciências naturais. Metodologia. Participaram 23 pessoas: seis engenheiros de sistemas, um engenheiro industrial, um engenheiro eléctrico, dois psicólogas, um biólogo, uma bioquímica, um físico, um técnico museológico, um historiador, um guia de museu, um desenhador gráfico e seis estudantes de engenheira. O processo de análise foi feito em duas fases. Na primeira, foi analisado o componente técnico do problema usando TRIZ, na segunda, foi analisado o componente educativo utilizando o ACT. Resultados. A aplicação de TRIZ permitiu identificar que o cenário de aprendizagem devia ser divertido, durável, de fácil uso e integração do uso de novas tecnologias com fins educativos, e que devia implicar pouca assistência dos guias do museu. O ACT possibilitou entender que a função principal do cenário de aprendizagem era promover a compreensão de conceitos involucrados na relação entre pessoas, pantanais e aves migratórias. Para isto, foi desenhada a estrutura de um videojogo educativo. Conclusão. O desenho de este videojogo prioriza os componentes educativos...

The Hatch-Waxman (Im)Balancing Act

Karbalai, Hasneen
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Paper (for course/seminar/workshop)
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.38%
The Hatch-Waxman Act was intended to establish a balance between the competing interests of brand name and generic drug companies, fostering innovation while giving the public access to a wider selection of affordable drugs. However, abuses of certain provisions of the Act threaten this balance, and broad judicial interpretations ascribed to other provisions of the Act may have the unintended consequence of injuring the fledgling research tools industry. In Chapter I, this paper will navigate through the maze of the Hatch-Waxman Act’s statutory amendments, describing the Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) and the Patent Term Extension procedures created by the Act, the functions that Congress probably intended these features of the Act to serve, and how successful the Act has been at meeting these goals. In Chapter II, this paper will focus on those provisions of the Act that have had the unintended consequence of prolonging brand name drug companies’ market exclusivity, and incentivizing collusion between brand name and generic drug companies, to the detriment of the public. Special emphasis will be placed on Congress' attempts at legislative reforms that involve either closing these loopholes or increasing the Federal Trade Commission's (FTC) and Justice Department's enforcement power...

Thinking Like a Mountain: The American Antiquities Act in Its Political and Ideological Milieu

Scheirer, Daniel II
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' thesis
Publicado em 05/08/2015 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The nucleus of this project is a text, the American Antiquities Act. It was the desire to understand this text more fully on its own terms that compelled me to begin asking questions like: “What can this document reveal about the historical moment from which it emerged?” “How does it bear witness to, and itself help to effect a fundamental shift in the way we think about the land we inhabit?“ What, in essence, is its intellectual and historical genealogy?” Today, the Antiquities Act may seem to be an uncomplicated reality, its raison d'etre self-evident and easily taken for granted; but it does not exist, nor was it created, in a vacuum. The Antiquities Act is a testament to the will of a society to reorient itself towards a new relationship with the natural world. In examining this reorientation, this project explores major historical influences that spurred the growth of conservationist ideals in the United States, highlighting key individuals in order to understand their motivations and trace the formation of their support for the Antiquities Act. Finally, it examines the document itself and discusses, in part, the legislative history and legacy of the act. As these inquiries demonstrate, the American Antiquities Act was not the inevitable outcome of any natural or inexorable processes at work in American culture or society. Rather...

The Child Justice Act: a detailed consideration of section 68 as a point of departure with respect to the sentencing of young offenders

Terblanche,SS
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.33%
The Child Justice Act 75 of 2008 establishes a criminal justice system for child accused, separate from the criminal justice system which continues to apply for adult accused in South Africa. The Act aims to keep children out of detention and away from the formal criminal justice system, mainly through diversion. When these interventions would be inadequate or unsuccessful, the Act provides for child offenders to the tried and sentenced in child justice courts. Until now there has been little discussion of the details of the provisions dealing with sentencing. Sentencing in a child justice court is regulated by chapter 10 of the Act and section 68 is the first section in this chapter. This section effectively amounts to the "jurisdictional" provision of the new child sentencing system: it not only mandates child justice courts to impose their sentences in terms of the Act, but also provides the first set of boundaries (or the first part of the framework) within which sentencing should take place. Despite its brevity, section 68 is not without interpretative challenges. Of course, it has to be interpreted within the context of the entire Act. Explaining this context is the first function of this article. The various aspects of section 68 are further critically explored and discussed.

An embarrassment of riches or a profusion of confusion? An evaluation of the continued existence of the Civil Union Act 17 of 2006 in the light of prospective domestic partnerships legislation in South Africa

Smith,BS; Robinson,JA
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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As it stands, South African family law currently holds that the Marriage Act 25 of 1961 applies exclusively to the solemnisation of heterosexual civil marriages while same-sex couples have no choice but to formalise their relationships in terms of the Civil Union Act 17 of 2006. In addition, the legal position is complicated by the fact that the latter Act not only allows both heterosexual and homosexual couples to conclude a civil union, but also provides that a civil union may take the form of either a marriage or a civil partnership, both of which enjoy the same legal recognition as, and give rise to the same legal consequences, as a civil marriage under the Marriage Act. In January 2008, a draft Domestic Partnerships Bill saw the light of day, the potential enactment of which casts significant doubt as to whether the prevailing framework should be retained. With this potential development in mind, this paper considers the desirability of maintaining the "separate but equal" status quo by: (a) comparing the South African Law Reform Commission's pre-Civil Union Act proposals with the approach eventually adopted by the legislature; (b) comparing and contrasting the post-Civil Union Act position in South Africa with that of an established and well-ordered jurisdiction such as the Netherlands and...

The National Credit Act regarding suretyships and reckless lending

Stoop,PN; Kelly-Louw,M
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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In terms of the National Credit Act a credit provider may conclude a credit agreement with a consumer only after he has made a proper financial assessment and concludes that the consumer will be able to satisfy all of his obligations under all his credit agreements. However, a practice of not conducting this affordability assessment has evolved amongst certain credit providers where the credit agreement involved is a suretyship agreement. This article investigates whether or not a suretyship agreement is indeed a credit agreement in terms of the National Credit Act, and if a financial assessment should be conducted in the case of a suretyship agreement. The main aim of the article is to try to identify what the concept of a "credit guarantee", as defined in the Act, encompasses and ultimately if the common-law contract of suretyship falls under this definition. Our conclusion is that "credit guarantee" is as vague and problematic as many of the other definitions in the Act. If one reads the Act in its entirety (including the regulations to the Act), it seems unlikely that the legislature intended not to regulate common-law suretyships also.

"Just say sorry?" Ubuntu, Africanisation and the child justice system in the Child Justice Act 75 of 2008

Sloth-Nielsen,J; Gallinetti,J
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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In the midst of concerns about serious offences committed by young people, the Child Justice Act is the first formal legislative step to introduce restorative justice in South Africa, and promotes reconciliation and problem solving as an approach to the criminal behaviour of youth. This article analyses the new place of restorative justice and ubuntu in the Act through an analysis of the Preamble, Objects and General Principles sections of the Act as well as the chapters on diversion and sentencing. It notes that there is a clear and consistent framework for restorative justice and ubuntu in the Act that accords with the Constitutional Court's understanding of both concepts. In addition, the article also enquires if the inclusion of these concepts has created a criminal justice system for children that does not hold them properly accountable for their actions. The question as to whether or not the Act has created a "just say sorry" regime is answered in the negative by way of reference to the numerous checks and balances included in the Act by the legislature. In this context it is contended that the inclusion of ubuntu-related ideologies remains relevant to the development of indigenous and locally constructed images of Africanised forms of justice...

The rights granted to trade unions under the Companies Act 71 of 2008

Schoeman,HC
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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With the entering into force of the Companies Act 71 of 2008 in 2011 a number of rights were granted to trade unions by the act. The Companies Act 71 of 2008 not only grants rights to registered trade unions, as is the case in labour law, but in some cases it grants rights to trade unions representing employees at the workplace. It is argued that rights afforded to trade unions by the act ought to be granted only to trade unions that are registered in terms of the Labour Relations Act 66 of 1995. In addition, it is also argued that the Companies Act 71 of 2008 ought in principle to differentiate between rights that are granted to registered trade unions representing employees at the workplace and rights that are granted to registered majority trade unions, or at the least to sufficiently representative trade unions.

"Pay now, argue later" rule - before and after the Tax Administration Act

Keulder,C
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The South African Revenue Service (SARS) is entrusted with the duty of collecting tax on behalf of the South African government. In order to ensure effective and prompt collection of taxes, the payment of tax is not suspended pending an objection or an appeal, unless directed otherwise. This is also known as the "pay now, argue later" rule, and, for value-added tax purposes, is provided for in terms of section 36 of the Value-Added Tax Act 89 of 1991. The "pay now, argue later" rule in terms of section 36 of the Value-Added Tax Act prima facie infringes on a taxpayer's right of access to the courts as envisaged in section 34 of the Constitution. This is due to the fact that a taxpayer is obliged to pay tax before being afforded the opportunity to challenge the assessment in a court. In Metcash Trading Ltd v Commissioner for the South African Revenue Service, the Constitutional Court held the "pay now, argue later" rule in terms of section 36 to be constitutional. Olivier, however, does not agree with the court on several matters. Amongst the problems she indicates are that the taxpayer does not have access to the courts at the time the rule is invoked, and that the court did not consider the fact that there might be less invasive means available which would ensure that SARS's duty is balanced with the taxpayer's right of access to the courts. Guidelines were also issued which provide legal certainty regarding the factors SARS may consider in determining whether the payment of tax should be suspended or not. These guidelines also evoked some points of criticism. Since 1 October 2012...