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Competition in Weapon Systems Acquisition: Cost Analyses of Some Issues

Boger, Dan C.; Nussbaum, Daniel A.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
The Twenty-Third Annual Department of Defense Cost Analysis Symposium was held in Leesburg, Virginia, on 6-8 September 1989. A number of the papers presented at that symposium, as well as a roundtable discussion held at the symposium, were analyses of the costs associated with alternative competition strategies in weapon system acquisition. The papers and the transcript of the roundtable discussion included in this compendium were selected from those presented at the symposium which addressed the general area of weapon system competition. The papers and discussion fall into three board areas addressing the costs and benefits of competition: methodological analyses, empirical analyses, and analyses of policy and implementation. they represent those efforts which best reflect state-of-the-art research into the issues surrounding the costs associated with alternative strategies for weapon system competition. Keywords: Acquisition, Department of Defense, Weapon systems, Cost analysis, Theses, Logistics management. (RWJ)

Navy Acquisition Cost Study, Draft

Grosson, J. F.
Fonte: Fort Belvoir, VA: Defense Systems Management College Publicador: Fort Belvoir, VA: Defense Systems Management College
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.04%
The thesis of the attached report is that weapons acquisition cost growth can be characterized with a fair degree of accuracy. The causes of cost growth can be categorized generally as being functions of: B-C-T-T

Rethinking Acquisition Reform: Cost Growth Solutions May Aggravate the More Important Problems

Phil Candreva
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.31%
Proceedings Paper (for Acquisition Research Program); There is increasing dissatisfaction with cost growth in major defense acquisition programs. Cost growth crowds out other investments, stresses budgets or causes schedule slips, all of which result in a military force that is less capable than previously expected. Several recent studies have recommended two categories of reforms: capital budgeting reforms seek stability in acquisition accounts, and rational cost model reforms seek to reduce the percentage increase of final cost over budget estimates. In both categories, undesirable secondary effects may be worse than the desirable primary effects; specifically, reforms that reduce cost growth may do so by driving total costs higher. This study examines these reforms and discusses their secondary effects. The paper concludes that the current practice of generating low estimates, coupled with dissatisfaction with cost growth may best serve to limit total cost.

Volume I: Defense Acquisition in Transition

NPS Acquisition Research Program
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
Proceedings Paper (for Acquisition Research Program); For the first time in recent memory, acquisition reform has emerged as a significant topic in Presidential discourse. While procurement surfaced occasionally as a second-tier issue in last fall's debates, its importance has increased considerably in the current economic crisis. The massive federal spending of recent months has highlighted the need for cost-savings elsewhere, and the President has announced acquisition reform as a priority of his Administration to help achieve those savings.

Volume II: Defense Acquisition in Transition

NPS Acquisition Research Program
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
Proceedings Paper (for Acquisition Research Program); For the first time in recent memory, acquisition reform has emerged as a significant topic in Presidential discourse. While procurement surfaced occasionally as a second-tier issue in last fall's debates, its importance has increased considerably in the current economic crisis. The massive federal spending of recent months has highlighted the need for cost-savings elsewhere, and the President has announced acquisition reform as a priority of his Administration to help achieve those savings.

Addressing Cost Increases in Evolutionary Acquisition

Douglas A. Bodner; Farhana Rahman; Bill Rouse
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
Proceedings Paper (for Acquisition Research Program); Acquisition programs are under pressure to deliver increasingly complex capability to the field without the cost growth associated with recent programs. Evolutionary acquisition was adopted to help reduce system cost (through the use of mature technologies) and to improve system performance (through faster deployment of incremental capability). While the ultimate verdict is not yet in on this decision, our previous simulation-based results have demonstrated that evolutionary acquisition can deliver improved capability more quickly than traditional acquisition, but that cost may actually increase over that of traditional acquisition. This is due to the overhead resulting from more frequent system deployment and update cycles. Are there other factors that can help reduce the cost of evolutionary acquisition? This paper investigates the role of system modularity and production level in the cost of evolutionary acquisition. Modularity typically imposes upfront costs in design and development, but may result in downstream savings in production and sustainment (including deployment of evolutionary new capability). A simulation experiment is conducted to determine under which conditions cost increases are minimized.

Enabling Software Acquisition Improvement: Government and Industry Software Development Team Acquisition Model

Joe Heil
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.05%
Proceedings Paper (for Acquisition Research Program); The growth, complexity, and reliance on software (SW) as part of the Department of Defense and Navy (DoD/Navy) warfare systems is continuing to increase. This increase in SW complexity and reliance has been accompanied by an increase in well documented SW intensive system acquisition cost, schedule and technical performance failures. The DoD/Navy is not consistently performing as a smart buyer of software intensive systems. The government and private industry have not been successful in applying the latest software methodologies and technologies nor consistently providing high quality and reliable systems that are delivered on schedule and within budget. The typical acquisition approach utilized over the past several decades of relying primarily on private industry for architecting, designing and implementing SW intensive systems has resulted in the loss of government in-house applied SW expertise necessary to achieve truly open architected systems and systems-of-systems. The key enablers for improving SW intensive system acquisition are the reconstitution and utilization of government in-house software subject matter experts (SMES) that can lead and work with industry SW engineers as part of an integrated SW Development Team.

When More is Better : Design Principles for Prediction Markets in Defense Acquisition Cost Forecasting

Taroon Aggarwal; Ricardo Valerdi; Matthew Potoski
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
Proceedings Paper (for Acquisition Research Program); This paper discusses the applicability of prediction markets in Defense Acquisition projects, specifically in estimating their cost and schedule. Several temporal and political factors can sometimes limit the effectiveness of traditional methods of project tracking and cost estimation, which may be overcome by using prediction markets. A prediction market provides an environment for traders to buy and sell contracts whose values are tied to uncertain future events. Efficient prediction markets have been shown to outperform available polls and other forecasting mechanisms. There are various prediction markets based on different models and algorithms. Our focus is not to analyze these models, but to identify the design principles of implementing a proven prediction market model in a defense acquisition project. Some pilot studies have been carried out that provide insight into the behavior of the market participants. We found increased involvement of participants and greater interest in the projects to be major benefits. The areas that need to be considered in the design and implementation of markets are related to the participants (like, which traders to include); the information to be collected...

When More is Better : Design Principles for Prediction Markets in Defense Acquisition Cost Forecasting

Ricardo Valerdi; Matthew Potoski; Taroon Aggarwal
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.93%
Symposium Presentation (for Acquisition Research Program); Symposium Presentation

The Effect of Processes and Incentives on Acquisition Cost Growth

Doug Bodner; Bill Rouse; I-Hsiang Lee
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.34%
Proceedings Paper (for Acquisition Research Program); Cost growth continues to be a serious concern in major acquisition programs. A variety of causes have been identified for cost growth, including low initial cost estimates, complex acquisition processes, and immature technologies. Incentive-based systems have been employed in an attempt at cost savings, with mixed results at best. This paper examines the role of process and incentive characteristics in cost growth. In particular, we study process concurrency, types of incentive contracts employed and the transfer point from cost-plus to fixed-price contracts, and the resulting effects on cost growth in the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter program. The F-35 program currently is in low-rate initial production. The emerging paradigm of organizational simulation is used in this study, since it combines process representations to model acquisition processes and agent representations to model multi-actor behavior, including reaction to incentives. Simulation experiments are conducted and analyzed to determine the effects of the factors described above on cost growth.

The Effect of Processes and Incentives on Acquisition Cost Growth

Doug Bodner; Bill Rouse; I-Hsiang Lee
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.93%
Symposium Presentation (for Acquisition Research Program); Symposium Presentation

Cost benefit analysis workshop delivered in Montenegro

Meeks, Lori
Fonte: Monterey, California ; Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California ; Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.9%
NPS delivery of a "Building integrity in defense acquisition: cost benefit analysis" workshop to staff from the Ministry of Defense and Armed Forces of Montenegro.

Peruvian weapon system acquisition process

Escobedo, Arnaldo C.
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: ix, 114 p. ill.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; Historically, the acquisition of a weapon systems in the Republic of Peru has been made on the basis of system effectiveness and initial acquisition cost, with little or no consideration being given to operating and support costs that will be incurred after the system is deployed in the field. Peru acquires most of its sophisticated weapon systems from foreign countries. Under this situation, broad understanding of Life Cycle Cost (LCC) concept and techniques are needed. This thesis introduces the LCC concept, life cycle costing techniques and the methodology for Life Cycle Cost analysis in Peruvian Weapon Systems acquisition process. The research aims to show the effects that United Foreign Military Sales has in the Third World, the technology transfer as a decisive influence on the daily lives of most of the world population and the Soviet Union's arms trade with the Third World, the life cycle concept in Peruvian weapon acquisition process, and its fit into known economic analysis techniques.; Colonel, Peruvian Air Force

Case study of the U.S. Army's should-cost management implementation

Choi, Yeong Sam M.; Morneault, Jason A.; Poole, Daniel J.
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; On May 22, 2009, President Barack Obama signed into law the Weapons Systems Acquisition Reform Act (WSARA). The intent of this law is to reform acquisition processes, control unsustainable cost growth, and make programs more affordable. In 2010, despite WSARA, program cost, schedule overruns, and less-than-desirable performance were still prevalent in DoD acquisition. In response, Ashton Carter, Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics (USD[AT&L]), issued his Better Buying Power (BBP) memorandum directing the implementation of Should-Cost Management (SCM). In April 2011, Carter issued an additional directive that should-cost estimates would be required for all acquisition category (ACAT) programs and that SCM initiative progress would be briefed at every milestone review. In November 2012, Frank Kendall, Carters successor, issued an update to the original BBP initiative (BBPi), reinforcing the success of the BBPi. Kendalls update incorporated lessons learned from two years of implementation and feedback from the acquisition workforce. Our case study examines how the Army has implemented SCM as part of the BBPi. We analyze actions taken from the program manager to the Army acquisition executive using Program Executive Office (PEO) Aviation as our case study focus.; Major...

Life cycle cost: an examination of its application in the United States, and potential for use in the Australian Defense Forces

Clarke, John D.
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: viii, 108 p. ill.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.04%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; This research has two objectives: firstly, to examine the application of life cycle costing in the United States; and secondly, to discuss its potential for use in the decision making of the Australian Defense Forces. It has been found that despite almost 30 years of application in the United States, life cycle cost for the most part, is given little real attention in decision making. Reasons for this include: an institutional emphasis that accords greater attention to acquisition cost than life cycle cost; and the dominance of a budgeteers view of life cycle cost as a technique for affordability analysis, an approach which the current state of the data does not readily support. Life cycle cost's greatest potential is as a criteria to evaluate and tradeoff design and logistics issues, but it receives comparatively little emphasis in the U.S. in these areas. For Australia to avoid the problems experienced in the U.S., there needs to be acceptance at all levels of the concept of life cycle cost, and what it is trying to achieve. Since the cornerstone of the techniques of life cycle cost analysis is the data, an accounting system capable of capturing direct and indirect costs is needed. This study contains seven broad points for Australia to consider in implementing the techniques and concept of life cycle cost.; Lieutenant...

Analysis of implementing lifetime energy cost, including fully burdened cost of fuel and energy footprints of contractors, as mandatory decision factors in navy acquisition

Murphy, Doug; Wilson, Chris
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xvi, 79 p. : ill.( some color) ; 28 cm.
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.35%
MBA Professional Report; The Secretary of the Navy (SECNAV), the Honorable Ray Mabus, in an address to the Navy Energy Forum, announced as a new acquisition policy that the "lifetime energy cost of a building or a system, and the fully burdened cost of fuel in powering those, will be a mandatory evaluation factor used when awarding contracts." Secretary Mabus went on to say, "we will also use the overall energy efficiency and the energy footprint of a competing company as an additional factor in acquisition decisions" (Mabus, 2009). Secretary Mabus made this announcement and shared three other green and efficiency goals for the Department of the Navy. His address now puts the onus on the Navy acquisition community to implement the broad policy goals that he outlined. A challenge to the community will be how to implement these goals with a uniform, objective, and definable standard that is able to withstand the scrutiny of congress, which requires full and open competition, the business models of the defense industry, and the legal challenges that are sure to follow as a result of competition. This project analyzes the challenges of implementing Secretary Mabus's announcement. Our analysis further defines the problem, offers recommendations for proceeding...

It's Time to Take the Chill Out of Cost Containment and Re-energize Key Acquisition Practice

Robert Tremaine; Donna Seligman
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
Proceedings Paper (for Acquisition Research Program); Unless program managers (PM) tackle cost containment head-on, future weapon system acquisition successes may be jeopardized, resulting in fewer products and services to equip the nation''s warfighters. The United States can ill afford any decrease in its preparedness when the nation is currently waging war on two fronts. This research examines cost containment in the context of Total Life Cycle Cost Management. A more thorough understanding and aggressive application of cost-containment strategies could conceivably shift acquisition outcomes to a more cost-effective posture. Responding to a survey conducted as part of this research, 887 Department of Defense (DoD) acquisition professionals provided input on cost containment, including tool types and associated processes. Of those 887 respondents, 223 were current or former DoD PMs with over 11 years of experience''the primary basis of this research analysis.; Acquisition Research Program

It's Time to Take the Chill Out of Cost Containment and Re-energize a Key Acquisition Tool

Rob Tremaine; Donna Seligman
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
Symposium Presentation (for Acquisition Research Program); Symposium Presentation; Acquisition Research Program

Cost analysis for dual source weapon procurement

Greer, Willis R.; Liao, Shu S.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Relatório
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.98%
It is widely held that competition can produce savings in the acquisition cost of weapon systems. However, a recent study of seven programs shows only three generated sufficient savings to offset the investments required to obtain them. Our study finds that the savings depends on how 'hungry' producers are. When a loss has resulted, capacity utilization has been above 80%; Chief of Naval Research, Arlington, VA 22217; http://archive.org/details/costanalysisford00gree; sponsored by the Office of Naval Research under work order N0001483WR30236.; NA

Action Simulations in Acquisition Cost Estimates

Tal, Aner
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 281230 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%

Consumers often lack objective information about product acquisition costs. In such cases, consumers must rely on estimates of acquisition costs in making their choices. The current work examines the influence of mental simulations of product acquisition on estimates of acquisition costs. We suggest that simulations of product acquisition lead estimates to reflect the influence of consumers' current physical states on the experience of a particular cost. Specifically, carrying a heavy burden leads consumers to estimate higher distances to targets when they engage in simulation of walking to targets, but not when they do not engage in such simulation.

Simulation can be either deliberate or spontaneous. Deliberate simulation is engaged when consumers intentionally simulate an action. Spontaneous simulation requires particular conditions for its occurrence, but does not require conscious intent. The specific conditions for the occurrence of spontaneous simulation are the availability of situational inputs and that action be possible in the given situation. We support these ideas in a series of studies.

Study 1 demonstrates preference shifts that occur as a consequence of participants carrying heavy burdens. Participants in this study shifted their preference from an option located a visible but undefined distance away towards one that was available at their current location. Study 2 supports the theory that this shift occurs as a consequence of alterations in estimates of acquisition costs by showing that burdened participants estimate distances as greater than do unburdened participants.

Study 3 provides evidence for the role of mental simulation in producing such changes in estimated acquisition costs by showing that the distance expansion first demonstrated in study 2 occurs when targets are visible...