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Severe and fatal car crashes due to roadside hazards: a report to the Motor Accident Commission

Kloeden, C.; McLean, J.; Baldock, M.; Cockington, A.
Fonte: Road Accident Research Unit Publicador: Road Accident Research Unit
Tipo: Relatório
Publicado em //1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
The NHMRC Road Accident Research Unit (RARU) was funded by the Motor Accident Commission in 1997 to investigate the role of roadside hazards in road accidents resulting in death or serious injury to a car occupant in South Australia. The main aim of this project was to document the extent to which roadside hazards contribute to severe and fatal car crashes in South Australia and to comment on the opportunities that exist to make our roadsides safer. A secondary aim of the project was to conduct investigations in such a way as to provide for the training of engineers from Transport SA in the recognition of hazardous roadside features and an appreciation of their importance in road safety. The study was based on information contained in the Traffic Accident Reporting System data base on road accidents reported to or by the Police and on information in Coronial records of fatal crashes. Some roadside hazard crashes were also investigated at the scene.; C.N. Kloeden, A.J. McLean, M.R.J. Baldock & A.J.T. Cockington

Crashworthiness research at the NHMRC Road Accident Research Unit

Anderson, R.; McLean, J.
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.87%
The NHMRC Road Accident Research Unit (RARU) at the University of Adelaide has investigated aspects of vehicle crashworthiness for many years. Recently, this work has concentrated on head injury prevention, for both vehicle occupants and pedestrians. The nature and severity ofbrain injuries to car occupants has been studied in relation to the object struck by the head and the location of the impact on the head. RARU has used this information to assess the likely benefits from padding the upper interior of the passenger compartment in terms of reducing the incidence and severity of brain injury. With support from the Federal Office of Road Safety, RARU is also developing a test facility to investigate the level of protection afforded to a pedestrian by current model passenger cars in car/pedestrian collisions. The procedure consists of three sub-system tests which consider loading to the head, the upper leg and the knee joint. The test procedure has been developed by the European Experimental Vehicles Committee and is currently being considered for adoption as a European vehicle safety standard. RARU is also using the facility to physically reconstruct fatal pedestrian accidents and to study the aggressiveness of bullbars.; http://trove.nla.gov.au/work/7161952

Adelaide in-depth accident study 1975-1979. Part 8: Summary and recommendations

McLean, Jack
Fonte: Road Accident Research Unit Publicador: Road Accident Research Unit
Tipo: Relatório
Publicado em //1981
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.9%
This report contains a summary of the conclusions and recommendations from earlier reports on the causes and consequences of a representative sample of road traffic accidents to which an ambulance was called in metropolitan Adelaide. Brief comments on the study as a whole are included. The abstracts, tables of contents, introductions and conclusions and recommendations from Parts 1 to 7 and 9 and 10 are presented in appendices.; A.J. Mclean

Adelaide in-depth accident study 1975-1979. Part 5: Commercial vehicle accidents

McLean, Jack; Aust, H. S.; Sandow, B. L.
Fonte: Road Accident Research Unit Publicador: Road Accident Research Unit
Tipo: Relatório
Publicado em //1979
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.9%
This report deals with accidents involving trucks, vans, buses and multi-purpose vehicles, not all of which were being used as commercial vehicles. There were relatively few single vehicle accidents, apart from those involving pedestrians, and the reluctance of semitrailer drivers to brake hard at s~gnalisedin tersections and insecure loads of some heavy vehicles distinguished these accidents from those involving only passenger cars. All but one of the drivers of these commercial vehicles were males, most of whom were aged between 20 and 50 years. None of these drivers were affected by alcohol intoxication to a significant degree, nor was fatigue a factor in any of these accidents. Although none of the commercial vehicle occupants was severely injured, the provision and use of seat belts may have avoided many of the injuries which did occur. Some multi-purpose passenger vehicles are deficient, when compared to passenger cars, in terms of protecting their occupants from injury in a crash.; A.J. Mclean, H.S. Aust, B.L. Sandow

Adelaide in-depth accident study 1975-1979. Part 4: Motorcycle accidents

McLean, Jack; Brewer, N. D.; Hall, C. T.; Sandow, B. L.; Tamblyn, P.J.
Fonte: Road Accident Research Unit Publicador: Road Accident Research Unit
Tipo: Relatório
Publicado em //1979
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.9%
This report contains descriptions of the causes and consequences of the accidents involving motorcycles in a representative sample of road traffic accidents to which an ambulance was called in metropolitan Adelaide. Reviews of the relevant characteristics of the motorcyclists and drivers, and of the motorcycles, are also included. The role of road and traffic factors is discussed in more detail in a separate report in this series. Sixty-eight, or 22 per cent of the accidents in this survey involved a motorcycle. Most of the riders were young males, many of whom were inexperienced in riding a motorcycle in traffic, and alcohol intoxication was a major factor in those accidents which occurred at night. Few riders were able to make full use of the braking capabilities of their motorcycle in an emergency, and changes are recommended in the method of brake actuation and in motorcycle licence tests. Ninety-six per cent of the motorcyclists were injured. Severe head injuries were less common than were severe injuries to the lower limbs, reflecting the use of effective crash helmets and the high risk of the motorcyclist being struck on the leg in a collision.; A.J. McLean, N.D. Brewer, C.T. Hall, B.L. Sandow, P.J. Tamblyn

Adelaide in-depth accident study 1975-1979. Part 3: Pedal cycle accidents.

McLean, Jack; Brewer, N. D.; Sandow, B. L.
Fonte: Road Accident Research Unit Publicador: Road Accident Research Unit
Tipo: Relatório
Publicado em //1979
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.9%
This report contains descriptions of the causes and consequences of the pedal cycle accidents contained in a representative sample of road traffic accidents to which an ambulance was called in metropolitan Adelaide. Reviews of the relevant characteristics of the cyclists and drivers, the vehicles, and the road and traffic environment are also included. One-third of these 22 accidents involved a child cyclist who was riding carelessly on a residential street. The other two-thirds mostly involved adult cyclists on arterial roads, and were a consequence of errors made equally by the cyclists and the drivers. Alcohol intoxication was not a significant factor in any of these accidents. Almost all of the cyclists were injured, and their injuries were often very severe. The front of the striking car caused two-thirds of the severe injuries. A number of possible countermeasures and topics worthy of further investigation are listed at the end of the report.; A.J. McLean, N.D. Brewer, B.L. Sandow

Adelaide in-depth accident study 1975-1979. Part 2: Pedestrian accidents

McLean, Jack; Brewer, N. D.; Sandow, B. L.
Fonte: Road Accident Research Unit Publicador: Road Accident Research Unit
Tipo: Relatório
Publicado em //1979
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.96%
This report contains descriptions of the causes and consequences of the pedestrian accidents contained in a representative sample of road traffic accidents to which an ambulance was called in metropolitan Adelaide. Reviews of the relevant characteristics of the pedestrians and drivers, the vehicles, and the road and traffic environment are also included. All but one of these 40 accidents occurred on busy roads. Some measures designed to increase the rate of flow of vehicular traffic are detrimental to the safety of the pedestrian, to the extent that some urban arterial roads are very hazardous for some pedestrians, particularly children and the elderly. The pedestrian was more likely to have been careless, or to have made a mistake, than was the driver, but alcohol intoxication was less apparent as a causal factor in these pedestrian accidents than in other types of accidents covered by this survey. The injuries sustained by the pedestrians were much more likely to be dangerous to life than were the injuries sustained by other road users involved in other types of accident. The front of the striking car, including the upper surface of the bonnet, accounted for more than half of the injuries. A number of possible countermeasures and topics worthy of further investigation are listed at the end of the report.; A.J. McLean...

Adelaide in-depth accident study 1975-1979. Part 1: An overview

McLean, Jack; Robinson, G. K.
Fonte: Road Accident Research Unit Publicador: Road Accident Research Unit
Tipo: Relatório
Publicado em //1979
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.01%
This report is a general introduction to, and review of, an in-depth study of road accidents to which an ambulance was called in the metropolitan area of Adelaide, South Australia. A representative 8% sample, comprising 304 accidents, was investigated in the 12-month period commencing March 23rd 1976. The general aims of this study are presented followed by a detailed description of the sampling procedure which was adopted. The method of operation is then described, and the types of accidents investigated are presented in form of the general characteristics of the accidents and of the drivers, riders, and pedestrians, together with a review of the consequences of these accidents. The major conclusions drawn from the results of the study are described briefly, including the ways in which factors such as alcohol and inexperience affect the safety of road users, the role played by vehicle factors and aspects of the road and traffic environment in accident causation, the main causes of injury to each class of roaduser and the value of helmets and seatbelts. The companion reports on specific aspects of the accidents investigated are listed in the final section.; A.J. McLean, G.K. Robinson

Adelaide in-depth accident study 1975-1979. Part 7: Road and traffic factors

McLean, Jack; Offler, W.
Fonte: Road Accident Research Unit Publicador: Road Accident Research Unit
Tipo: Relatório
Publicado em //1980
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.9%
This report contains a review of those features of the road and traffic environment that were relevant to the causation or consequences of the accidents in a representative sample of accidents to which an ambulance was called in metropolitan Adelaide. The review is presented in the context of descriptions of the accidents in order to demonstrate the interactions between road and traffic factorsand those relating to the vehicles and to the road users. Infringement of a traffic rule was the most common factor but this was often more a description of what happened rather than an adequate explanation. Excessive speed was also a prominent factor, even though the actual speed may have been below the legal limit, in collisions at sign-controlled and uncontrolled intersections. Safe approach speeds to uncontrolled intersections were such that a strong case can be made for the provision of some form of control. Fail-to-stand accidents were the most common type of collision at signalised locations, with auxiliary kerb lanes appearing to exacerbate the problem. Characteristics of the road surface were rarely relevant, possibly because the surface was generally dry and of good quality. Roadside objects played a role in determining the consequences of about one-third of the accidents.

Adelaide in-depth accident study 1975-1979. Part 6: Car accidents.

McLean, Jack; Aust, H. S.; Brewer, N. D.; Sandow, B. L.
Fonte: Road Accident Research Unit Publicador: Road Accident Research Unit
Tipo: Relatório
Publicado em //1981
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.04%
This report contains descriptions of the causes and consequences of the accidents involving cars in a representative sample of road traffic accidents to which an ambulance was called in metropolitan Adelaide. The characteristics of the drivers are reviewed in relation to the causation of these accidents and to accident prevention measures in general and the role of vehicle factors in accident and injury causation is discussed with emphasis on the Australian Design Rules for Motor Vehicle Safety. Two hundred and sixtytwo, or 86 per cent of the accidents in the survey involved one or more cars. Alcohol intoxication and inexperience in driving in traffic were the two characteristics of drivers that were most often obviously related to accident involvement. Vehicle defects played only a minor role. Seat belts were found to reduce the frequency and severity of injury; this was particularly so for the later inertia-reel belts which were also more likely to be worn. Seventy-nine per cent of drivers and 65 per cent of left front passengers wore a seat belt where one was available. Door latches and hinges, seat anchorages, and the steering wheel and instrument panel were either deficient in the crash or otherwise were frequently found to be objects causing injury to the occupants of the car.; A.J. McLean...

In-depth crash investigation at the Centre for Automotive Safety Research

Baldock, M.; Woolley, J.; Ponte, G.; Wundersitz, L.; Lindsay, V.
Fonte: Bundesanstalt fur Strassenwesen Publicador: Bundesanstalt fur Strassenwesen
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.89%
The Centre for Automotive Safety Research (formerly the Road Accident Research Unit) at the University of Adelaide in South Australia has a history of in-depth crash investigation going back to the 1970s. In recent years, our focus has been on studying factors that contribute to road crashes, with an emphasis on the role of road infrastructure. Our method involves crash notification by the South Australian Ambulance Service and detailed investigation of the crash scene usually before the crash-involved vehicles have been moved. This at-scene data collection is supplemented with police crash reports, Coroner’s reports including autopsy findings for fatal crashes, case notes from hospitals for all injured persons, structured interviews with crash participants and witnesses, and computerised reconstruction of the events of the crash. One of the most notable research findings to emerge from our in-depth work has been the relationship between travelling speed and the risk of crash involvement. By comparing the calculated free speeds of crash-involved vehicles (cases) with the measured speeds of non-crash-involved vehicles travelling on the same roads at the same time of day (controls), we were able to establish that an exponential relationship exists between travelling speed and the likelihood of involvement in a casualty crash. This was the case for both metropolitan and rural areas. This research prompted the reduction of some speed limits in Australia...

In-depth research into rural road crashes

Baldock, M.; Kloeden, C.; McLean, J.
Fonte: Centre for Automotive Safety Research Publicador: Centre for Automotive Safety Research
Tipo: Relatório
Publicado em //2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.89%
This report was produced under an agreement between Transport SA and the Road Accident Research Unit formed in the late 1990s. Due to various delays in the publication of this report, Transport SA has since become the Department for Transport, Energy and Infrastructure and the Road Accident Research Unit has become the Centre for Automotive Safety Research. The report describes a series of 236 rural road crashes investigated between 1 March 1998 and 29 February 2000 in South Australia. Investigations began with immediate attendance at the scene of the crash. The information collected for each crash included: photographs of the crash scene and vehicles involved, video record of the crash scene and vehicles in selected cases, examination of the road environment, a site plan of the crash scene and vehicle movements in the crash, examination and measurements of the vehicles involved, interviews with crash participants, interviews with witnesses, interviews with police, information on the official police report, information from Coroner’s reports, and injury data for the injured crash participants. The report provides an overall statistical summary of the sample of crashes investigated, followed by a detailed examination of the road infrastructure issues contributing to the crashes. This is done on the basis of crash type...

SARNET integrated European Severe Accident Research - Conclusions in the Source Term Area

HASTE T.; GIORDANO Pietro; HERRANZ L.; GIRAULT N.; DUBOURG Roland; SABROUX J.-C.; CANTREL L.; BOTTOMLEY Paul; PAROZZI F.; AUVINEN A.; DICKINSON S.; LAMY J.-C.; WEBER G.; ALBIOL T
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.05%
The overall aim of the SARNET (Severe Accident Research NETwork), in the EU 6th Framework programme was to integrate in a sustainable manner the research capabilities of fifty-one European organisations from eighteen member states of the European Union (EU) plus the Joint Research Centres, with one Canadian company, to resolve important remaining uncertainties and safety issues concerning existing and future nuclear plant, especially water-cooled reactors, under hypothetical severe accident conditions. It emphasised integrating activities, spreading of excellence (including knowledge transfer) and jointly executed research, with the knowledge gained being encapsulated in the European severe accident modelling code ASTEC. This paper summarises the achievements over the whole project in the Source Term Topic, which dealt with potential radioactive release to the environment, covering release of fission products and structural materials from the core, their transport in the primary circuit, and their behaviour in the containment. The main technical areas covered, as emphasised by the earlier EURSAFE project, were the effect of oxidative conditions on fission product release and transport (especially the behaviour of the highly radiotoxic ruthenium under air ingress conditions)...

SARNET - Severe Accident Research Network of Excellence

ALBIOL T.; VAN DORSSELAERE J.p.; CHAUMONT B.; HASTE T.; JOURNEAU Ch.; MEYER L.; RAJ SEHGAL Bal; SCHWINGES B.; BERAHA D.; ANNUNZIATO Alessandro; ZEYEN Roland
Fonte: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD Publicador: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Online
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.92%
Fifty-one organisations network in SARNET (Severe Accident Research NETwork of Excellence) their research capacities in order to resolve the most important pending issues for enhancing, with regard to Severe Accidents (SA), the safety of existing and future Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). This project, co-funded by the European Commission (EC) under the 6th Framework Programme, has been defined in order to optimise the use of the available means and to constitute sustainable research groups in the European Union. SARNET tackles the fragmentation that may exist between the different national R&D programmes, in defining common research programmes and developing common computer tools and methodologies for safety assessment. SARNET comprises most of the organisations involved in SA research in Europe, plus Canada. To reach these objectives, all the organisations networked in SARNET contributed to a Joint Programme of Activities, which consisted of: Implementation of an advanced communication tool for accessing all project information, fostering exchange of information, and managing documents; Harmonization and re-orientation of the research programmes, and definition of new ones; Analysis of the experimental results provided by research programmes in order to elaborate a common understanding of relevant phenomena; Development of the ASTEC code (integral computer code used to predict the NPP behaviour during a postulated SA)...

SARNET: Severe Accident Research Network of Excellence

ALBIOL Thierry; VAN DORSSELAERE Jean Pierre; CHAUMONT Bernard; HASTE Tim; JOURNEAU Christophe; MEYER Leonard; SEHGAL Bal Raj; SCHWINGES Bernd; BERAHA David; ANNUNZIATO Alessandro; ZEYEN Roland
Fonte: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD Publicador: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.91%
Fifty-one organisations network in SARNET (Severe Accident Research NETwork of Excellence) their research capacities in order to resolve the most important pending issues for enhancing, with regard to Severe Accidents (SA), the safety of existing and future Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). This project, cofunded by the European Commission (EC) under the 6th Framework Programme, has been defined in order to optimise the use of the available means and to constitute sustainable research groups in the European Union. SARNET tackles the fragmentation that may exist between the different national R&D programmes, in defining common research programmes and developing common computer tools and methodologies for safety assessment. SARNET comprises most of the organisations involved in SA research in Europe, plus Canada. To reach these objectives, all the organisations networked in SARNET contributed to a Joint Programme of Activities, which consisted of: Implementation of an advanced communication tool for accessing all project information, fostering exchange of information, and managing documents; Harmonization and re-orientation of the research programmes, and definition of new ones; Analysis of the experimental results provided by research programmes in order to elaborate a common understanding of relevant phenomena; Development of the ASTEC code (integral computer code used to predict the NPP behaviour during a postulated SA)...

SARNET - Severe Accident Research Network of Excellence

ALBIOL Thierry; VAN DORSSELAERE Jean-Pierre; CHAUMONT Bernard; HASTE Tim; JOURNEAU Christophe; MEYER Leo; SEHGAL Bal Raj; SCHWINGES Bernd; BERAHA David; ANNUNZIATO Alessandro; ZEYEN Roland
Fonte: European Nuclear Society Publicador: European Nuclear Society
Tipo: Contributions to Conferences Formato: Printed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.92%
Fifty-one organizations network in SARNET (Severe Accident Research NETwork of Excellence) their capacities of research in order to resolve the most important pending issues for enhancing, in regard of Severe Accidents (SA), the safety of existing and future Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). This project, co-funded by the European Commission (EC) under the 6th Framework Programme, has been defined in order to optimise the use of the available means and to constitute sustainable research groups in the European Union. SARNET tackles the fragmentation that may exist between the different national R&D programmes, in defining common research programmes and developing common computer tools and methodologies for safety assessment. SARNET comprises most of the actors involved in SA research in Europe, plus Canada. To reach these objectives, all the organizations networked in SARNET contribute to a Joint Programme of Activities, which consists in: - Implementing an advanced communication tool for accessing all project information, fostering exchange of information, and managing documents; - Harmonizing and re-orienting the research programmes, and defining new ones; - Analyzing the experimental results provided by research programmes in order to elaborate a common understanding of relevant phenomena; - Developing the ASTEC code (integral computer code used to predict the NPP behaviour during a postulated SA)...

Conclusions on severe accident research priorities

KLEIN-HESSLING Walter; SONNENKALB M; JACQUEMAIN D.; CLEMENT B.; RAIMOND E; DIMMELMEIER H.; AZARIAN G.; DUCROS G.; JOURNEAU C.; HERRANZ PUEBLA L.e.; SCHUMM A.; MIASSOEDOV Alexei; KLJENAK I.; PASCAL GHISLAIN; BECHTA S.; GUNTAY S.; KOCH M.k.; IVANOV I.; AUVI
Fonte: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD Publicador: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.01%
The objectives of SARNET2 FP7 are to define and work on common research programs in the field of severe accidents in Gen.II-III nuclear power plants (NPP) and to further develop common tools and methodologies for safety assessment in this area. Ensuring that the research conducted on severe accidents is efficient and well-focused, the Severe Accident Research Priority (SARP) work performed in SARNET FP6 is being updated by evaluating the most recent experimental results and taking into account the remaining safety issues as e.g. highlighted by Level 2 PSA studies and the results of the recent EU-ASAMPSA2 Project. These evaluation activities are conducted in close relation with the work performed under the auspices of international organizations like OECD or IAEA. The severe accidents in Fukushima, which occurred while SARNET2 was running, had some effects on the prioritization and definition of new research topics. Although significant progress has been gained and simulation models (e.g. ASTEC integral code) are improved, leading to an increased confidence in the predictive capabilities needed for assessing the success potential of countermeasures and/or mitigation measures, most of the selected research topics are still of high priority. Notably after the Fukushima’s accident...

Severe accident research at the Transuranium Institute Karlsruhe: A review of past experience and its application to future challenges

BOTTOMLEY Paul; WALKER Clive; PAPAIOANNOU Dimitrios; BREMIER Stephan; POEML PHILIPP; GLATZ Jean-Paul; VAN WINCKEL Stefaan; VAN UFFELEN Paul; MANARA Dario; RONDINELLA Vincenzo
Fonte: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD Publicador: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tipo: Articles in periodicals and books Formato: Printed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
With the current situation in Japan one should examine previous research into severe accidents and the current state of European severe accident research to assess what are the priorities for research for existing and future nuclear reactors. The European Commission’s SARNET 2 (Severe Accident NETwork of Excellence) programme and its SARP (Severe Accident Research Priorities) assessments have been made and have outlined the future needs as seen from the EU point of view. There is already considerable research that will be very valuable in analysing and guiding the investigation and remediation activities at Fukushima Dai-ichi. This includes investigations into previous major accidents and international severe fuel damage projects. Facilities using analogue materials are able to analyse large-scale behaviour of materials, while smaller-scale testing of irradiated fuel for detailed property measurements are important for mechanistic studies. The final (and very important) aspect is application of this information to formulate codes to model the identified mechanisms and also to have their predictions validated by the data. This paper will take examples from the Transuranium Institute’s (ITU Karlsruhe’s) contribution to projects such as the TMI-2 accident investigation and the Phébus PF bundle and fission product deposit investigations as well as some of the smaller scale testing and modelling support that ITU has performed over the last 20 years. This will show what has been learnt about fuel and structural material degradation and formation of molten materials...

SARNET a European Cooperative Effort on LWR Severe Accident Research

MICAELLI Jc; HASTE T; VAN DORSSELAERE Jean-Pierre; BONNET Jean Michel; MEYER Leonhard; BERAHA David; ANNUNZIATO ALESSANDRO; CHAUMONT Bernard; ADROGUER Bernard; SEHGAL Raj; TRAMBAUER Klaus
Fonte: Societe' Francaise d'Energie Nucleaire - SFEN Publicador: Societe' Francaise d'Energie Nucleaire - SFEN
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
A number of European R&D organizations, including technical supports of safety authorities, industriy, utilities and universities, have decided to use the opportunity offered by EC in the framework of FP6 to network in the Severe Accident Research Network (SARNET) their capacities of research in the severe accident area and thus enhancing the safety of existing and future NPPs. The report describes the form and the status of the network./; JRC.G.2-Support to external security

Severe Accident research at ITU, Karlsruhe: a review of past experience and its application to future challenges.

BOTTOMLEY Paul; PAPAIOANNOU Dimitrios; WALKER Clive; GLATZ Jean-Paul; BREMIER Stephan; POEML PHILIPP; VAN WINCKEL Stefaan; CHRISTIANSEN Birgit; VAN UFFELEN Paul; MANARA Dario; RONDINELLA Vincenzo
Fonte: American Nuclear Society Publicador: American Nuclear Society
Tipo: Contributions to Conferences Formato: CD-ROM
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
With the current situation in Japan it is worthwhile to examine previous research into severe accidents and the current state of European severe accident research priorities to assess what are the priorities for research for Japan, Europe and the rest of the world for existing and even future nuclear reactors. The European Commission's SARNET 2 (Severe Accident NETwork of Excellence) programme and its SARP (Severe Accident Research Priorities) assessments have been made and have outlined the future needs as seen from the EU point of view. There is considerable research already carried out that will be very valuable in analysing and guiding the investigation and remediation activities at Fukushima Dai-Ichi. This includes investigations into previous major accidents and international severe fuel damage projects. There are facilities using analogue materials to analyse large–scale behaviour of materials as well as smaller-scale testing of irradiated fuel and nuclear materials for detailed properties measurements that is important for mechanistic studies. The final (and very important) aspect is application of this information to formulate codes to model the identified mechanisms and also to have their predictions validated by the data. This paper will take examples from ITU's contribution to projects such as the TMI-2 accident investigation and the Phébus PF bundle and fission product deposit investigations as well as some of the smaller scale testing and modelling that ITU has performed over the last 20 years. This will show what has been learnt about fuel and structural material degradation and formation of molten materials...