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Imunoterapia específica para alergénios como terapêutica da dermatite atópica canina : situação actual de conhecimentos dos médicos veterinários e dos proprietários

Silva, Catarina Tusto Cordeiro Borges da
Fonte: Universidade Técnica de Lisboa. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária Publicador: Universidade Técnica de Lisboa. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
Publicado em 16/02/2011 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.44%
Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária; A dermatite atópica canina (cDA) é a doença atópica mais frequentemente diagnosticada no cão e pensa-se que o número de casos seja cada vez maior. A imunoterapia específica para alergénios (ITAE) consiste na administração de quantidades, gradualmente crescentes, de um alergénio, de forma a atenuar os sinais clínicos de cDA. A fim de se alcançar uma maior eficácia, esta terapêutica deve ser ajustada para cada caso. Assim, a escolha dos alergénios a incluir e do protocolo a seguir deve ser criteriosamente efectuada, tendo em conta a história clínica, o ambiente e a reacção individual de cada paciente. Este estudo teve como objectivo caracterizar a utilização da ITAE por parte dos Médicos Veterinários (MV) e tentar esclarecer se os conceitos acima descritos são aplicados na prática clínica corrente. Pretendeu-se também avaliar os proprietários dos pacientes alérgicos em relação aos seus conhecimentos sobre a ITAE e à vontade que demonstraram em aderir a esta terapêutica. No caso dos proprietários de animais que já realizaram ITAE durante um período mínimo de 6 meses, analisou-se o seu grau de satisfação com o tratamento. Para tal...

Relação entre o incumprimento de normas legais por parte dos proprietários de animais de companhia e a ocorrência de trauma na via pública

Canarias, Catarina Alexandra Feiteiro
Fonte: Universidade Técnica de Lisboa. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária Publicador: Universidade Técnica de Lisboa. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 18/11/2011 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.38%
Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária; A responsabilidade dos proprietários de animais de companhia é uma preocupação nas áreas do bem-estar animal e da saúde pública. Embora tenham sido realizados estudos sobre trauma em animais de companhia, estes incidem sobre a caracterização do mesmo ou os seus factores de risco, não existindo até à data estudos que relacionem o trauma com o nível de responsabilidade dos proprietários e o incumprimento de normas legais. O objectivo deste estudo baseia-se na motivaão de realizar um trabalho neste tema pouco retratado e incentivar a realização de estudos futuros mais abrangentes. Desta forma será possível promover um melhor conhecimento da população no que respeita à responsabilidade dos proprietários e elaborar planos multidisciplinares de prevenção e educação dos mesmos. Este trabalho consistiu num estudo de casos e controlos, a partir de uma amostra recolhida na clínica Azevet e no Hospital Escolar da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária de Lisboa, entre Dezembro de 2010 e Abril de 2011, tendo como base questionários anónimos feitos a proprietários de cães e gatos. Os casos dizem respeito a animais que tenham sofrido trauma na via pública. Utilizou-se estatística descritiva e testagem de hipóteses...

Buffalo, Brantford & Goderich Railway, County of Welland account book, 1853

Williams, Edie
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Outros
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.23%
The Buffalo and Brantford Railway Company was formed in 1850. The railway was renamed the Buffalo, Brantford & Goderich Railway in 1852 to reflect the plans to extend the line to Goderich. Financial problems led to a British group taking over the railway a few years later and the name was changed to the Buffalo & Lake Huron Railway. It was June 1858 before the line to Goderich was completed. Source: (http://brantford.library.on.ca/genealogy/railways.php#buffalo) March 8, 2010; Fonds consists of one account book listing property owners along side the Buffalo, Brantford & Goderich Railway in Welland County. Also included are two survey plans of the railway showing property owners. The account book was featured as “Exhibit A” in The Corporation of The County of Welland v. The Buffalo and Lake Huron Railway Company et al., October 28, 1869.

Mobile Banking and Financial Inclusion : The Regulatory Lessons

Klein, Michael; Mayer, Colin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.1%
Mobile banking is growing at a remarkable speed around the world. In the process it is creating considerable uncertainty about the appropriate regulatory response to this newly emerging service. This paper sets out a framework for considering the design of regulation of mobile banking. Since it lies at the interface between financial services and telecoms, mobile banking also raises competition policy and interoperability issues that are discussed in the paper. Finally, by unbundling payments services into its component parts, mobile banking provides important lessons for the design of financial regulation more generally in developed as well as developing economies.

The Economic Impact of Banking the Unbanked : Evidence from Mexico

Bruhn, Miriam; Love, Inessa
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.17%
This paper examines the effects of providing financial services to low-income individuals on entrepreneurial activity, employment, and income. The analysis exploits cross-time and cross-municipality variation in the opening of Banco Azteca in Mexico to measure these effects with a difference-in-difference strategy. Banco Azteca opened more than 800 branches simultaneously in 2002, focusing on low-income clients. The results show that the opening of Banco Azteca led to an increase in the number of informal business owners by 7.6 percent. Total employment also increased, by 1.4 percent, and average income went up by about 7 percent.

Are Women More Credit Constrained? Experimental Evidence on Gender and Microenterprise Returns

de Mel, Suresh; McKenzie, David; Woodruff, Christopher
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.34%
This paper analyzes data from a randomized experiment on mean returns to capital in Sri Lankan micro-enterprises. The findings show greater returns among men than among women; indeed, returns were not different from zero for women. The authors explore different explanations for the lower returns among female owners, and find no evidence that the gender gap is explained by differences in ability, risk aversion, or entrepreneurial attitudes. Differential access to unpaid family labor and social constraints limiting sales to local areas are not important. However, there is evidence that women invested grants differently from men. A smaller share of the smaller grants remained in the female-owned enterprises, and men were more likely to spend the grant on working capital and women on equipment. The gender gap is largest when male-dominated sectors are compared with female-dominated sectors, although female returns are lower than male returns even for females working in the same industries as men. The authors examine the heterogeneity of returns to determine whether any group of businesses owned by women benefit from easing capital constraints. The results suggest there is a large group of high-return male owners and a smaller group of poor...

What Are We Learning from Business Training and Entrepreneurship Evaluations around the Developing World?

McKenzie, David; Woodruff, Christopher
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.16%
Business training programs are a popular policy option to try to improve the performance of enterprises around the world. The last few years have seen rapid growth in the number of evaluations of these programs in developing countries. This paper undertakes a critical review of these studies with the goal of synthesizing the emerging lessons and understanding the limitations of the existing research and the areas in which more work is needed. It finds that there is substantial heterogeneity in the length, content, and types of firms participating in the training programs evaluated. Many evaluations suffer from low statistical power, measure impacts only within a year of training, and experience problems with survey attrition and measurement of firm profits and revenues. Over these short time horizons, there are relatively modest impacts of training on survivorship of existing firms, but stronger evidence that training programs help prospective owners launch new businesses more quickly. Most studies find that existing firm owners implement some of the practices taught in training...

Financing Small and Medium Enterprises in the Republic of South Africa

Fuchs, Michael; Iacovone, Leonardo; Jaeggi, Thomas; Napier, Mark; Pearson, Roland; Pellegrini, Giulia; Villegas Sanchez, Carolina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.23%
Numerous studies worldwide have highlighted the important contribution made by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to employment, income and economic growth. In a study of 76 developed and developing economies, Ayyagari and others (2007) found that SMEs account for more than 60 percent of total manufacturing employment and that SMEs contributed significant proportions of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). SME growth requires external financing, but constraints to accessing credit, consistently rated as some of the greatest barriers to the operation and growth of firms, affect SMEs more severely than large firms (Beck and Demirguc-Kunt 2006; Beck and others 2006). The purposes of this report are to: a) analyze the availability of bank finance to SMEs in South Africa and how availability might be enhanced in the context of the economic downturn; and b) offer concrete policy recommendations on how to lessen obstacles to bank SME financing and reduce the negative effects of the economic downturn (or of a similar downturn in future) on access to finance. The report is structured in 5 sections: section two provides a short overview of existing studies and data on SME finance in South Africa. Section three presents the main results of the surveys. Section four provides policy considerations. Section five concludes.

Financial Inclusion and Legal Discrimination Against Women : Evidence from Developing Countries

Demirguc-Kunt, Asli; Klapper, Leora; Singer, Dorothe
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.29%
This paper documents and analyzes gender differences in the use of financial services using individual-level data from 98 developing countries. The data, drawn from the Global Financial Inclusion (Global Findex) database, highlight the existence of significant gender gaps in ownership of accounts and usage of savings and credit products. Even after controlling for a host of individual characteristics including income, education, employment status, rural residency and age, gender remains significantly related to usage of financial services. This study also finds that legal discrimination against women and gender norms may explain some of the cross-country variation in access to finance for women. The analysis finds that in countries where women face legal restrictions in their ability to work, head a household, choose where to live, and receive inheritance, women are less likely to own an account, relative to men, as well as to save and borrow. The results also confirm that manifestations of gender norms, such as the level of violence against women and the incidence of early marriage for women...

The Politics of Russian Enterprise Reform : Insiders, Local Governments, and the Obstacles to Restructuring

Desai, Raj M.; Goldberg, Itzhak
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.16%
Russia and other countries in the commonwealth of independent states that have implemented voucher privatization programs have to account for the puzzling behavior of insiders manager-owners-who, in stripping assets from the firms they own, appear to be stealing from one pocket to fill the other. This article suggests that asset stripping and the absence of restructuring result from interactions between insiders and subnational governments in a particular property rights regime, in which the ability to realize value is limited by uncertainty and illiquidity. As the central institutions that govern the Russian economy have ceded their powers to the provinces, regional and local governments have imposed a variety of distortions on enterprises to protect local employment. To disentangle these vicious circles of control, this article considers three sets of institutional changes: adjustments to the system of fiscal federalism by which subnational governments would be allowed to retain tax revenues generated locally; legal improvements in the protection of property rights; and the provision of mechanisms for restructuring and ownership transformation in insider-dominated firms. The aim of these reforms would be to change the incentives that local governments...

Access to Financial Services : A Review of the Issues and Public Policy Objectives

Claessens, Stijn
Fonte: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.09%
This article reviews the evidence on the importance of finance for economic well-being. It provides data on the use of basic financial services by households and firms across a sample of countries, assesses the desirability of universal access, and provides an overview of the macroeconomic, legal, and regulatory obstacles to access. Despite the benefits of finance, the data show that use of financial services is far from universal in many countries, especially developing countries. Universal access to financial services has not been a public policy objective in most countries and would likely be difficult to achieve. Countries can, however, facilitate access to financial services by strengthening institutional infrastructure, liberalizing markets and facilitating greater competition, and encouraging innovative use of know-how and technology. Government interventions to directly broaden access to finance, however, are costly and fraught with risks, among others the risk of missing the targeted groups. The article concludes with recommendations for global actions aimed at improving data on access and use and suggestions on areas of further analysis to identify constraints to broadening access.

Financial Inclusion and the Role of the Post Office

Anson, Jose; Berthaud, Alexandre; Klapper, Leora; Singer, Dorothe
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.15%
Given their widespread presence in rural and poor areas, post offices can play a leading role in advancing financial inclusion. Yet little is known about the type of clients that post offices reach through their financial service offerings as compared with clients of traditional financial institutions (such as commercial banks). This paper documents and analyzes account ownership patterns at post offices in comparison with traditional financial institutions, using the Global Financial Inclusion Indicators (Global Findex) database, which collects data on account ownership at post offices in 60 countries where postal accounts are offered. Controlling for a host of individual characteristics and country fixed effects, the paper finds that post offices are relatively more likely than traditional financial institutions to provide accounts to individuals who are most likely to be from financially vulnerable groups, such as the poor, less educated, and those out of the labor force. The paper also uses data from the Universal Postal Union to explore the degree to which different postal business models and the size of the postal network help explain differences in account ownership patterns. The results suggest that post offices can boost account ownership by acting as cash-merchants for transactional financial services...

Informal Firms and Financial Inclusion : Status and Determinants

Farazi, Subika
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.17%
Many firms in the developing world -- including a majority of micro, small, and medium enterprises -- operate in the informal economy. The informal firms face a variety of constraints, making it harder for them to do business and grow. Lack of access to finance is often cited as the biggest operational constraint these firms face. This paper documents the use of finance and financing patterns of informal firms, highlights differences between use of finance by formal and informal firms, and identifies the most significant characteristics of informal firms that are associated with higher use of financial services. The analysis shows that use of loans and bank accounts for business by informal firms is very low and a vast majority finances their day-to-day operations and investments through sources other than financial institutions (internal funds, moneylenders, family, and friends). A majority of informal firm owners would like their firms to become formal but do not do so as it would require them to pay taxes. Registered firms are 54 percent more likely to have a bank account and 32 percent more likely to have loans. Results also show that firm size...

SMEs and Women-owned SMEs in Mongolia : Market Research Study

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.16%
Chapter one summarizes the scope of the study and outlines its key objectives. It explains the rationale for collecting data on SMEs in Mongolia in general and women-owned SMEs in particular. It also provides recommendations for integrating the insights form the study into the on-the-ground practice of SME banking, as well as potential interventions on the regulatory and policy level. Chapter two begins with the analysis of the general macroeconomic context and provides an overview of the SME sector in Mongolia. The chapter analyzes the latest trends in development of the business environment and the legal framework relevant for SMEs and women-owned SMEs. Chapter three examines the aspect of supply in financial and non-financial products and services currently offered to SMEs by commercial banks and non-bank financial institutions. It also reviews the support provided to SMEs by international financial institutions. Chapter four provides detailed overview of the findings of the demand study, explores the features of SMEs...

Lebanon Economic Monitor, Spring 2015

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.09%
The Lebanon Economic Monitor provides an update on key economic developments and policies over the past six months. It also presents findings from recent World Bank work on Lebanon. It places them in a longer-term and global context, and assesses the implications of these developments and other changes in policy on the outlook for Lebanon. Lebanon continues to be impacted by the domestic political stalemate and regional turmoil, particularly along its border with Syria. Economic activity picked up in the second half of 2014. Stronger economic performance and lower oil prices pushed real GDP growth to an estimated 2.0 percent in 2014, compared to 0.9 percent in 2013. One-off cosmetic and unsustainable measures rather than policy actions helped improve the fiscal balance in 2014. We estimate the overall fiscal deficit to have declined by 2.3 percentage points. Declining imports lead an improvement in the current account balance. In 2014, a fall in merchandize imports induced a 4.4 pp reduction in the current account deficit to a still-elevated 22.2 percent of GDP. This trend is projected to continue in 2015 helped by falling oil prices and a depreciating euro...

The Global Findex Database 2014

Demirguc-Kunt, Asli; Klapper, Leora; Singer, Dorothe; Van Oudheusden, Peter
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
The Global Financial Inclusion (Global Findex) database, launched by the World Bank in 2011, provides comparable indicators showing how people around the world save, borrow, make payments, and manage risk. The 2014 edition of the database reveals that 62 percent of adults worldwide have an account at a bank or another type of financial institution or with a mobile money provider. Between 2011 and 2014, 700 million adults became account holders while the number of those without an account—the unbanked—dropped by 20 percent to 2 billion. What drove this increase in account ownership? A growth in account penetration of 13 percentage points in developing economies and innovations in technology—particularly mobile money, which is helping to rapidly expand access to financial services in Sub-Saharan Africa. Along with these gains, the data also show that big opportunities remain to increase financial inclusion, especially among women and poor people. Governments and the private sector can play a pivotal role by shifting the payment of wages and government transfers from cash into accounts. There are also large opportunities to spur greater use of accounts...

Andean Countries : A Strategy for Forestry, Volume 3. Ecuador; Los paIses andinos - una estrategia para la silvicultura : programas y proyectos

FAO; World Bank
Fonte: FAO, Rome Publicador: FAO, Rome
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.16%
The World Bank's revised forest policy came into being in 2002 and covers all types of forests. It has the following key objectives: (i) harnessing the potential of forests to reduce poverty in a sustainable manner; (ii) integrating forests effectively into sustainable development; and (iii) protecting vital local and global environmental services and values. The policy enables the bank to fully engage in forestry throughout the developing world, while ensuring that it complies with such safe guard policies such as OP 4.01 (Environmental Assessment), OP 4.04 (Natural Habitats) and OD 4.20 (Indigenous Peoples). On the other hand, the policy provides only a general framework for its lending operations in forestry and cannot take account of the individual socio-economic and environmental needs of regions and sub regions. To carry out the work, experienced local consultants were recruited to prepare country level reports following guidelines provided by the FAO Investment Centre, the aim being to gain a strong local perspective on the main issues and potential for sustainable and equitable growth in the sector. These reports were complimented by reference to an extensive literature base to produce individual country reports and the summary which follows. Given the complexity of forestry in the region...

Does a Picture Paint a Thousand Words? Evidence from a Microcredit Marketing Experiment

Giné, Xavier; Mansuri, Ghazala; Picón, Mario
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.27%
Female entrepreneurship is low in many developing economies partly because of constraints on women's time and mobility, which are often reinforced by social norms. This paper analyzes a marketing experiment designed to encourage women to adopt a new microcredit product. A brochure with the same content but two different covers was randomly distributed among male and female borrowing groups. One cover featured five businesses run by men, while the other showed identical businesses run by women. Men and women responded to psychological cues. Among men who were not business owners, had lower measured ability and whose wives were less educated, the responses to the female brochure were more negative, as did female business owners with low autonomy within the household. Women with relatively high levels of autonomy had a similar negative response to the male brochure, while there was no effect on female business owners with autonomy. Overall, these results suggest that women's response to psychological cues, such as positive role models...

Who Are the Microenterprise Owners? Evidence from Sri Lanka on Tokman v. de Soto

de Mel, Suresh; McKenzie, David; Woodruff, Christopher
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.44%
Is the vast army of the self-employed in low income countries a source of employment generation? This paper uses data from surveys in Sri Lanka to compare the characteristics of own account workers (non-employers) with wage workers and with owners of larger firms. The authors use a rich set of measures of background, ability, and attitudes, including lottery experiments measuring risk attitudes. Consistent with the International Labor Organization's views of the self employed (represented by Tokman), the analysis finds that two-thirds to three-quarters of the own account workers have characteristics which are more like wage workers than larger firm owners. This suggests the majority of the own account workers are unlikely to become employers. Using a two and a half year panel of enterprises, the authors show that the minority of own account workers who are more like larger firm owners are more likely to expand by adding paid employees. The results suggest that finance is not the sole constraint to growth of microenterprises...

Is Somebody Watching Your Facebook Newsfeed?

Wu, Shan-Hung; Chou, Man-Ju; Wang, Ming-Hung; Tseng, Chun-Hsiung; Lee, Yuh-Jye; Chen, Kuan-Ta
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/08/2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.28%
With the popularity of Social Networking Services (SNS), more and more sensitive information are stored online and associated with SNS accounts. The obvious value of SNS accounts motivates the usage stealing problem -- unauthorized, stealthy use of SNS accounts on the devices owned/used by account owners without any technology hacks. For example, anxious parents may use their kids' SNS accounts to inspect the kids' social status; husbands/wives may use their spouses' SNS accounts to spot possible affairs. Usage stealing could happen anywhere in any form, and seriously invades the privacy of account owners. However, there is no any currently known defense against such usage stealing. To an SNS operator (e.g., Facebook Inc.), usage stealing is hard to detect using traditional methods because such attackers come from the same IP addresses/devices, use the same credentials, and share the same accounts as the owners do. In this paper, we propose a novel continuous authentication approach that analyzes user browsing behavior to detect SNS usage stealing incidents. We use Facebook as a case study and show that it is possible to detect such incidents by analyzing SNS browsing behavior. Our experiment results show that our proposal can achieve higher than 80% detection accuracy within 2 minutes...