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Options to Increase Access to Telecommunications Services in Rural and Low-Income Areas

Muente-Kunigami, Arturo; Navas-Sabater, Juan
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.88%
Recent evidence suggests that increasing overall service coverage and promoting access to telecommunications services have a high economic benefit. Overall, it is estimated that a ten percent increase in mobile telephony penetration could increase economic growth by 0.81 percent in developing countries, whereas a ten percent increase in broadband penetration could increase economic growth by 1.4 percent. In rural and low-income areas in particular, not only do basic telephony services and broadband access allow population to connect with relatives and friends, but they have also introduced a dramatic increase in productivity and in many cases have become the only way for small and medium enterprises in rural areas to access national and, in some cases, global markets. Moreover, the impact of access to telecommunications in rural areas on health, education, disaster management, and local governments has allowed better and more rapid responses, improved coordination, and more effective public management. It is therefore worthwhile to take a second look at all possible policy options...

Financial Services to Improve Access to Water and Sanitation in Sub-Saharan Africa

Biesinger, Brigitte; Richter, Maren
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.88%
Achieving the millennium development goals, particularly, reducing child mortality (the fourth), and halving the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water (the seventh) requires significant improvements in access to safe water and basic sanitation. In Sub-Saharan Africa a water and sanitation crisis looms. Forty-four percent of the population does not have reliable access to safe water, and 63 percent remain un-served by sanitation facilities. Income poverty is also at a crisis stage. Some 72 percent of the population in Africa lives on less than US$2 a day and 41 percent suffers from extreme poverty on less than $1 a day. Despite the dire need and consensus on the goals, public funds for water supply and sanitation are drying up. Marrying the financial with the water and sanitation sectors to make financial services available to low-income households and small-scale providers of water and sanitation services is a market-driven, market-friendly approach to resolving the credit constraint that is inhibiting the development of water and sanitation infrastructure in Africa. Depending on the situation...

Financial Access 2009 : Measuring Access to Financial Services around the World

Consultative Group to Assist the Poor
Fonte: Consultative Group to Assist the Poor/The World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: Consultative Group to Assist the Poor/The World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.75%
Financial Access 2009 introduces the latest data from a survey of financial regulators in 139 countries. It presents indicators of access to savings, credit, and payment services in banks, and in regulated nonbank financial institutions. It is intended for a broad audience of policymakers, researchers, practitioners, multilateral and bilateral investors, in order to guide monetary policy, monitor systemic risks, and collect information on the values of deposits and credit. This report reviews three interventions: disclosure requirements, interest rate caps, and methods to address excessive lending that can result in consumer indebtedness. Improved transparency and disclosure allow borrowers to make informed choices and can facilitate competition in financial markets, eventually leading to lower prices and improved products. Policies to restrict interest rates or credit quantity, especially in consumer credit, seem to have limited effect but require further analysis.

Equity, Access to Health Care Services and Expenditures on Health in Nicaragua

Angel-Urdinola, Diego; Cortez, Rafael; Tanabe, Kimie
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.8%
Nicaragua has embarked on an ambitious health sector program, which has contributed to significant progress in the health sector over the past decade. Health indicators show gradual but steady improvements: access to basic services such as clean water and sanitation facilities has improved, as have other related performance indicators such as life expectancy, infant/child mortality, immunization rates, and child nutrition among others. Despite these achievements, there are still large inequities in access and quality of health services across socioeconomic groups and regions. Poor individuals living in rural areas (especially in the Central and Atlantic regions), the indigenous population, and individuals living in households engaged in agriculture have average access to health care services and preventive care. The lack of risk mitigation mechanisms such as insurance and social security is causing users in Nicaragua to spend, out-of-pocket, a significant share of their income on health care, especially to buy medications and other non-consultation items such as medical tests. Long distances...

Financial Sector Assessment Program : Malawi - Access to Financial Services

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.85%
This technical note the Malawi 2007 Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) reviews the current challenges of increasing access to financial services in Malawi. After a cursory assessment of the state of the financial sector in chapter one, it summarizes the key challenges of rural financial sector development (chapter two); then discusses the opportunities that branchless banking technology offers (chapter three), the options for strengthening the financial infrastructure (chapter four) and the role of government in increasing access (chapter five). It concludes with recommendations on how authorities may seek to realize these opportunities (chapter six).

Access to Financial Services : A Review of the Issues and Public Policy Objectives

Claessens, Stijn
Fonte: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.81%
This article reviews the evidence on the importance of finance for economic well-being. It provides data on the use of basic financial services by households and firms across a sample of countries, assesses the desirability of universal access, and provides an overview of the macroeconomic, legal, and regulatory obstacles to access. Despite the benefits of finance, the data show that use of financial services is far from universal in many countries, especially developing countries. Universal access to financial services has not been a public policy objective in most countries and would likely be difficult to achieve. Countries can, however, facilitate access to financial services by strengthening institutional infrastructure, liberalizing markets and facilitating greater competition, and encouraging innovative use of know-how and technology. Government interventions to directly broaden access to finance, however, are costly and fraught with risks, among others the risk of missing the targeted groups. The article concludes with recommendations for global actions aimed at improving data on access and use and suggestions on areas of further analysis to identify constraints to broadening access.

Improving Energy Access to the Urban Poor in Developing Countries

The Energy and Resources Institute
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.84%
The case studies documented in this report aim to inform the energy access community (including practitioners, civil society groups, project planners, end users) about best practices of successful energy access initiatives targeted at slum dwellers. Eight case studies focusing on electrification and household energy were selected from India, Bangladesh, Colombia and Brazil, all countries that have had varying success in providing access to modern energy services for slum dwellers. The cases had to meet all or some of the following criteria: 1) limited to developing countries; 2) demonstrate innovative methods of improving energy access, including collaborative stakeholder engagement; 3) at least one example of small local energy service providers; 4) contributed to community development by promoting local skill development and income generation; and 5) representative of electricity and different sources of household energy. The case studies describe the existing conditions in the slum, type of energy service provided...

How Access to Urban Potable Water and Sewerage Connections Affects Child Mortality

Shi, Anqing
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.8%
Using a city-level database of global Urban Indicators, the author finds that: 1) Improved access to urban potable water and sewerage connections is consistently associated with low child mortality. 2) Government involvement in providing water services, especially locally, significantly reduces child mortality. 3) Private or parastatal participation in providing sewerage connections is associated with low child mortality. $) Rapid urban growth and high levels of poverty within the city are correlated with high child mortality.

Scaling Up Access to Electricity : Pay-as-You-Go Plans in Off-Grid Energy Services

Moreno, Alejandro; Bareisaite, Asta
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.8%
Although the payment models offered by off-grid energy companies are less flexible than those implemented with great success by mobile telephone companies, they may still have an important role to play in scaling up off-grid energy services for billions of people who lack access to electricity. More research is needed to assess the importance of flexible payments in attracting reliable low-income customers.

Barriers to Access to Payment Systems and Proposed Actions : Special-Purpose Note

Global Remittances Working Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.83%
This paper analyzes the difficulties for nonbank RSPs in their indirect access to the domestic payment system infrastructure. It presents the background (section three) and the current situation, giving examples from a few key sending markets (section four). The main factors underlying the current situation are outlined (section five), and several potential pragmatic solutions are presented as a basis for further discussion along with implementable action plans (section six). The paper concludes with possible next steps (section seven).

Access to Finance for Smallholder Farmers

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.81%
The percentage of smallholders with access to finance is equally difficult to quantify. According to estimates, even promising approaches to expanding smallholder lending, such as value chain finance, are reaching fewer than 10 percent of smallholders, primarily those in well-established value chains dedicated to higher value cash crops. International Finance Corporation (IFC) has been engaged for several years in learning efforts through diverse partnerships to obtain insights into the challenges of agricultural finance. The evidence of microfinance institution (MFI) involvement in financing commercial and semi-commercial smallholders remains anecdotal and lacks specifics on what makes MFI lending to these segments feasible, and what restricts their reach and effectiveness. This IFC study aims to identify and disseminate lessons emerging from the work of MFIs that have implemented agricultural operations targeting agricultural smallholders in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) to support replication and expansion of scalable approaches. Through this research...

The Future of Water in African Cities : Why Waste Water? Urban Access to Water Supply and Sanitation in Sub-Saharan Africa, Background Report

Dominguez Torres, Carolina
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.89%
The main purpose of this paper is to explain the patterns of access to water supply and sanitation facilities in urban areas in Sub-Saharan Africa since the late 90's, and its relation with the performance of service providers in the case of improved water supply. It also seeks to explore the institutional context of the water supply and sanitation sectors. The paper concludes that services providers in Sub-Saharan Africa have been unable to keep up with urban population growth. Service providers are overwhelmed by the pace of urban population growth as they face high distributional losses, low billing collection, overstaffing, and under recovery of costs. The institutional frameworks are yet to be completed as there is vast political inference in service provision and regulation, as well as obstacles for effectively undertake public private partnerships. The paper is organized as follows. Section one presents definitions of water supply sources and sanitation, as well as the sources of data used for the analysis. Section two discusses the current and projected trends of urbanization...

The Role of Postal Networks in Expanding Access to Financial Services : Country Case - Egypt's Postal Finance Services

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.85%
This paper discusses the role of the postal network in expanding access to financial services in Egypt. It reviews the public postal operator within the postal sector and within the broader context of the communications sector. The roles of the postal network and state and privately-owned banks are also reviewed from the perspective of the financial sector development, with particular focus on payments systems development and microfinance. The ultimate goal of postal reform is to create a system where modern technology and a free flow of information benefit the customer. A modern, efficient postal service that utilizes the latest information technology will not only increase Egypt's social and economic development, but will also contribute significantly to the creation of an Egyptian information society.

Critical Administrative Constraints to Service Delivery : Improving Public Services in Afghanistan's Transformational Decade

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.82%
Since 2001, the Afghan population's access to basic services has greatly improved in nearly all sectors. School enrolment has increased sharply, with over eight million children currently enrolled in school, of which 39 percent are girls. Current strategies for improving sub-national service delivery focus on delegating greater authority to provincial and district administrations. This report aims to identify administrative constraints in three key sectors of public service delivery, education, health and agricultural extension services. The analysis follows the service delivery chain, from central to provincial, through district to community level, and is particularly concerned to examine service delivery in these three sectors through the window of sub-national governance and its relations to the service delivery mandates of line ministries. The study provides the Government of Afghanistan with recommendations on how to alleviate critical constraints to service delivery at sub-national levels on a sustainable basis...

Vietnam - The Role of Postal Networks in Expanding Access to Financial Services Country case : Vietnam's postal finance services

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Public Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.89%
This paper discusses the role of the postal network in expanding access to financial services in Vietnam. It reviews the public postal operator within the postal sector and within the broader context of the communications sector. The roles of the Vietnam postal network and post bank are also reviewed from the perspective of the financial sector development, with particular focus on payments systems development and micro finance. While this country case on Vietnam can stand alone, it is an integral part of this large study of the potential of postal networks to coordinate with financial service providers in 7 countries (Egypt, Kazakhstan, Namibia, Romania, Sri Lanka, Uganda, and Vietnam) and 5 regions (Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the Middle East and Northern Africa). Five years after its introduction, the Vietnamese Postal Savings Corporation (VPSC) can look back on an impressive record of successes. With its 920 post offices (of 3,000), VPSC operates the second-largest financial service network in the country. It developed as a channel for mobilizing small household deposits...

The Role of Postal Networks in Expanding Access to Financial Services : Egypt's Postal Finance Services

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.85%
This paper discusses the role of the postal network in expanding access to financial services in Egypt. It reviews the public postal operator within the postal sector and within the broader context of the communications sector. The roles of the postal network and state and privately-owned banks are also reviewed from the perspective of the financial sector development, with particular focus on payments systems development and microfinance. The ultimate goal of postal reform is to create a system where modern technology and a free flow of information benefit the customer. A modern, efficient postal service that utilizes the latest information technology will not only increase Egypt's social and economic development, but will also contribute significantly to the creation of an Egyptian information society.

Improving Access to Health Care Services through the Expansion of Coverage Program : The Case of Guatemala

Lao Pena, Christine
Fonte: World Bank, Washington DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.83%
Since the signing of the 1996 Peace Accords, Guatemala has made efforts to establish economic and political stability, and to improve its social indicators. The country's Constitution states that access to health care is a basic right of all Guatemalans. In practice, however, it has been challenging for the Government of Guatemala to guarantee this right using public facilities. As a result, it has been trying to improve access to health services using both Ministry of Public Health and Social Assistance (MOH) facilities and staff, and alternative health service providers, particularly nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). This case study reviews the experience implementing the Expansion of Coverage Program (Programa de Extension de Cobertura, PEC) that was established by the Government of Guatemala in 1997 to improve coverage of health and nutrition services to poor, rural, and largely indigenous areas by contracting NGOs. It describes its origins; its package of services; contracting, financing, monitoring, and supervision mechanisms; and its contributions to improving access and strengthening primary health care services in Guatemala. It also discusses opportunities and challenges that need to be addressed to continue to improve health services coverage in the country.

Bringing Finance to Pakistan's Poor : Access to Finance for Small Enterprises and the Underserved

Nenova, Tatiana; Thioro Niang, Cecile; Ahmad, Anjum
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.81%
Access to financing is now widely acknowledged as a path to meaningful economic inclusion and reduction in poverty. Policy efforts to increase access to finance in Pakistan have taken time to bear fruit, but now access is indeed expanding quickly in certain financial sectors (microfinance, remittances), albeit from a very low base. Nevertheless, policy measures cannot single-handedly increase financial access; financial institutions' willingness to expand access in Pakistan has been stinted by slow technologic advances, weak legal foundations, and unsuitable financial processes and products. Poor socioeconomic conditions, gender bias, and low levels of basic education and financial literacy remain barriers, but perhaps the single strongest driver of low demand for financial access has been income. The primary purpose of this study is to measure and describe the state of financial service provision to underserved segments of the market in Pakistan, particularly those with low incomes and small enterprises, and to identify ways to improve investment and create inclusive markets that meet the needs of underserved people and enterprises.

Liberalization and Universal Access to Basic Services : Telecommunications, Water and Sanitation, Financial Services, and Electricity

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; World Bank
Fonte: OECD and the World Bank, Paris Publicador: OECD and the World Bank, Paris
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.91%
Access to basic services plays an important role in both individual well-being and a country's economic development. For this reason, general availability of these services to citizens, regardless of income level and geographical location, has generally been viewed as an important public policy goal. However, the precise definition of this goal and the means of attaining it have provoked controversy. This volume explores whether liberalization can contribute to achieving universal service goals and, if so, how, and looks at the types of complementary policies that may be required. It focuses on experience in four sectors: telecommunications, financial, water and sanitation, and energy services. For each sector, an overview paper and one or two case studies from developing countries examine the experience of governments in harnessing liberalization to meet social goals. It is hoped that this cross-sector view will yield general insights which a focus on a single sector may not, and help each sector to generate ideas by drawing upon experience in other sectors. A horizontal assessment also helps to determine how far the services negotiations at the World Trade Organization (WTO)...

One Goal, Two Paths : Achieving Universal Access to Modern Energy in East Asia and the Pacific

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.84%
The purpose of the current flagship report is to address energy access and related developmental issues in East Asia Pacific (EAP) that so far have received less attention compared to the macro energy issues of climate change and reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. EAP countries have two steep paths to climb to achieve universal access to modern energy: electricity and modern cooking solutions. Approximately 170 million people, or 34 million households, in EAP countries do not have electricity connections in their homes. This number is equivalent to approximately 9 percent of the Region's total population, and 30 percent of the Region's population excluding China. Moreover, approximately 6 times that number, or over 1 billion people, still lack access to modern cooking solutions. In addition, EAP is exceeded by only Sub Saharan Africa and South Asia in the number of people who lack access to electricity. However, access to both electricity and modern cooking solutions is essential to address the enduring impacts of poverty and to move the poor onto a rising development trajectory. The link between access to modern energy and development is most clearly defined by the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). The MDGs were formulated to reduce global poverty while increasing education...