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Progress report on gender equality, poverty eradication and the Millennium Development Goals in the Caribbean

Charles-Gumbs, Ingrid; Stuart, Sheila
Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
EN
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Includes bibliography; This report on sGender Equality, Poverty Reduction and the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in the Caribbean Region{esc}g3{esc}s seeks to highlight the progress made during the period 2007-2011 and identify gaps that need to be closed if the MDGs are to be realized by the 2015 deadline or very soon thereafter. It is divided into 10 sections: Section one is an introduction to the report; section two addresses the issues of gender and poverty and their impact on the other MDGs: Section three deals with Millennium Development Goals achievement in the Caribbean; section four examines Progress Made Toward the Achievement of the MDGs; Section five addresses Challenges Faced by States in the Achievement of the MDGs; and Section six presents Necessary Actions to be Taken. Section seven presents Recommendations for the Way Forward, Section eight presents Recommendations for the Alleviation of poverty; Section nine presents Priority Areas for the Realization of Gender Equality and Poverty Reduction, and Section ten concludes the report.

Gender equality, poverty and achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in the Caribbean subregion

Fonte: ECLAC, Subregional Headquarters for the Caribbean Publicador: ECLAC, Subregional Headquarters for the Caribbean
Tipo: Texto
EN
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55.93%
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are fundamentally a set of eight global goals for the achievement of basic economic and social rights for all, with time-bound targets to be achieved by the year 2015. In adopting the Millennium Declaration in 2000, the member States of the United Nations pledged to “spare no effort to free our fellow men, women and children from the abject and dehumanizing conditions of extreme poverty.”1 The focus of this report is on the progress made by Caribbean countries towards the achievement of Goal 1: the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger; and Goal 3: the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of women, and identifies linkages between the two goals.

The Complementarity of MDG Achievements : The Case of Child Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa

Lay, Jann; Robilliard, Anne-Sophie
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.83%
This paper analyzes complementarities between different Millennium Development Goals, focusing on child mortality and how it is influenced by progress in the other goals, in particular two goals related to the expansion of female education: universal primary education and gender equality in education. The authors provide evidence from eight Sub-Saharan African countries using two rounds of Demographic and Health Surveys per country and applying a consistent micro-econometric methodology. In contrast to the mixed findings of previous studies, for most countries the findings reveal strong complementarities between mothers educational achievement and child mortality. Mothers schooling lifts important demand-side constraints impeding the use of health services. Children of mothers with primary education are much more likely to receive vaccines, a crucial proximate determinant of child survival. In addition, better educated mothers tend to have longer birth intervals, which again increase the chances of child survival. For the variables related to the other goals...

Gender in Peru : Can Women be Integrated into Transport Projects?

Caballero, Luz; Alcahuasi, Nerida
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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The main achievement of the Rural Roads Project with regard to gender issues was the improvement of the bridle paths. This was not simply a result of female representation on the Rural Road Committees, which were the road rehabilitation crews, but also because during the participatory process of prioritizing roads to be improved, women, being the most frequent users of this type of road, enthusiastically expressed themselves and described how the lack of accessibility and transport services had impeded them in their daily lives. In addition, their basic needs were taken into consideration.

Teenage Pregnancy and Opportunities in Latin America and the Caribbean : On Teenage Fertility Decisions, Poverty and Economic Achievement

Azevedo, Joao Pedro; Favara, Marta; Haddock, Sarah E.; Lopez-Calva, Luis F.; Muller, Miriam; Perova, Elizaveta
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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The pregnancy project sought to expose the existence, and challenge the validity, of stereotypes about Hispanic women. The charade explored the underlying motivations of the many who responded with a wide range of reactions. The specific objectives of this regional study are: to establish a thorough description of the magnitude of the issue and its potential implications for social advancement; to advance the understanding of the risk factors, motivations and impacts at the household level-as a determinant of poverty and a cause of intra-and intergenerational poverty traps; to illuminate the coping mechanisms and their individual and social implications; to highlight the gender-related issues that have historically provoked asymmetric costs to boys and girls; and to provide elements that support specific policies on this matter. In the last decade, Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have been moving in the right direction and the region has experienced important gains in gender equality of endowments (assets) and economic opportunities. In most LAC countries...

Transformative Resilience Guide : Gender, Violence, and Education

Reyes, Joel E.; Kelcey, Jo; Diaz Varela, Andrea
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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The Education Resilience Approaches (ERA) program is developing frameworks and tools to understand the role and impact of education in conflict- and violence-affected contexts. This guide is for researchers, evaluators, and planners supporting education policy and program development in contexts of gender-related violence. It outlines a conceptual framework to support the collection, interpretation, and use of gender- and resilience-related information. In addition, it also includes how-to advice to think through crucial issues, which may arise when assessing areas of protection for people in all levels of an education system who experience gender-related violence, as well as to promote improved educational outcome. This guide is divided into two parts, plus an initial chapter on general aspects of gender and resilience in situations of conflict and violence. Together, the parts present, respectively, core guidance on gender-related risks and assets, and the ways that schools, communities, and education systems can respond to protect education actors from gender-related violence...

Montenegro Gender Diagnostic

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
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In 2011, women and girls represented 50.6 percent of the total Montenegrin population (620,029 persons). Different aspects of gender inequality vary by region and ethnicity. The present World Bank country partnership strategy in Montenegro is based on two pillars that include supporting Montenegro s accession to the European Union (EU) through boosting institutions and competitiveness. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of gender inequality in Montenegro. Using a number of data sources, gender differences in various outcomes are analyzed with the intention of highlighting gender inequalities in human wellbeing. Results are used to prioritize possible avenues for future research to better understand such inequalities and or suggest areas that require more focus from policymakers. This report operates under the premise that gender equality is both an issue of human rights and of critical economic consequence. In line with the world development report (WDR) 2012, the nomenclature of gender gaps in endowments...

Gender Education Gaps among Indigenous and Nonindigenous Groups in Bolivia

Reimão, Maira Emy; Taş, Emcet O.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.81%
This paper studies gender education gaps among indigenous and nonindigenous groups in Bolivia. Using the National Census of Population and Housing 2012 and an estimation method analogous to difference-in-differences, the paper finds that the intersection of gender and indigenous identity confers cumulative disadvantage for indigenous women in literacy, years of schooling, and primary and secondary school completion. Although gender education gaps have become narrower across generations, there remain significant differences among indigenous groups. The Aymara have the largest gender gap in all outcomes, despite having high overall attainment rates and mostly residing in urban centers, with greater physical access to schools. The Quechua have relatively smaller gender gaps, but these are accompanied by lower attainment levels. The paper discusses the possible sources of these differentials and highlights the importance of taking gender dynamics within each indigenous group into greater consideration.

Coeducation versus single-sex education in Spain : does the election between these models have a repercussion on the transmission of the democratic value of gender equality at school?

LORENZO RODRÍGUEZ-ARMAS, Magdalena
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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This study aims to address, from a legal-constitutional and gender perspective, a political and scholarly legal debate that is currently at the forefront in Spain concerning two opposing educational models: coeducation versus single-sex education. It will be explained the terms of the debate now concerning single-sex education in Spain, related more to the recruitment stage than to a different pedagogical model or curriculum to be given. While this debate has been wide spread in the Anglo-American context, it has nevertheless not been developed extensively in the Spanish legal scholarly literature nor in the political sphere. Even so, as will be shown, some relevant studies have been undertaken regarding the issue of defending one or the other model and adopting a certain position with regard to the suitability or not of supporting single-sex schools with public funds. In this paper it will be examined who defends or rejects single-sex or coeducation in the legal scholarship and political debate and on what grounds. The main question I will attempt to answer in these pages is the following: does the election between these models in Spain have a repercussion on the transmission and achievement of constitutional/democratic values, such as the real and effective equality between men and women?

Gender Equality and Corporate Social Responsibility in Mining: An Investigation of the Potential for Change at Kaltim Prima Coal, Indonesia

Mahy, Petra Karolly
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN_AU
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This thesis presents an evaluation of the potential for gender equality to be promoted through Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in mining. Research was conducted at Kaltim Prima Coal (KPC), a major coal mining company located in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Since the fall of President Suharto in 1998, Indonesia has increasingly embraced the concept of CSR as meaning the delivery of community development programs by large companies. Indonesia has also become decentralised and district governments and local communities have increased their demands for greater benefits from resource exploitation. Companies such as KPC have had to become active agents of development. Large-scale mining companies tend to employ majority male workforces and may have a series of gendered ‘impacts’ on local communities. Where mining companies act as development agencies their programs may also cause further social change. This thesis presents an evaluation of the potential for mitigating gendered impacts and striving for gender equality through CSR specific to KPC. It also looks outwards from this one specific case study of KPC to evaluate the recently developed guidelines on gender in mining by the World Bank, Rio Tinto and Oxfam Australia. This thesis is divided into three parts. Part I considers the various drivers of the CSR agenda and argues that due to the role of the male-dominated district government and local interest groups in driving the CSR agenda...

Rwanda - Education Country Status Report : Toward Quality Enhancement and Achievement of Universal Nine Year Basic Education - An Education System in Transition; A Nation in Transition

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Education Sector Review
ENGLISH
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The Republic of Rwanda is a relatively small country located in Central Africa with a population of approximately 10 million people, making it one of the more densely populated countries in the world. The current government is taking positive steps to helps the country emerge from its tragic past, and aims to promote reconciliation and unity among all Rwandese and forbids any political activity or discrimination based on race, ethnicity, or relation. The government's effort to deliver basic public services to its population, including education, also follow the spirit of inclusiveness and aims to diminish gender, socioeconomic and geographic disparities. Rwanda's development agenda is entering a new phase as it transitions from post-genocide recovery to producing a population that is regionally and globally competitive and economically and socially secure. The education sector plays a significant role in fulfilling the national agenda. This Country Status Report (CSR) takes stock of recent progress and identifies a new generation of challenges facing the education sector...

Girls' Education in the 21st Century : Gender Equality, Empowerment, and Economic Growth

Tembon, Mercy; Fort, Lucia
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Gender equality is not just a women's issue, it is a development issue. Women's economic empowerment is essential for economic development, growth, and poverty reduction not only because of the income it generates, but also because it helps to break the vicious cycle of poverty. Educating girls and women is critical to economic development. Research conducted in a variety of countries and regions has established that educating girls is one of the most cost-effective ways of spurring development. Female education creates powerful poverty-reducing synergies and yields enormous intergenerational gains. It is positively correlated with increased economic productivity, more robust labor markets, higher earnings, and improved societal health and well-being. This book is based on the background papers developed for the symposium. Although the papers have been edited, their key messages remain intact, and the theme of the symposium respected. The overview chapter is a thematic paper prepared by the World Bank that brings out the main messages of the symposium. The subsequent chapters reflect the current state of education from a gender perspective and highlight the importance of and challenges to female education as well as the interdependence of education and development objectives. The final chapter presents five strategic directions for advancing gender equity in education.

Integrating Gender in Energy Provision Case Study of Bangladesh

Berthaud, Alexandre; Delescluse, Aude; Deligiorgis, Dina; Kumar, Kabir; Mane, Sunanda; Miyamoto, Satoshi; Ofosu-Amaah, Waafas; Storm, Lara; Yee, Myla
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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55.83%
Energy sector projects and women's empowerment are crucial to poverty reduction efforts, sustainable development, and achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Energy-related issues are often assumed to be gender neutral. However, energy scarcity can have disproportionately negative effects on women in the developing world. A large proportion of the world's poorest are women, and approximately 70 percent of the energy sources in developing countries come from biomass fuels, which are overwhelmingly the responsibility of women. Historically, this link has not been acknowledged in energy planning and projects, whether governmental or nongovernmental. Similarly, energy as a crucial input to other sectors, such as agriculture, has a myriad of implications when analyzed through a gendered lens with respect to specific times and places. Approaching energy planning in a manner that accounts for changing gender relations can do much to transform the situation of women and their relations to men.

On Norms and Agency : Conversations about Gender Equality with Women and Men in 20 Countries

Muñoz Boudet, Ana María; Petesch, Patti; Turk, Carolyn; Thumala, Angélica
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This report provides tremendous insight on gender norms an area that has been resistant to change, and that constrains achievement of gender equality across many diverse cultures. The report synthesizes data collected from more than 4,000 women and men in 97 communities across 20 countries. It is the largest dataset ever collected on the topic of gender and development, providing an unprecedented opportunity to examine potential patterns across communities on social norms and gender roles, pathways of empowerment, and factors that drive acute inequalities. The analysis raises the profile of persistent social norms and their impact on agency, and catalyzes discourse on the many pathways that create opportunities for women and men to negotiate transformative change. The report is underpinned by the fact that arguably the single most important contribution to development is to unleash the full power of half the people on the planet women. It underscores how crucial making investments in learning, supporting innovations that reduce the time costs of women s mobility...

Women as Agents of Change : Having Voice in Society and Influencing Policy

Markham, Susan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The World Bank's World Development Report (WDR) on gender equality and development identified women's voice, agency, and participation as a key dimension of gender equality and as a major policy priority. Agency, as defined in the WDR2012, is the ability to use endowments to take advantage of opportunities to achieve desired outcomes. In particular, WDR2012 focused on five expressions of agency: women's access to and control over resources; freedom of movement; freedom from the risk of violence; decision-making over family formation; and having voice in society and influencing policy. An important expression of women's agency is women's political participation and their ability to fully engage in public life. This background paper focuses on women s ability to play a public role in politics and to influence policy-making. Using the data available, it examines the current status of women in politics and makes the case for the full and equitable participation of women in public life. It reviews the direct and indirect barriers that exist to prevent women's political participation and analyzes strategies that have been used to increase it. Finally...

Liberia : Gender-Aware Programs and Women's Roles in Agricultural Value Chains

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This Policy Memorandum provides policy advice to the government of Liberia (GOL) in an effort to mainstream gender issues in policies, programs, and projects supporting agricultural production and value-chain development. It is organized as follows. Section I reviews women's roles in Liberian agriculture and agricultural value chains, drawing on a variety of data sources, including the 2007 Core Welfare Indicator Questionnaire Survey (CWIQ) and the two rounds of the Comprehensive Food Security and Nutrition Survey (CFSNS, 2006 and 2008). It also gives an overview of the agricultural sector in Liberia. Section II uses the same sources to analyze key constraints faced by women as agricultural producers and in value-adding activities, as well as key crop-specific issues in cassava, rice, and tree crops. Section III reviews the engagement of the GOL in gender-aware agriculture programs and recommends some key general principles to support gender-aware interventions, and specific recommendations aimed at supporting women as agricultural producers and increasing access to...

Roads towards gender equity in Latin America and the Caribbean

Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
EN
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56.11%
Includes bibliography; Edición en español ingresada en Biblioteca (97150); The last two decades have witnessed far-reaching changes wrought by the influx of women into the public sphere. The results of these events include shifts in the labour market, educational achievements, significant decreases in fertility rates and a resulting modification in relationships within the family and major -though still insufficient- progress in terms of women's participation in decision-making. Nevertheless, most men still do not share in household work or in the array of unpaid care-giving activities entailed by membership in a community and society, and the outcome is that women still bear most of the burden of domestic work. Reconciling the public and private spheres poses challenges in terms of values and behaviours, and public policies are therefore required to promote the redistribution of family responsibilities between men and women. On another front, new institutions have been created as part of complex processes of State reform. Legislative changes have given rise to opportunities and challenges, particularly in terms of the genuine and integral exercise of women's human rights. New knowledge and a wide range of policy experiences demonstrate that gender equality has positive effects on development. In this regard...

A Note on the Value of Gender Identification

Korsgaard, Christine
Fonte: Clarendon Press Publicador: Clarendon Press
EN_US
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Engaging with Susan Wolf's question of what role the concept of gender ought to play in an ideal world, Korsgaard argues that gender does not and should not be a deep fact about the identity of human beings. Presumption of shared attributes, shared history, and shared fate, according to Korsgaard, regards where we, as human beings, stand in history, not about our nature. While it is especially difficult to not identify as women and men in a time when feminism is a central part of recent history, Korsgaard believes that with the achievement of equality, human beings will move on and share in non-gender-identified tasks.; Philosophy

World Bank Group Gender Strategy (FY16-23); Gender Equality, Poverty Reduction and Inclusive Growth

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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86.03%
By many measures, 2015 marks a watershed year in the international communitys efforts to advance gender equality. In September, with the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), UN Member States committed to a renewed and more ambitious framework for development. This agenda, with a deadline of 2030, emphasizes inclusion not just as an end in and of itself but as critical to development effectiveness. At the center of this agenda is the achievement of gender equality and empowerment of all women and girls (SDG 5). In addition to governments, the private sector is increasingly committed to reducing gaps between men and women not just because it is the right thing to do, but because it makes business sense. Gender equality is also central to the World Bank Group’s own goals of ending extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity in a sustainable manner. No society can develop sustainably without transforming the distribution of opportunities, resources and choices for males and females so that they have equal power to shape their own lives and contribute to their families...

Gender differentials and sustainable learning environments

Mahlomaholo,Sechaba MG
Fonte: South African Journal of Education Publicador: South African Journal of Education
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 EN
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The centrality of quality education provisioning for all towards a better and socially just life is acknowledged globally. To date, however, there are still skewed gender differentials unfavourable to girls, thus impeding gender equality. In this paper I report on the reasons for leaving school early cited by out-of-school girls in North-West Province, South Africa. These reasons are juxtaposed against those cited by out-of-school boys to show how powerful gender as 'positioning in discourses' appears to be. Structured focus group interviews using the adapted version of 'Masitsa's inventory' were conducted. Qualitative data were coded and analysed based on frequency tables. The findings reveal that more girls than boys say they leave school early owing to: repeated failure; long distance to and from school; pregnancy; poverty; ill-health; attraction of odd jobs; looking after siblings; lack of motivation; early marriage, and criminal activity. The conclusion, therefore, is that if schools in the context of the community can become sustainable learning environments privileging girls' concerns, they can assist in resolving these problems of skewed gender differentials. This could lead towards achievement of a socially just life for all.