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A estimativa do risco na constituição da PDD.; The risk estimation for the allowance for doubtful accounts.

Vicente, Ernesto Fernando Rodrigues
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/05/2001 PT
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36.91%
Neste trabalho foram revisados os principais modelos, para a avaliação do risco de crédito e para o provisionamento de perdas com clientes, concluindo-se com uma proposta de adoção de um modelo estatístico, com o objetivo de medir o risco associado ao financiamento e empréstimo a clientes, com o conseqüente impacto na mensuração dos ativos. Sem o objetivo de exaurir o assunto, foram adotados os passos relacionados a seguir para o desenvolvimento do tema até a proposição final. Na introdução, são feitas as justificativas sobre o tema, qual a questão problema associada ao tema e os desafios da contabilidade quanto à mensuração dos ativos. Em relação à gestão de riscos, são relacionados os tipos de riscos em geral, detalhado o risco de crédito em particular e avaliados os modelos de concessão de crédito. Sobre a constituição da Provisão para Devedores Duvidosos, foram pesquisados os principais autores de contabilidade e de finanças, onde se constatou proposições semelhantes, que podem ser resumidas em 4 modelos de provisionamento para Perdas com Devedores Duvidosos: 1. Baixa – "Write-off"; 2. Percentual sobre as vendas; 3. Percentual sobre o montante de contas a receber; 4. Idade da carteira – "aging". Em seguida são analisadas as correlações entre os modelos de previsão de insolvência e as perdas com crédito...

Os fundos de investimento em direitos creditórios (FIDCS) como uma alternativa ao financiamento de micro e pequenas empresas: uma análise do mercado brasileiro de crédito; The accounts receivable investment funds as an alternative to the small enterprises financing: an analysis of the brazilian credit market.

Silva, Renata Rosada da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/08/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.46%
O objetivo do presente trabalho é avaliar a possibilidade de utilização dos fundos de investimento em direitos creditórios no financiamento de micro e pequenas empresas. O estudo parte da problemática teórica da assimetria de informações e faz um panorama do mercado brasileiro de crédito, com ênfase nas micro e pequenas empresas. A partir da análise da legislação pertinente a esses fundos, nota-se que não existe impedimento legal à constituição de FIDCs que objetivem fomentar os micro pequenos negócios. No final de 2005, cinco fundos de investimento em direitos creditórios para financiamento de micro e pequenas empresas entraram em funcionamento no Brasil. Por meio da análise do desempenho dos fundos em atividade, percebe-se que esta nova modalidade de financiamento se mostra como uma alternativa viável e promissora no provimento de crédito a micro e pequenos empresários, pois além de aumentarem o acesso desse segmento de mercado a empréstimos, o faz a taxas menores do que aquelas praticadas pelas instituições financeiras convencionais.; The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the possibility of financing micro and small enterprises by means of accounts receivables investment funds. The study starts with a review of the asymmetric information problem and makes a review of the Brazilian credit market...

Trade Finance during the Great Trade Collapse

Chauffour, Jean-Pierre; Malouche, Mariem
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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26.37%
The bursting of the subprime mortgage market in the United States in 2008 and the ensuing global financial crisis were associated with a rapid decline in global trade. The extent of the trade collapse was unprecedented: trade flows fell at a faster rate than had been observed even in the early years of the great depression. G-20 leaders held their first crisis-related summit in November 2008. The goal was to understand the root causes of the global crisis and to reach consensus on actions to address its immediate effects. In the case of trade, a key question concerned the extent to which a drying up of trade finance caused the observed decline in trade flows. This book brings together a range of projects and studies undertaken by development institutions, export credit agencies, private bankers, and academics to shed light on the role of trade finance in the 2008-09 great trade collapse. It provides policy makers, analysts, and other interested parties with analyses and assessments of the role of governments and institutions in restoring trade finance markets. A deeper understanding of the complexity of trade finance remains critical as the world economy recovers and the supply of trade finance improves. The international community continues to know too little about the fragility of low income economies in response to trade finance developments and shocks...

Peru - Developing New Structured Financial Products to Channel Savings Towards Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) Growth

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.37%
The objective of this study is to contribute to the development of new structured financial products in Peru, in particular as means to address the problems of access to finance faced by underserved segments such as Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). This document reviews how structured financial products can provide an alternative channel for SMEs to access the market. Additionally it provides suggestions regarding policy issues aimed at improving the market environment. The study concludes that: (i) one way to effectively address Peruvian SMEs credit constraints, particularly with respect to longer term financing, is the use of structured products and (ii) although the Peruvian capital markets regulatory framework regarding securitization has become more flexible in recent years, and despite being one of the least restrictive in the region, it still shows significant weaknesses.

Financial Inclusion in the Middle East and North Africa : Analysis and Roadmap Recommendations

Pearce, Douglas
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.59%
The paper provides an assessment of the state of financial inclusion in the MENA region, and identifies constraints, opportunities, and priorities for significantly improving access to finance. Practical recommendations for improving financial inclusion are outlined. Firstly, governments could agree a Financial Inclusion Strategy that is underpinned by improved data, that has both public and private sector commitment, and that scales up financial access on a large scale, principally through bank accounts. Secondly, the regulators should provide a legal and supervisory framework that enables access to finance to be expanded primarily through banks, but with regulatory space for the use of agents, mobile phone technology, and for a finance company model for microcredit and leasing. Interest rate caps on microloans should be removed, and instead consumer protection and supervisory capacity for microfinance should be strengthened, while prudent competition between financial service providers should be promoted. Thirdly...

Empirical Analysis of Corporate Savings in Egypt

Love, Inessa
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.46%
This paper presents empirical analysis of corporate savings in Egypt using two datasets: a survey of small and medium enterprises and data from accounting statements for the largest publicly traded firms. There are two main findings. First, larger firms invest more (they have more physical saving) and have greater access to finance than smaller firms. Second, despite the financial deepening, the use of credit products has been declining during the past decade. The study reaffirms the importance of improving access to financial services in Egypt and points out the need for more research. In addition, policies aimed at reducing macroeconomic volatility are likely to result in increased investment and growth in Egypt.

Trade Credit Contracts

Klapper, Leora; Laeven, Luc; Rajan, Raghuram
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.46%
The authors employ a novel dataset on almost 30,000 trade credit contracts to describe the broad characteristics of the parties that contract together; the key contractual terms, such as the discount for early payment; and the days by when payment is due. Whereas prior work has typically used information on only one side of the buyer-seller transaction, this paper utilizes information on both. The authors find that the largest and most creditworthy buyers receive contracts with the longest maturities from smaller suppliers, with the latter extending credit to the former perhaps as a way of certifying product quality. Discounts for early payment seem to be offered to riskier buyers to limit the potential nonpayment risk when credit is extended for non-financial reasons.

Trade Credit Contracts

Klapper, Leora; Laeven, Luc; Rajan, Raghuram
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.46%
This paper provides new evidence on the unique role of trade credit and contracting terms as a way for both sellers and buyers to mange business risk. The authors use a novel and unique dataset on almost 30,000 supplier contracts for 56 large buyers and more than 24,000 suppliers in Europe and North America. The sample of buyers and suppliers includes firms of varying size, investment grade, and sectors. The paper finds evidence in support of four important, and not mutually exclusive, reasons for trade credit: 1) as a method of financing; 2) as a means of price discrimination; 3) as a bond assuring buyers of product quality; and 4) as a screening mechanism to gauge buyer default risk. In particular, the analysis finds that the largest and most creditworthy buyers receive contracts with the longest maturities, as measured by net days, from smaller, investment grade suppliers. In comparison, early payment discounts seem to be used as a risk management tool to limit the potential nonpayment risk of trade credit. Early payment discounts are generally offered to smaller...

Inter-Firm Trade Finance in Times of Crisis

C. Menichini, Anna Maria
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.46%
The paper discusses the main features that distinguish inter-firm international trade finance from alternative sources of financing. On the one hand, inter-firm trade finance could help overcome informational problems associated with other lending relationships; on the other, it may contribute to propagate shocks due to the interconnection among firms along credit chains. The paper evaluates the potential effects of a financial crisis on the use of trade credit for firms operating in developing countries. It argues that while the advantages of trade credit might remain largely unexploited due to poor legal institutions, the disadvantages might be exacerbated because of these firms greater exposure to a default chain. Based on these arguments, a menu of choices is identified for what policymakers can do to boost firms access to inter-firm trade finance in times of crisis.

Credit Chains and Sectoral Comovement : Does the Use of Trade Credit Amplify Sectoral Shocks?

Raddatz, Claudio
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.51%
This paper provides evidence of the presence and relevance of a credit-chain amplification mechanism by looking at its implications for the correlation of industries. In particular, it tests the hypothesis that an increase in the use of trade-credit along the input-output chain linking two industries results in an increase in their correlation. The analysis uses detailed data on the correlations and input-output relations of 378 manufacturing industry-pairs across 44 countries with different degrees of use of trade credit. The results provide strong support for this hypothesis and indicate that the mechanism is quantitatively relevant.

Market Power and the Matching of Trade Credit Terms

Fabbri, Daniela; Klapper, Leora
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
This paper studies the decision of firms to extend trade credit to customers and its relation with their financing decisions. The authors use a novel firm-level database of Chinese SMEs with unique information on market power in both output and input markets and on the amount, terms, and payment history of trade credit simultaneously extended to customers (accounts receivable) and received from suppliers (accounts payable). The analysis shows that suppliers with relatively weaker market power are more likely to extend trade credit and have a larger share of goods sold on credit. Examination of the importance of financial constraints reveals that access to bank financing and profitability are not significantly related to trade credit supply. Rather, firms that receive trade credit from their own suppliers are more likely to extend trade credit to their customers, and to "match maturity" between the contract terms of payables and receivables. This matching practice is more likely used when firms face strong competition in the product market (relative to their customers)...

Report on Pilot Study on Migration to Accrual Accounting : Forest and Health Departments of State Government of Madhya Pradesh (India)

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.67%
The objective of this study is to identify gaps between the existing cash based accounting system and the accrual based accounting system to assist Government Accounting Standards Advisory Board (GASAB) to address issues related to Property, Plant and Equipment (PPE) and inventories during actual migration to accrual accounting. This study also includes documentation of operational and implementation issues and suggested solutions to latent problems and road blocks if any so as to provide necessary inputs to GASAB for framing appropriate. Guidelines for migration of Government accounts from cash basis to accrual accounting system. The study is noteworthy that not only statement of financial position for the reporting entity has been prepared but it also discloses physical assets and current liabilities. Maintenance of proper records of various classes of assets (constructed, acquired or donated), inventories, receivables and carry over as prescribed in the financial rules and departmental regulations is a starting point for transition to accrual accounting.

Jamaica SME Finance

World Bank; International Monetary Fund
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.46%
Almost all formal small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Jamaica have access to checking or saving accounts, but the financial sector is scarcely used to finance their investments. The lack of funding for the SME sector, or its high cost, has a negative impact on entrepreneurship and business profitability and stability through the business life-cycle, having a particularly negative effect on employment. In addition, the supply of formal nonbank sources of finance is limited, especially for micro-entrepreneurs, with credit unions providing mostly consumer finance and an underdeveloped microfinance sector. The authorities aim to develop a micro-credit act to make it mandatory for multilateral investment funds (MIFs) to register, and to create a regulatory authority to oversee microfinance institution (MFIs). The authorities have taken significant initiatives to enhance the legal and regulatory environment and financial infrastructure, but further efforts are needed. The authorities have also put in place public programs for micro...

Doing Business Reform Memorandum; Croatia - Doing business memorandum o reformskim zahvatima; Croatia

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum
ENGLISH; EN_US
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26.51%
Croatia’s business environment has been identified as a priority area for reform by the Croatian Government. Under the government working group for business climate and private investments, the agency for investment and competitiveness has been designated to lead the dialogue with the private sector and coordinate the consultations with stakeholders, including international organizations on the design of a new wave of business environment reforms. This reform memorandum is prepared at the request of the agency for investment and competitiveness and aims to provide a concrete set of short and medium term reform recommendations that will address some of the business environment challenges currently faced by the private sector in Croatia. The World Bank Group’s doing business project provides a measure of the ease of doing business in 189 countries through a set of objective indicators that focus on the impact of laws, regulations, and their enforcement on the ease of doing business for domestic firms in 10 areas from starting a business...

Financial Sector Assessment Program Update : Philippines - Focused Update of the Basel Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.67%
This focused assessment of the current state of the Philippines' compliance with the Basel core principles for effective banking supervision is an update of the detailed assessment completed as part of the International Monetary Fund (IMF)-World Bank Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) that took place in 2002. Thus, the current assessment targets those Basle Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision (BCPs) for which the initial assessment was non-compliant or materially non-compliant, and those for which the FSAP had recommended reforms. As the original assessment had been made using the 1997 methodology, which was superseded by the 2006 methodology, the principles that were reviewed were mapped into the 2006 principles. This report should provide inputs for the enhancement of the Central Bank of the Philippines (BSP's) action plan to move toward full compliance with the core principles. This assessment of the effectiveness of banking supervision was based on an examination of the legal and regulatory framework and benefited from the inputs of the IMF resident advisor...

Republic of Moldova Enterprise Access to Finance : Background Note; Moldova - Prioritati de politici pentru dezvoltarea sectorului privat

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Development Policy Review (DPR); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.51%
The Government of Moldova is seeking to change the country's development paradigm and build an export-oriented economy characterized by investment, innovation, and competitiveness, following a decade of 'jobless growth'. This report focuses on improvements that will be needed to move Moldova to the next stage of development as envisioned in the Moldova 2020 strategy; however, reforms over the past decade also deserve acknowledgment. Improving the business environment is an especially important task, given Moldova's low levels of natural resources and small internal market. This study aims to identify the most pressing problems in the business environment that are adversely affecting Moldovan companies' productivity and competitiveness, and to present recommendations that would help remove these obstacles. The analysis is based on a review of existing reports; interviews with government officials, private sector associations, a sample of businesses, and some subject matter experts; as well as original research on access to finance. This study has identified that the following aspects of doing business are the most problematic: customs administration; tax administration; business regulation...

The Role of Factoring for Financing Small and Medium Enterprises

Klapper, Leora
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.83%
Around the world, factoring is a growing source of external financing for corporations and small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs). What is unique about factoring is that the credit provided by a lender is explicitly linked to the value of a supplier's accounts receivable and not the supplier's overall creditworthiness. Therefore, factoring allows high-risk suppliers to transfer their credit risk to their high-quality buyers. Factoring may be particularly useful in countries with weak judicial enforcement and imperfect records of upholding seniority claims because receivables are sold, rather than collateralized, and factored receivables are not part of the estate of a bankrupt SME. Empirical tests find that factoring is larger in countries with greater economic development and growth and developed credit information bureaus. In addition, the author finds that creditor rights are not related to factoring. The author also discusses reverse factoring, which is a technology that can mitigate the problem of borrowers' informational opacity in business environments with weak information infrastructures if only receivables from high-quality buyers are factored. She illustrates the case of the Nafin reverse factoring program in Mexico and highlights how the use of electronic channels and a supportive legal and regulatory environment can cut costs and provide greater SME services in emerging markets.

Os sistemas de controles internos utilizados no contas a receber das empresas de comércio de autopeças: o caso da empresa: eletropel distribuidora de autopeças ltda; Internal control systems used in accounts receivable firms trade auto parts: the case of The company: Eletropel Distributor Auto Parts Ltda.

Barbosa, Thalis Augusto Martins
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; brasil; UFG; Faculdade de Administração, Ciências Contábeis e Economia (RG); Ciências Contábeis (RG) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; brasil; UFG; Faculdade de Administração, Ciências Contábeis e Economia (RG); Ciências Contábeis (RG)
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.6%
The present work analyzes the internal control in the operations of accounts receivable from a commercial company in the distribution of automotive parts. The overall objective is to identify the types of internal controls over accounts receivable present in the management of a commercial distributor of auto parts in Goiânia - GO. The internal control influences mainly on business continuance, much due to constant changes in their business environment and the constant need to adapt to the required model in the market. The methodology developed in a case study from the literature review. The case study was developed through interviews with the owner by applying the following questionnaire in order to check the controls on the existing revenue cycle at the company. The result was obtained by identifying the company's internal controls in accounts receivable and compared with the controls necessary according to the literature presented, evaluating the controls used and identifying possible failures due to non-use of control tools, thus suggesting Department improvements and implementing appropriate controls. After data collection it was found that the company uses various types of internal controls over accounts receivable activities...

Merfac

Pedro Tomas Kudrnac Herlitzka; Ricardo Catalan Gonzalez
Fonte: Corporação de Fomento da Produção Publicador: Corporação de Fomento da Produção
Tipo: proyecto
Publicado em 03/04/2012
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.91%
Merfac Offers Small And Midsize Businesses a Financial Solution That Lets Them Increase Liquidity And Manage Cash Flow By Monetizing Their Accounts Receivables Via An Online Platform Where Financial Institutions Can Bid For Each Business.; Merfac Offers Small And Midsize Businesses a Financial Solution That Lets Them Increase Liquidity And Manage Cash Flow By Monetizing Their Accounts Receivables Via An Online Platform Where Financial Institutions Can Bid For Each Business.; Merfac Offers Small And Midsize Businesses a Financial Solution That Lets Them Increase Liquidity And Manage Cash Flow By Monetizing Their Accounts Receivables Via An Online Platform Where Financial Institutions Can Bid For Each Business.; Corporación de Fomento de la Producción

Portfolio Management Approach in Trade Credit Decision Making

Michalski, Grzegorz
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/01/2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.81%
The basic financial purpose of an enterprise is maximization of its value. Trade credit management should also contribute to realization of this fundamental aim. Many of the current asset management models that are found in financial management literature assume book profit maximization as the basic financial purpose. These book profitbased models could be lacking in what relates to another aim (i.e., maximization of enterprise value). The enterprise value maximization strategy is executed with a focus on risk and uncertainty. This article presents the consequences that can result from operating risk that is related to purchasers using payment postponement for goods and/or services. The present article offers a method that uses portfolio management theory to determine the level of accounts receivable in a firm. An increase in the level of accounts receivables in a firm increases both net working capital and the costs of holding and managing accounts receivables. Both of these decrease the value of the firm, but a liberal policy in accounts receivable coupled with the portfolio management approach could increase the value. Efforts to assign ways to manage these risks were also undertaken; among them, special attention was paid to adapting assumptions from portfolio theory as well as gauging the potential effect on the firm value.; Comment: no coments