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Demanding Good Governance : Lessons from Social Accountability Initiatives in Africa

McNeil, Mary; Malena, Carmen
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.46%
This is a challenging time for Africa. The combined effects of the global economic crisis, the need for equitable allocation of natural resource assets, and the ever-changing balance of influence and power between the developed and developing worlds are requiring African countries to re-evaluate their governance structures. "Social accountability," as defined in this book, is an approach to enhancing government accountability and transparency. It refers to the wide range of citizen actions to hold the state to account, as well as actions on the part of government, media, and other actors that promote or facilitate these efforts. Social accountability strategies and tools help empower ordinary citizens to exercise their inherent rights and to hold governments accountable for the use of public funds and how they exercise authority. Global experience has shown that such initiatives can be catalytic and that they increasingly play a critical role in securing and sustaining governance reforms that strengthen transparency and accountability. The case studies presented in this book represent a cross-section of African countries...

Accountability in Public Expenditures in Latin America and the Caribbean : Revitalizing Reforms in Financial Management and Procurement

Ladipo, Omowunmi; Sánchez, Alfonso; Sopher, Jamil
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.3%
Based on a sample of countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, this book sets out areas in which governments could focus to improve the quality of public expenditures. It seeks to identify, from a regional perspective, first, the cross-cutting strengths and weaknesses of public financial management and procurement systems, and second, the characteristics of and lessons that can be learned from reform programs. In undertaking this analysis, the authors have taken a particular interest in establishing what role civil society organizations may have played, or could play, in promoting transparency and accountability in the public sector. More specifically, this book focuses on the specific institutional arrangements and the policy choices that underpin the management of public finances, which are set out primarily in a sample of publicly available Country Financial Accountability Assessments and Country Procurement Assessment Reports undertaken by the World Bank and its development partners.

Civil Society, Public Action and Accountability in Africa

Devarajan, Shantayanan; Khemani, Stuti; Walton, Michael
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
This paper examines the potential role of civil society action in increasing state accountability for development in Sub-Saharan Africa. It further develops the analytical framework of the World Development Report 2004 on accountability relationships, to emphasize the underlying political economy drivers of accountability and implications for how civil society is constituted and functions. It argues on this basis that the most important domain for improving accountability is through the political relations between citizens, civil society, and state leadership. The evidence broadly suggests that when higher-level political leadership provides sufficient or appropriate powers for citizen participation in holding within-state agencies or frontline providers accountable, there is frequently positive impact on outcomes. However, the big question remaining for such types of interventions is how to improve the incentives of higher-level leadership to pursue appropriate policy design and implementation. The paper argues that there is substantial scope for greater efforts in this domain...

Performance Accountability and Combating Corruption

Shah, Anwar
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.48%
his volume provides advice on how to institutionalize performance-based accountability, especially in countries that lack good accountability systems. The volume describes how institutions of accountability may be strengthened to combat corruption. The volume is organized into two parts. The first part deals with public management reforms to ensure the integrity and improve the efficiency of government operations. It outlines an agenda for public management reforms and discusses the roles of e-government and network solutions in performance improvements. The second part of the volume provides advice on strengthening the role of representative institutions, such as organs and committees of parliament, in providing oversight of government programs. It also provides guidance on how auditing and related institutions can be used to detect fraud and corruption. The book highlights the causes of corruption and the use of both internal and external accountability institutions and mechanisms to fight it. It provides advice on how to tailor anticorruption programs to individual country circumstances and how to sequence reform efforts to ensure sustainability. This volume presents the latest thinking of leading development scholars on operationalizing such a governance framework. The focus of this volume is creating performance-based accountability and oversight when there is no bottom line. Each chapter addresses an important dimension of such a framework. The four chapters in part I are concerned with integrity and efficiency in public management. The nine chapters of part II are concerned with institutions and mechanisms to hold government to account.

Strengthening Local Government Budgeting and Accountability

Schaeffer, Michael; Yilmaz, Serdar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.42%
In many developing and middle-income countries, decentralization reforms are promoting changes in governance structures that are reshaping the relationship between local governments and citizens. The success of these decentralization reforms depends on the existence of sound public financial systems both at the central and local levels. This paper focuses on the role of budgeting as a critical tool in reform efforts, highlighting problems that might impede successful local government budget development and implementation. The attainment of effective local government accountability and transparency is not an end itself, but rather it represents the means to support better decision-making on national and local budgeting. Community based schemes for enhancing local government accountability need to combine legal, political, and administrative mechanisms with proactive community involvement. Of particular importance are the legal and budgetary instruments that require input from local community members on certain local government decisions and instruments that increase accessibility for the press or the general public at large to information on government activities.

PERU - Making Accountability Work : Lessons from RECURSO

Cotlear, Daniel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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56.32%
This note describes the experience of RECURSO - the Spanish acronym for Accountability for Social Reform (REndicion de CUentas para la Reforma SOcial), a successful effort to create the missing link: high expectations. The RECURSO program provided the impetus for the establishment of easy-to-understand standards by which citizens can measure the quality of basic public services. It enables parents to take advantage of accountability mechanisms and, ultimately, ensure better health and education services for their children. This note describes the genesis, implementation, and impact of RECURSO. The Bank has had an active human development portfolio in Peru since 1990. Looking back, it is possible to distinguish three phases in the evolution of this portfolio. The first focused on coverage, the second on improving rules of accountability, and the third on making the accountability rules enforceable by fostering the establishment of standards by which citizens can measure the quality of public services. Peru has experienced huge increases in the coverage of education...

Voice and Accountability in Transfer Programs in Latin America and the Caribbean

Bain, Katherine; Braun, Franka; Saavedra, Jaime
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.39%
A two-day workshop, organized by the World Banks Poverty Reduction and Economic Management (PREM) and Human Development (HD) departments, was held in June 2005 in the Dominican Republic with the objective to explore whether voice and accountability can improve the effectiveness of Conditional Transfer Programs. Participants included government and civil society representatives from ten countries in the region, as well as World Bank staff. Among the recommendations, participants suggested applying clear and transparent targeting rules instead of secret formulas, locating interview sites in schools and health centers to reduce patronage and to allow for witnesses, using qualitative information to make targeting formulas fit local realities, allowing for verification of self-reported income information, defining targeting as a success when it achieves acceptance and comprehension of program goals, being clear about program rules, posting lists of beneficiaries in public places, using civil society organizations to facilitate the flow of information...

Use of Social Accountability Tools and Information Technologies in Monitoring and Evaluation

Sharma, Rajiv
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
This note attempts to cover the basic concepts relating to the use of social accountability and information technology to monitor and evaluate public services and other governance processes that affect citizens. With the help of simple though practical examples that use these concepts, the note explains how to bring a qualitative change in monitoring and evaluation by making the whole process more citizen centered and outcome oriented. In turn, these practices can help improve the quality of service delivery. The note also covers a few country-specific initiatives from India to support the related arguments.

Social Accountability and Public Voice through Community Radio Programming

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.35%
Empowerment of the poor and social accountability have become core values of decentralization and democratization processes around the world, and are key to effective poverty reduction. Access to information and means to report and comment on issues of local interest are recognized as critical enablers for empowerment and social accountability. Mechanisms that promote accountability on the part of public institutions (supply side in terms of horizontal accountability) as well as mechanisms that promote governments being held accountable by civil society (demand side in terms of social and vertical accountability) are both essential for achieving effective sustainable development outcomes. Most communications initiatives supported by the World Bank and other donors have focused primarily on the supply side of accountability and not on strengthening the demand side through actions that enable the poor and civil society organizations (CSOs) to create and effectively utilize spaces for public voice and community mobilization. The poor have limited influence in the production of information and limited access to channels of communication in most countries borrowing from the World Bank. This condition is reflected in two areas: the concentration on ownership of key media institutions and asymmetric access to mediums of communication.

Local Government Discretion and Accountability : Application of a Local Governance Framework

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.44%
This report evaluates the framework of decentralization reforms instituted in decentralizing countries. Decentralization is a multi-faceted process which includes giving discretion to local governments and establishing accountability mechanisms at three different levels of governance: political, administrative and fiscal. Therefore, the analysis of the decentralization reforms should also be based on an inter-disciplinary approach. The report applies this framework to ten countries and two sectors and uses the case studies as the primary data collection tool. These case studies provide detailed contextual analysis of the political, administrative and fiscal aspects of decentralization. The countries identified for the case studies are Angola, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Uganda, Kerala/India, Philippines, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Rwanda and Punjab/Pakistan. The sectors identified are health and education. The review of these case studies suggests that most of the local governments do not fare well on many assessment criteria of well-designed decentralization. In addition to the insubstantial discretion available to the local governments...

Study of Recent Literature on Public Financial Management and Accountability (PFMA) System of the Government of India

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.36%
This report conducts a survey of the more recent literature on the public financial management and accountability system of the Government of India and analyzes its contents. The overall objective is to provide the basis for enhanced knowledge and understanding of the public financial management and accountability system including its strengths and weaknesses as perceived by the authors of the publications. The study prepares an annotated bibliography of select contemporary material on the public financial management and accountability system and presents an analytical survey relating to its various components. The study concludes that the legal systems are in place in all areas, as well as the attendant procedures, rules and regulations. Trained manpower is available. Oversight systems are vibrant through well established independent external audit and legislative committees. There is increasingly more transparency in the budgetary disclosures. Steps have been taken to review the existing accounting systems. One area of concern is the compliance gap. There is found to be slackness in observing and enforcing the rules and regulations.

State-Society Synergy for Accountability : Lessons for the World Bank

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.48%
The paper first surveys the literature on accountability and establishes a categorization of the different ways by which civil society can interact with the state in order to improve accountability. It then explores in detail seven case studies of successful experiences of state-society synergy for accountability. The studies draw from a wide range of different contexts (Brazil, India, Mexico, the United States) and from a variety of different areas of government activity (corruption control, environmental regulation, poverty reduction, election monitoring, infrastructure provision, school reform, police reform). The paper concludes with a series of conceptual and practical lessons for World Bank staff on how best to initiate, design, and implement successful pro-accountability mechanisms grounded in state-society synergy. Some of the most important lessons include the need to fully institutionalize participative mechanisms, to involve societal actors from the very beginning of the design stage of the process...

The Road to Good Governance: Via the Path Less Accountable? The Effectiveness of Fiscal Accountability in Liberia

Krawczyk, Kelly; Sweet-Cushman, Jennie; Muhula, Raymond
Fonte: Taylor and Francis Publicador: Taylor and Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.42%
Accountability mechanisms are touted as a path to “good governance.” But are accountability mechanisms a sure route to achieving the objectives of “good governance”? Limited case studies have offered inconsistent evidence (Blair, 2000; Charlick, 2001; Devas & Grant, 2003). But empirical evidence of the relationships among principles of good governance—high citizen participation, low levels of corruption, high-quality service delivery—and accountability mechanisms is lacking. We examine the effectiveness of accountability mechanisms in Liberia and find relationships between measures of county level fiscal accountability and measures of good governance do not always produce expected results, making fiscal accountability mechanisms no guarantee for achieving goals of good governance.

Democratic governance: improving the institutions of accountability

Ruddock, Philip
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 67047 bytes; 351 bytes; text/html; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.45%
There is no doubt that the concept of accountability forms one of the cornerstones of any democratic society. Without appropriate checks and balances even the most well intentioned institutions in a democracy could fail to act in the best interests of the society of which they form a part. The ideas that I wish to canvass with you this evening do not detract from this starting point. Accountability is a central plank of many of the Coalition's policies. In my area of responsibility this has been made explicitly clear. When the Government came to power in 1996 it took action to restore community confidence in the administration of the migration program by implementing initiatives to improve accountability and achieve procedural reform. Similarly, the Coalition's policy on post-immigration settlement also made it clear that accountability to the community through consultation was critical to the Government's ability to ensure that resources are distributed responsibly, for the purpose intended, and in accordance with objectively assessable criteria and mandatory accountability requirements. Having said that what I wish to raise for your consideration tonight is that one of the greatest challenges facing the Government today is its obligation to the community to achieve an appropriate and workable balance between accountability which ensures justice and protection for individuals affected by Government decision making and actions on one hand and practical...

India : Orissa State Financial Accountability Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Financial Accountability Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
The Country Assistance Strategy for India places emphasis on the need for modernizing public financial management, and accountability systems, and, undertaking such diagnostic work as necessary to help build Government's capacity for better public sector management, and external scrutiny. It calls for financial accountability assessments to be carried out in all States where programmatic adjustment loans are being prepared, supporting reforms associated with fiscal, and fiduciary risks management. Of India's 14 major States, Orissa has the second lowest, per capita income, and a growth rate of 3 percent against the national average of 5-6 percent per annum, while statistics also show its revenue, and fiscal deficits increased significantly over the years. The Government of Orissa is developing a robust reform program, reforms which on the fiscal side, are fully consistent with recommendations for strengthening financial management, and public accountability, as proposed in this State Financial Accountability Assessment (SFAA) Report. This SFAA is designed to ascertain and help mitigate the extent to which public firms in Orissa State...

The Enabling Environment for Social Accountability in Mongolia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Social Analysis; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.48%
The purpose of this study on the enabling environment for social accountability in Mongolia is: 1) to analyze conditions that influence the ability of citizens and their organizations to promote accountability of public institutions in Mongolia; 2) to identify priority areas for policy, legal, regulatory, and institutional reforms to improve these conditions; and 3) to identify areas in which the capacity building of civil society organizations and the Government of Mongolia may be promoted to enhance social accountability for improved governance, social and economic development, and poverty reduction. The study applies a civic engagement analytical framework to assess the enabling environment: the factors and conditions that would allow Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) to promote public accountability. This framework, represented by the acronym ARVIN, recognizes five enabling elements of civic engagement, namely, the ability of citizens to: Associate to further their purposes; mobilize appropriate Resources; exercise their Voice; gain access to Information that is relevant...

Local Government Discretion and Accountability : A Local Governance Framework

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Public Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.44%
This economic and sector work (ESW) report presents an analytical framework of local governance through the lens of accountability. It intends to establish a methodological basis for analyzing linkages between decentralization and accountability and is based on desk reviews and interviews. The main objective of this report is to present a coherent and comprehensive approach for decentralizing countries to achieve a high degree of local government discretion accompanied by robust accountability mechanisms. This report, which is a direct response to this growing interest, presents various social accountability mechanisms that could complement public sector accountability approaches. It also highlights the operational challenges the Bank's projects on local governance reform must often confront. Accordingly, the findings of this ESW provide, in one comprehensive framework, guidance on both macro policy-making and implementation of decentralization reforms.

Global Stock-Take of Social Accountability Initiatives for Budget Transparency and Monitoring : Key Challenges and Lessons Learned

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Knowledge Economy Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.34%
Budgets are key documents that lay out a government's economic priorities in terms of policies and programs. Budget transparency refers to the extent and ease with which citizens can access information about and provide feedback on government revenues, allocations, and expenditures. Budget monitoring entails using such information to analyze, critique, and track government finances in order to provide this feedback. Budget transparency is a prerequisite for public participation and accountability, which are instrumental for a democratic and legitimate budget process. Both budget transparency and monitoring efforts also help remove institutional bottlenecks that result in delayed budget allocations, thereby jeopardizing the delivery of vital services to people. Even though they have a far-reaching impact on the lives of people, opening up budgets beyond the exclusive domain of policy makers and administrators is a relatively recent phenomenon that has gained momentum in the last two decades. The stock taking exercise illustrates the range of mechanisms involved in Budget Transparency and Monitoring (BT&M) in different contexts and demonstrates significant promise of influencing governance processes and outcomes. Finally...

Generating Genuine Demand for Accountability through Communication : Trainer's Guide

Arnold, Anne-Katrin; Garcia, Helen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
The trainer s guide starts with an introduction into the conceptual framework of accountability and communication. Theoretical basics are illustrated by relevant case studies, mostly taken from CommGAP s volume accountability through public opinion. This conceptual narrative is designed to familiarize trainers with the issue and its foundations, and is followed by a suggested training structure that includes learning objectives, presentation slides and key points to be communicated to an audience of a capacity building effort. The second part of this manual contains case studies that display communication for accountability in action in developing countries. These case studies and a related exercise may be used by trainers to demonstrate and exemplify how communication can be used in order to empower citizens to hold their governments accountable. In addition to the conceptual introduction and case studies, this manual provides a brief for trainers suggesting a structure for a course on generating genuine demand for accountability through communication. Presentation slides and core lessons are proposed to enable development practitioners to launch a training session of approximately one day.

Citizens and Service Delivery : Assessing the Use of Social Accountability Approaches in the Human Development Sectors

Ringold, Dena; Holla, Alaka; Koziol, Margaret; Srinivasan, Santhosh
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.42%
Efforts by governments, donors, and civil society alike to improve governance, accountability, and development results on the ground have heightened attention to the idea that citizens can contribute to better public services by holding their policy makers, providers, and program managers accountable. While the use of social accountability to improve services in low- and middle-income countries is not new, the topic has gained currency in recent years. This book looks at how this works in practice. It aims to learn from the experiences gained from the implementation of World Bank projects and from the small, but growing, set of impact evaluations. The review is a first step to identify lessons, knowledge gaps, and questions for further research that can improve the use of these tools in government policies and through programs supported by civil society and donors, including the World Bank. The book documents a diverse and exciting set of cases the rapid adoption of access-to-information laws, the use of public expenditure tracking surveys by civil society organizations to 'follow the money' from central government budgets to schools and health clinics...