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AIDS in Latin America: assessing the current status of the epidemic and the ongoing response

BASTOS, Francisco I.; CACERES, Carlos; GALVAO, Jane; VERAS, Maria Amelia; CASTILHO, Euclides Ayres
Fonte: OXFORD UNIV PRESS Publicador: OXFORD UNIV PRESS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.62%
Background This article provides a summary of the current status of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Latin America, as well as an outline of the diverse responses to it. Methods A search of international databases (Pubmed and ISI-Web of Science), regional databases (Scielo and Lilacs), regional and national documents and UNAIDS reports. Data are presented according to subregion. Results In Mexico HIV remains concentrated among urban men who have sex with men (MSM), and has been growing among injecting drug users (IDU) and in rural areas in relation to migration. An increasing proportion of women among those affected is observed in all countries in Central America, the most affected region, as well as increasing the impact on other vulnerable groups, such as indigenous populations. The Andean Countries have urban epidemics concentrated among MSM. In Peru, non-traditional vulnerable populations were identified. In the Southern Cone heterosexual transmission became more relevant, probably in connection with IDU epidemics and is increasingly affecting lower income groups. Incidence rates have been declining since 2002 in Brazil, the first country to guarantee free, universal access to antiretrovirals, where one-third of drug-nave patients are still initiating treatment at an advanced stage. Generally...

Avaliação do acesso ao diagnóstico e tratamento de tuberculose na perspectiva dos indivíduos coinfectados ou não pelo HIV, São José do Rio Preto - SP; Assessment of The Access to Tuberculosis Diagnose and Treatment from the Individuals Co-infected or Not with HIV in São José do Rio Preto, SP.

Rodrigues, Ana Maria da Silveira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/12/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.67%
Objetivos: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o acesso ao diagnóstico e ao tratamento de doentes com Tuberculose e coinfectados pelo HIV, no município de São José do Rio Preto- SP. Materiais e Métodos: Trata-se de uma pesquisa avaliativa, de abordagem quantitativa que utilizou o modelo de estudo transversal. Foram entrevistados 106 doentes no período de junho de 2006 a julho de 2007, que estavam em tratamento nas Unidades de Saúde que desenvolvem o Programa de Controle da Tuberculose (PCT) do município. Utilizou-se o instrumento "Primary Care Assessment Tool," adaptado para atenção à tuberculose. Para análise dos dados foram usadas técnicas de estatística descritiva como análise de freqüência, média, desvio-padrão, intervalo de confiança, teste t de Student e teste de Mann-Whitney Resultados: Dos 106 doentes entrevistados, 11 foram excluídos por não terem sido submetidos ao teste de anti HIV Desta forma 95 doentes participaram deste estudo, sendo que 76,8% apresentavam TB e não-coinfecção pelo HIV e 23,2% apresentavam TB e coinfecção pelo HIV. A maioria (66,3%) era do sexo masculino, 69,5% possuia ensino fundamental, 50,5% declarou residir em casa própria e 98,9% possuia casa de alvenaria. A partir dos dados observados houve diferenças estatisticamente significativas quanto as variáveis acesso ao diagnóstico cujos doentes com TB e coinfectados quase nunca ou às vezes procuram o posto de saúde mais próximo da residência e os doentes com TB quase sempre procuram o posto de saúde mais próximo da residência. Como também...

Avaliação da adesão de pacientes portadores de síndrome metabólica ao tratamento: acesso e uso de medicamentos e conhecimento de fatores de risco; Metabolic syndrome patient compliance with treatment: access to and use of medicines and knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors

Silva, Nilceia Lopes da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/04/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.57%
Em estudo com pacientes portadores de síndrome metabólica atendidos em centro de saúde-escola, vinculado ao Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), avaliou-se a adesão ao tratamento (medicamentoso e não medicamentoso) e a associação/correlação entre o acesso e uso de medicamentos e o nível de conhecimento dos fatores de risco cardiovascular e adesão. Este estudo foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas - Universidade de São Paulo (USP) - em 30 de outubro de 2006 (Protocolo No 395) e compreendeu duas etapas: a primeira compreendeu o corte transversal para a avaliação da adesão ao tratamento medicamentoso e a associação/correlação entre as variáveis; a segunda, que compreendeu a coorte prospectiva com acompanhamento de 12 meses, com avaliações trimestrais, teve o objetivo de avaliar o nível de adesão ao tratamento medicamentoso e não medicamentoso. Utilizou-se a Medida de Adesão ao Tratamento (MAT), uma variação do Teste de Morisky-Green, para a avaliação do comportamento do paciente em relação ao uso de medicamentos. Para a avaliação do tratamento não-medicamentoso, utilizaram-se os seguintes parâmetros: redução de 10% do peso corporal total e realização de atividades físicas em sessões de no mínimo 30 minutos de duração e com a freqüência de pelo menos três vezes por semana. Identificou-se 243 pacientes...

Fornecimento de medicamentos pós-pesquisa; Post-trial access to study medications

Dainesi, Sonia Mansoldo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/05/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.64%
A tendência de globalização dos ensaios clínicos, observada nos últimos anos, trouxe à tona questões antes não discutidas como a continuidade do tratamento com os medicamentos em investigação, após a conclusão da pesquisa. A inclusão de países em desenvolvimento nesses estudos traz consigo a preocupação com a vulnerabilidade dos participantes da pesquisa. No Brasil, há cerca de cinco anos, os Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa, CEP, e, particularmente, a Comissão Nacional de Ética em Pesquisa, CONEP, passaram a solicitar a manutenção do fornecimento do(s) medicamento(s) do estudo após sua finalização. Embora baseada nos principais documentos éticos que norteiam a pesquisa clínica, essa solicitação apresenta dificuldades práticas para implantação, principalmente no caso de doenças crônicas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar as questões envolvidas na continuidade do fornecimento de medicamentos após a conclusão de ensaio clínico e analisar a perspectiva de atores que compõem o cenário da pesquisa clínica nacional. Questionários e respectivos Termos de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecidos, TCLE, foram enviados por correioeletrônico, entre outubro de 2009 e janeiro de 2010, a membros de CEPs (todos os CEPs credenciados pela CONEP naquela data)...

A adesão ao tratamento no caso da tuberculose multirresistente; Adherence to treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

Ferreira, Kuitéria Ribeiro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/12/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.62%
Introdução: A situação epidemiológica da tuberculose (TB) no âmbito mundial e no Brasil ainda evidencia importante magnitude, acrescentandose o problema crescente da Tuberculose Multirresistente (TBMR). A TB é exemplo consagrado que evidencia as desigualdades sociais e as limitações de acesso à saúde. A adesão ao tratamento da TBMR é um dos aspectos cruciais do cotidiano da assistência em saúde e uma das maiores dificuldades no controle da enfermidade. Objetivos: Analisar como se processa a adesão ao tratamento para a TBMR, em um grupo de indivíduos que completaram com sucesso o tratamento medicamentoso; e propor alternativas para incrementar a adesão. Métodos: Estudo de abordagem qualitativa, desenvolvido em Centro de Referência para Controle da TB e TBMR do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Foram coletados, no período de abril a setembro de 2012, depoimentos de indivíduos que vivenciaram o adoecimento por TBMR e que aderiram ao tratamento medicamentoso até a alta por cura. Os depoimentos foram analisados segundo técnica de análise de discurso e interpretados à luz da Hermenêutica-Dialética e da Teoria da Determinação Social do Processo Saúde-Doença. Resultados: Entrevistouse 21 sujeitos, sendo: 17 (80...

ACCESS TO TREATMENT IN HIV PREVENTION TRIALS: PERSPECTIVES FROM A SOUTH AFRICAN COMMUNITY

BARSDORF, NICOLA; MAMAN, SUZANNE; KASS, NANCY; SLACK, CATHERINE
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.62%
Access to treatment, in HIV vaccine trials (HVTs), remains ethically controversial. In most prevention trials, including in South Africa, participants who seroconvert are referred to publicly funded programmes for treatment. This strategy is problematic when there is inadequate and uneven access to public sector antiretroviral therapy (ART) and support resources. The responsibilities, if any, of researchers, sponsors and public health authorities involved in HVTs has been hotly debated among academics, scholars, representatives of international organizations and sponsors. However, there is little published on community perceptions. Recent guidance asserts that communities should make inputs into treatment and care decisions. This qualitative study explored a South African community’s perceptions of who should provide what to HVT participants as well as how and why this should be done. Twenty-nine adults working at or attending five primary health care clinics in two rural areas in KwaZulu-Natal participated in in-depth interviews. Respondents expressed that researchers should ‘help participants to access’ treatment and care ‘because they are in a position to do so’ and ‘are in a relationship with’ trial participants. Respondents suggested that researchers could help by ‘facilitating referral’ until such time that participants can access care and treatment on their own. We highlight a series of implications for researchers in HVTs...

Access to healthcare and financial risk protection for older adults in Mexico: secondary data analysis of a national survey

Doubova, Svetlana V; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo; Canning, David; Reich, Michael R
Fonte: BMJ Publishing Group Publicador: BMJ Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.56%
Objectives: While the benefits of Seguro Popular health insurance in Mexico relative to no insurance have been widely documented, little has been reported on its effects relative to the pre-existing Social Security health insurance. We analyse the effects of Social Security and Seguro Popular health insurances in Mexico on access to healthcare of older adults, and on financial risk protection to their households, compared with older adults without health insurance. Setting: Secondary data analysis was performed using the 2012 Mexican Survey of Health and Nutrition (ENSANUT). Participants: The study population comprised 18 847 older adults and 13 180 households that have an elderly member. Outcome measures The dependent variables were access to healthcare given the reported need, the financial burden imposed by health expenditures measured through catastrophic health-related expenditures, and using savings for health-related expenditures. Separate propensity score matching analyses were conducted for each comparison. The analysis for access was performed at the individual level, and the analysis for financial burden at the household level. In each case, matching on a wide set of relevant characteristics was achieved. Results: Seguro Popular showed a protective effect against lack of access to healthcare for older adults compared with those with no insurance. The average treatment effect on the treated (ATET) was ascertained through using the nearest-neighbour matching (−8.1%...

HIV and AIDS in South Asia : An Economic Development Risk

Haacker, Markus; Claeson, Mariam
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.63%
This book offers an original perspective on HIV and AIDS as a development issue in South Asia, a region with a heterogeneous epidemic and estimated national HIV prevalence rates of up to 0.5 percent. The analysis challenges the common perception of HIV and AIDS, which has been shaped to a large extent by analysis of HIV and AIDS in regions with much higher prevalence rates. The chapters, most of which were commissioned specifically for this volume, can be grouped in three broad themes - the epidemiology of HIV and prevention strategies (chapters one and two), economic and development impacts of HIV and AIDS (chapters three and four), and the implications of HIV and AIDS for the health sector (chapters five and six). Within each theme, one chapter provides a more general discussion of the respective issues in the region (chapters one, three, and five), and one chapter highlights aspects of the respective issue in one particular country (with chapter two dealing with HIV in Afghanistan, and chapters four and six discus sing aspects of the impact of or the response to HIV and AIDS in India). Regarding the broad development themes identified by this book...

Food Crisis, Household Welfare and HIV/AIDS Treatment : Evidence from Mozambique

de Walque, Damien; Kazianga, Harounan; Over, Mead; Vaillant, Julia
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.56%
Using panel data from Mozambique collected in 2007 and 2008, the authors explore the impact of the food crisis on the welfare of households living with HIV/AIDS. The analysis finds that there has been a real deterioration of welfare in terms of income, food consumption, and nutritional status in Mozambique between 2007 and 2008, among both HIV and comparison households. However, HIV households have not suffered more from the crisis than others. Results on the evolution of labor force participation suggest that initiation of treatment and better services in health facilities have counter-balanced the effect of the crisis by improving the health of patients and their labor force participation. In addition, the authors look at the effect of the change in welfare on the frequency of visits to a health facility of patients and on their treatment outcomes. Both variables can proxy for adherence to treatment. This is a particularly crucial issue as it affects both the health of the patient and public health, because sub-optimal adherence leads to the development of resistant forms of the virus. The paper finds no effect of the change in welfare on the frequency of visits...

Determinants of non adherence to tuberculosis treatment in Argentina: barriers related to access to treatment

Herrero,María Belén; Ramos,Silvina; Arrossi,Silvina
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.56%
OBJECTIVE: To identify the association between non-adherence to tuberculosis treatment and access to treatment. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. One hundred twenty three patients notified in 2007 (38 non adherent and 85 adherents) were interviewed regarding the health care process and socio-demographic characteristics. Factors associated to non-adherence were assessed through logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: An increased risk of non-adherence with to treatment was found in male patients (OR = 2.8; 95%CI 1.2 - 6.7), patients who had medical check-ups at hospitals (OR = 3.4; 95%CI 1.1 - 10.0) and those who had difficulties with transportation costs (OR = 2.5; 95%CI 1.1 - 5.9). CONCLUSION: Risk of non-adherence increases as a result of economic barriers in accessing health care facilities. Decentralization of treatment to primary health care centers and social protection measures for patients should be considered as priorities for disease control strategies in order to lessen the impact of those barriers on adherence to treatment.

Kyrgyz Republic; Insights on Household Access to Water Supply and Sanitation

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.64%
This note has been prepared as part of the work program on multi-dimensional poverty in the Kyrgyz Republic to raise awareness of poverty dimensions, which in turn should help accelerate the development of water supply and sanitation services, and necessary reforms in the Kyrgyz Republic. The note analyzes the quality and reliability of the Integrated Households Survey (KIHS) data to measure access to water supply and sanitation services. The household survey was conducted by the National Statistics Committee (NSC) of the Kyrgyz Republic. It is representative at the national, rural/urban, and oblast levels. Using survey data we analyze the consumption of water supply and sanitation services at the household level with a focus on access, quality, and expenditures.

Arab Republic of Egypt - Inequality of Opportunity in Access to Basic Services among Egyptian Children

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.56%
Egypt's children and youth, representing more than one-third of the country´s population and its future, face several significant challenges, as shown by higher child poverty rates and unequal access to basic services. The objective of this report is three-fold: (i) to analyze the extent of inequality of opportunity among Egyptian children; (ii) to inform government policy on how success in life is influenced by factors predetermined at birth; and (iii) to identify policies and interventions that may contribute to improving equality of opportunity. The underlying premise is that ensuring equality of opportunity entails leveling the playing field in such a way that every child, regardless of the circumstances of his/her birth, will have an equal chance to succeed in life. This report analyzes the extent of provision of equal access to basic opportunities to all children (including healthcare, education, clean water and sanitation), and identifies the main circumstances that affect it and therefore determine human development outcomes. The analysis in this report builds on the concepts and ideas developed in the World Development Report (WDR). The findings are aimed at supporting debates and discussions...

The Future of Water in African Cities : Why Waste Water? Urban Access to Water Supply and Sanitation in Sub-Saharan Africa, Background Report

Dominguez Torres, Carolina
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.61%
The main purpose of this paper is to explain the patterns of access to water supply and sanitation facilities in urban areas in Sub-Saharan Africa since the late 90's, and its relation with the performance of service providers in the case of improved water supply. It also seeks to explore the institutional context of the water supply and sanitation sectors. The paper concludes that services providers in Sub-Saharan Africa have been unable to keep up with urban population growth. Service providers are overwhelmed by the pace of urban population growth as they face high distributional losses, low billing collection, overstaffing, and under recovery of costs. The institutional frameworks are yet to be completed as there is vast political inference in service provision and regulation, as well as obstacles for effectively undertake public private partnerships. The paper is organized as follows. Section one presents definitions of water supply sources and sanitation, as well as the sources of data used for the analysis. Section two discusses the current and projected trends of urbanization...

The Illusion of Inclusion : Women's Access to Rights in Northern Kenya

Ayuko, Bonita; Chopra, Tanja
Fonte: World Bank, Nairobi Publicador: World Bank, Nairobi
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Law and Justice Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.6%
This paper shows how official laws concerning justice for women, can be difficult to apply when they are not socially acknowledged, contextualized, or received, and therefore have minimal impact on women's lives. It demonstrates that the inclusion of women through international conventions, domestic legal reform, and gender quotas in participatory processes, is illusory. While these are all important instruments in women's empowerment, the paper calls upon access to justice practitioners and policy makers to place equal emphasis on fostering the practical implementation of laws and to emphasize opportunities for increased equality in informal systems.

Vietnam - The Role of Postal Networks in Expanding Access to Financial Services Country case : Vietnam's postal finance services

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Public Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.56%
This paper discusses the role of the postal network in expanding access to financial services in Vietnam. It reviews the public postal operator within the postal sector and within the broader context of the communications sector. The roles of the Vietnam postal network and post bank are also reviewed from the perspective of the financial sector development, with particular focus on payments systems development and micro finance. While this country case on Vietnam can stand alone, it is an integral part of this large study of the potential of postal networks to coordinate with financial service providers in 7 countries (Egypt, Kazakhstan, Namibia, Romania, Sri Lanka, Uganda, and Vietnam) and 5 regions (Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the Middle East and Northern Africa). Five years after its introduction, the Vietnamese Postal Savings Corporation (VPSC) can look back on an impressive record of successes. With its 920 post offices (of 3,000), VPSC operates the second-largest financial service network in the country. It developed as a channel for mobilizing small household deposits...

Non-Communicable Diseases in Jamaica : Moving from Prescription to Prevention

Chao, Shiyan; Carpio, Carmen; Geyndt, Willy de
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.53%
Reducing the burden of Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Jamaica is a national policy. The Government of Jamaica has recognized the importance of preventing and controlling NCDs and created the National Health Fund (NHF) to reduce the cost of treating them by providing free or subsidized medicines to patients with NCD conditions and finance some prevention programs. The World Bank undertook a study to learn from Jamaica's experience in tackling major NCDs and related risk factors, provide policy options for Jamaica to improve the NCD Program, and share with other Caribbean countries lessons learned from this experience. The study answered three questions: (i) whether Jamaica's NHF and its drug subsidy Program have reduced out of pocket spending on NCD treatment; (ii) whether access to treatment of NCDs has improved in the country; and (iii) what is the economic burden on patients with NCDs and their families.

The Changing HIV/AIDS Landscape : Selected Papers for the World Bank's Agenda for Action in Africa, 2007-2011

Lule, Elizabeth L.; Seifman, Richard M.; David, Antonio C.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.6%
The HIV/AIDS pandemic in Sub-Saharan Africa remains a long-term development challenge for the region. Nearly 12 million African children have been orphaned as a result of the disease, and 22.5 million people in Africa 61 percent of them women live with HIV. The hyperepidemics in Southern Africa have diluted poverty reduction efforts and in several countries substantially reduced life expectancy. The critical need to address this development problem is reflected in the sixth Millennium Development Goal (MDG), which seeks to halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS by 2015 and to make access to treatment for HIV/AIDS universal for all those who need it by 2010. With Sub-Saharan Africa representing nearly two-thirds of those living with HIV globally, and the fact that human development indicators of several countries in the region lag far behind the rest of the world, prospects for Sub-Saharan Africa reaching any of the MDG goals will require a sustained response to HIV/AIDS. Reversing the spread of HIV/AIDS is closely linked to combating other major diseases referenced in sixth MDG...

Health Information, Treatment, and Worker Productivity : Experimental Evidence from Malaria Testing and Treatment among Nigerian Sugarcane Cutters

Dillon, Andrew; Friedman, Jed; Serneels, Pieter
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.56%
Agricultural and other physically demanding sectors are important sources of growth in developing countries but prevalent diseases such as malaria adversely impact the productivity, labor supply, and choice of job tasks among workers by reducing physical capacity. This study identifies the impact of malaria on worker earnings, labor supply, and daily productivity by randomizing the temporal order at which piece-rate workers at a large sugarcane plantation in Nigeria are offered malaria testing and treatment. The results indicate a significant and substantial intent to treat effect of the intervention -- the offer of a workplace-based malaria testing and treatment program increases worker earnings by approximately 10 percent over the weeks following the offer. The study further investigates the effect of health information by contrasting program effects by workers' revealed health status. For workers who test positive for malaria, the treatment of illness increases labor supply, leading to higher earnings. For workers who test negative...

Post-trial access to treatment for patients participating in clinical trials

Doval, Dinesh Chandra; Shirali, Rashmi; Sinha, Rupal
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.64%
Clinical trials are the mainstay for bringing out newer and better drugs to serve the mankind. By virtue of participating in a clinical trial, a patient receives access to the newer drugs/therapies, but nothing is generally being offered to them once their participation in the study comes to an end. Though the issue of post-trial access to treatment by patients participating in a clinical trial is debatable, there is no compelling justification either for or against it. We examined a case study in order to evaluate the applicability of post-trial access to treatment for patients participating in clinical trials. The provision of post-trial access to treatment should also keep into consideration the compassionate use of drugs on humanitarian grounds, especially in cases of trial drugs that have offered significant benefit to the trial patients and whose termination would lead to deterioration in patient's overall condition. In the present era of personalized medicine, the incorporation of genetic testing into clinical practice further authenticates the rationale of compassionate use of drugs and post-trial access to treatment.

A human rights-based approach to poverty reduction: the role of the right of access to medicine as an element of the right of access to health care

Strauss,Z; Horsten,D
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.59%
The prevention and treatment of infectious diseases remain among the greatest challenges faced by today's developing countries. The World Health Organisation estimates that about one-third of the world's population lacks access to essential medicine, a fact which, according to the United Nations, directly contradicts the fundamental principle of health as a human right. According to the World Summit for Social Development, poor health and illness are factors that contribute to poverty, while the adverse effects of illness ensure that the poor become poorer. A lack of access to health care, amongst other rights, (including access to medicines as an element thereof) aggravates poverty. The most important provision in international law relating to the right to health is article 12 of the United Nations International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Article 12(1) of this Covenant provides a broad formulation of the right to health in international law, while article 12(2) prescribes a non-exhaustive list of steps to be taken in pursuit of the highest attainable standard of health. Article 12(2), in particular, illustrates the role that adequate access to medication plays in the right of access to health care. The United Nations Committee on Economic...