Página 1 dos resultados de 589 itens digitais encontrados em 0.129 segundos

Tanzania - Public Expenditure Review of the Water Sector

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.97%
Improving access to and quality of water supply and sanitation (WSS) services is emerging as a key objective in poverty alleviation. The importance of access to improved water supply and sanitation has been even more pronounced since it was declared a target of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000. The achievement of the MDGs will require a large investment program that will help increase access to safe and sustainable water and sanitation services. The majority of the funds for the sector are still provided for by the government at central, provincial or local levels. Although additional resources may be urgently needed, research in other social sectors (health and education) has also shown that higher public expenditures do not necessarily result in better social outcomes. Gaps in achieving outcomes can be due to: a) sub-optimal spending, due to inefficient allocation of resources, discretionary reallocation of resources, inappropriate policies and institutional incentives, or poor targeting of resources; b) low quality of service delivery due to inefficiencies in service delivery; and c) lack of demand from certain segments of the population. A lot of effort has been dedicated to increasing resources to achieve the MDGs...

Regulatory Frameworks for Water Resources Management : A Comparative Study

Salman, Salman M. A.; Bradlow, Daniel
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.96%
Water is a scarce and finite resource with no substitute, and upon which the very existence of life on earth depends. The challenges facing water resources are daunting. The Millennium Development Goals aim, inter alia, at reducing by half, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and sanitation. Although progress thus far is not encouraging, it is hoped that necessary actions will be taken to achieve this goal during the remaining period. Such actions include financial, institutional, and legal measures. Indeed, without the appropriate legal framework, the ability of the state to regulate, control, and allocate its water resources is hampered; its role in ensuring their efficient and proper use is hindered; and its right to protect those resources is challenged. This study of the regulatory frameworks for water resources management examines water legislation in sixteen jurisdictions, and highlights, in a comparative manner, the key elements needed for an effective regulatory framework. Chapter 1 traces the relevance and importance assigned to water legislation by the different international conferences and forums...

Africa - Ebbing Water, Surging Deficits : Urban Water Supply in Sub-Saharan Africa

Banerjee, Sudeshna; Skilling, Heather; Foster, Vivien; Briceno-Garmendia, Cecilia; Morella, Elvira; Chfadi, Tarik
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.97%
With only 56 percent of the population enjoying access to safe water, Sub-Saharan Africa lags behind other regions in terms of access to improved water sources. Based on present trends, it appears that the region is unlikely to meet the target of 75 percent access to improved water by 2015, as specified in the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). The welfare implications of safe water cannot be overstated. The estimated health and time-saving benefits of meeting the MDG goal are about 11 times as high as the associated costs. Monitoring the progress of infrastructure sectors such as water supply has been a significant by-product of the MDG, and serious attention and funding have been devoted in recent years to developing systems for monitoring and evaluating in developing countries. Piped water reaches more urban Africans than any other form of water supply-but not as large a share as it did in the early 1990s. The most recent available data for 32 countries suggests that some 39 percent of the urban population of Sub-Saharan Africa is connected to a piped network...

Financial Services to Improve Access to Water and Sanitation in Sub-Saharan Africa

Biesinger, Brigitte; Richter, Maren
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
105.99%
Achieving the millennium development goals, particularly, reducing child mortality (the fourth), and halving the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water (the seventh) requires significant improvements in access to safe water and basic sanitation. In Sub-Saharan Africa a water and sanitation crisis looms. Forty-four percent of the population does not have reliable access to safe water, and 63 percent remain un-served by sanitation facilities. Income poverty is also at a crisis stage. Some 72 percent of the population in Africa lives on less than US$2 a day and 41 percent suffers from extreme poverty on less than $1 a day. Despite the dire need and consensus on the goals, public funds for water supply and sanitation are drying up. Marrying the financial with the water and sanitation sectors to make financial services available to low-income households and small-scale providers of water and sanitation services is a market-driven, market-friendly approach to resolving the credit constraint that is inhibiting the development of water and sanitation infrastructure in Africa. Depending on the situation...

Water, Electricity, and the Poor : Who Benefits from Utility Subsidies?

Komives, Kristin; Foster, Vivien; Halpern, Jonathan; Wodon, Quentin; Abdullah, Roohi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.83%
Utility subsidies to consumers of water and electricity services are often justified as a mechanism for making services affordable for the poor. After all, an estimated 1.1 billion people in the developing world lack access to safe water, 2 billion are without electricity, and 2.4 billion without sanitation. But critics object that such subsidies can work against improving quality of service to existing consumers and extending access to unconnected households. Financially strapped utilities are often inefficient, provide low-quality services, and lag behind in expanding networks. During the 1990s, experts urged that water and electricity services should charge enough to fully cover costs. Households could spend 10-50 percent more on water and electricity without major effects on poverty levels, but in many countries much larger price increases are needed to recover costs. A substantial proportion of the population of lower income countries may find it difficult to pay the full cost of services.

Attaining the Millennium Development Goals in India : How Likely and What Will It Take to Reduce Infant Mortality, Child Malnutrition, Gender Disparities and Hunger-Poverty and to Increase School Enrollment and Completion?

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.7%
Since the launch of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) at the Millennium Summit in New York in September 2000, the MDGs have become the most widely-accepted yardstick of development efforts by governments, donors and NGOs. The MDGs are a set of numerical and time-bound targets related to key achievements in human development. They include halving income-poverty and hunger, achieving universal primary education and gender equality, reducing infant and child mortality by two-thirds and maternal mortality by three quarters, reversing the spread of HIV/AIDS and other communicable diseases, and halving the proportion of people without access to safe water. These targets are to be achieved by 2015, from their levels in 1990.

Environmental Determinants of Child Mortality in Rural China : A Competing Risks Approach

Jacoby, Hanan; Wang, Limin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.88%
We use a competing risk model to analyze environmental determinants of child mortality using the 1992 China National Health Survey, which collects information on cause of death. Our primary question is whether taking into account of cause of death using a competing risk model, compared with a simple model of all-cause mortality, affects conclusions about the effectiveness of policy interventions. There are two potential analytical advantages in using cause of death information: (1) obtaining more accurate estimates and (2) validating causal relationships. Although, we do not find significant differences between estimates obtained from the competing risk model and those from simpler hazard models, we do find evidence supporting the causal interpretations of the effect of access to safe water on child mortality. Our analysis also suggests that a respondent-based health survey can be used to collect relatively reliable information on cause of death. Modifying future demographic and health survey (DHS) instruments to collect cause of death information inexpensively may be worthwhile for enhancing the analytical strength of the DHS.

Can the Principles of Franchising be used to Improve Water Supply and Sanitation Services? A Preliminary Analysis

van Ginneken, Meike; Tyler, Ross; Tagg, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.87%
Improving water supply and sanitation (WSS) services is a key mechanism for reducing poverty. WSS services contribute directly or indirectly to income generation, health, and education. Water is an intrinsic element of the Millennium Development Goals agreed upon by the international community in 2000. Halving by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation is one of the time bound targets that are embodied in the Millennium Development Goals. Reaching this target requires that roughly one quarter of a million people per day gain access to safe water and one third of a million per day gain access to adequate sanitation. Currently, in developing countries, the overall effectiveness of WSS service provision is disappointing due to such factors as: poor management, inadequate investment, and political interference. Substantially increasing the number of people with sustainable access to WSS requires a transformation of long-established sector approaches as well as a substantial increase in WSS investments in the developing world. Foremost among reform measures are the introduction of sound policies and effective institutions at all levels. Strengthened institutions will be better able to generate cash flows...

Sierra Leone : Public Expenditure Review for Water and Sanitation 2002 to 2009

Bennett, Anthony; Thompson, Darrell; van Ginneken, Meike
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.98%
This review focuses on how public expenditure translates into the delivery of water supply and sanitation services in rural and urban areas in Sierra Leone. It describes the legal and institutional framework for the allocation of resources assesses access to Water Supply and Sanitation (WSS) services and past sector performance, and analyzes public expenditure in the sector, including the factors affecting the efficiency of use of resources, and makes recommendations. Water supply includes the supply, distribution, and usage of water for drinking, food preparation, and hygiene. Sanitation is defined as the sanitary disposal of liquid waste and the promotion of hygienic practices. The review covers the period from 2002 to 2009, a period of reconstructing after a decade of upheavals. Since 2002, democracy and a stable environment for development have been re-established in the country, especially since the 2007 presidential elections. Sierra Leone remains one of the poorest countries in the world.

Review of Effectiveness of Rural Water Supply Schemes in India

Misra, Smita
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.89%
The prime objective of this study is to review the effectiveness of rural water supply schemes in different states in India. A total of 10 states have been covered in the study: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Orissa, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, and West Bengal. The study explores the extent to which expenditure on rural water supply has been effective in providing access to safe water to rural households in India. This has been assessed in terms of their reliability and adequacy, affordability, and sustainability. In addition, the study examines in detail the capital and Operation and Maintenance (O&M) cost and the extent of cost recovery in rural water supply schemes. In order to explore the effectiveness of rural water supply schemes, the study looks at the extent to which expenditure on rural water supply under various government programs gets translated into water supply infrastructure and services. This is based on an analysis of the flow of funds, institutional costs...

Implementation Strategy for Urban Water Supply Policy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.94%
This report deals with the water sector in Cambodia, and only mentions sanitation aspects in passing. However, it is recognized that the scale of the sanitation challenge is similarly daunting to or even larger than the water challenge, and that progress in sanitation will be as crucial as expanded access to safe water in making a lasting impact on poverty incidence, in particular vulnerability to waterborne diseases. There are two main constraints to broad-based growth in the sector. First is the absence of a comprehensive strategy to channel financing into the sector and to address weak incentives to raise more own-generated funds from user revenues. Second is the capacity of the providers to absorb public funding and utilize resources efficiently towards expanded access to sustainable services. Both of these constraints will have to be addressed in the context of the country's overall policy of promoting sustainable use of water resources and considering concerns of the poor and marginalized in the pursuit of development. In the short term...

Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
76%
Better hygiene and access to drinking water and sanitation will accelerate progress toward two millennium development goals (MDGs): 'reduce under-five child mortality rate by 2/3 between 1990 and 2015' and "by 2015 halve the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation". Meeting the latter goal will require infrastructure investments of about US$23 billion per year, to improve water services for 1.5 billion more people (292,000 people per day) and access to safe sanitation for 2.2 billion additional people (397,000 per day). Water supply, sanitation, and hygiene are about more than health. Saved time, particularly for women and children, is a major benefit. Beneficiaries of water and sanitation projects in India reported these benefits: less tension/conflict in homes and communities; community unity, self-esteem, women's empowerment (less harassment) and improved school attendance (Water Aid 2001). Improved hygiene (hand washing) and sanitation (latrines) have more impact than drinking water quality on health outcomes...

Scaling Up Rural Water Supply Service in Benin : A Programmatic Approach and Budget Support

Prevost, Christophe; Bea, Sylvestre; Leroy-Themeze, Claude
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.87%
People in rural areas of Benin have a greatly increased access to safe drinking water, thanks to government vision, donor support, and the investment and advisory assistance of the World Bank. In 2000, the government of Benin began preparing the ministries of key sectors for a shift from a project approach to a programmatic approach with enhanced budget support. The World Bank, through budget support operations and other donors, has supported Benin's reforms in budget preparation and management and in implementation of the country's poverty reduction strategy paper. The ministry of rural water supply was part of this move, and Benin is on track to meet the millennium development goals (MDG) target for its rural drinking-water supply. The smart lessons share how the World Bank contributed to Benin's remarkable progress in this sector.

Africa's Water and Sanitation Infrastructure : Access, Affordability, and Alternatives

Banerjee, Sudeshna Ghosh; Morella, Elvira
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.94%
The Africa Infrastructure Country Diagnostic (AICD) has produced continent-wide analysis of many aspects of Africa's infrastructure challenge. The main findings were synthesized in a flagship report titled Africa's Infrastructure: a time for transformation, published in November 2009. Meant for policy makers, that report necessarily focused on the high-level conclusions. It attracted widespread media coverage feeding directly into discussions at the 2009 African Union Commission Heads of State Summit on Infrastructure. Although the flagship report served a valuable role in highlighting the main findings of the project, it could not do full justice to the richness of the data collected and technical analysis undertaken. There was clearly a need to make this more detailed material available to a wider audience of infrastructure practitioners. Hence the idea of producing four technical monographs, such as this one, to provide detailed results on each of the major infrastructure sectors, information and communication technologies (ICT)...

The Guinea Water Lease : Five Years On - Lessons in Private Sector Participation

Brook Cowen, Penelope J.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Viewpoint; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.8%
In 1989, the Government of Guinea entered into a lease arrangement for private sector operation of water services in the capital city, Conakry, and sixteen other towns. The lease has been broadly successful --in the first five years, it led to a big increase in the population with access to safe water. But, because the risk sharing between the parties to the lease has proved difficult to implement and enforce, improvements have been smaller than hoped for. The author reviews the lease's performance, drawing lessons for water projects in other countries.

Europe and Central Asia - Meeting the Environment Millennium Development Goal

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.94%
This report reviews the status of the 28 countries of Europe and Central Asia (ECA) with respect to the environmental Millennium Development Goal (MDG). The aim of this goal is to 'ensure environmental sustainability,' which is elaborated by a set of three targets and eight indicators. The indicators for the environment MDG are important not only as measures of environmental sustainability, but also as contributors to the health and poverty goals. In ECA, these linkages are clearly brought out for the water supply and sanitation indicators, but also apply to the carbon reduction, forestry and biodiversity indicators. The three targets and its indicator are: (i) halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation: (a) proportion of population with sustainable access to an improved water source; and (b) proportion of population with access to basic sanitation; (ii) integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the losses of environmental resources: (a) energy use (kg oil equivalent) per $1 GDP(Purchasing Power Parity(PPP)); (b) carbon dioxide emissions (per capita); (c) proportion of land area covered by forest; (d) ratio of area protected to maintain biological diversity to surface area; and (e) proportion of population using solid fuels; (iii) by 2020 to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers: (a) proportion of households with access to secure tenure.

Tanzania’s Infrastructure : A Continental Perspective

Shkaratan, Maria
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.88%
Infrastructure contributed 1.3 percentage points to Tanzania's annual per capital GDP growth during the 2000s. If the country's infrastructure endowment were improved to the level of the African leader, Mauritius, annual per capita growth rates could increase by 3.4 percent. Tanzania has made great progress in reforming its trunk roads, improving the quality of the road network. The country has also seen significant gains in ICT networks, and has one of the most competitive domestic air transport sectors in Africa. The power sector poses Tanzania's most serious infrastructure challenge. Despite significant improvements in pricing and operational performance in recent years, inefficiency still absorbs about 1.4 percent of GDP. Moreover, due to heavy reliance on hydro-power the sector remains vulnerable to climate variability. The port of Dar es Salaam also suffers from performance problems as rapid traffic growth has increasingly exposed deficiencies in storage and access to the port. Poor access to safe water is another challenge...

Nigeria : Expanding Access to Rural Infrastructure Issues and Options for Rural Electrification, Water Supply and Telecommunications

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.95%
Over two thirds of Nigeria's population resides in rural areas. Increasingly, poverty in the country is wearing a rural face. From 28.3 percent in 1980, poverty among the rural population grew to 51.4 percent in 1985, has since risen to 69.8 percent in 1996. Poverty tends to affect men and women differently. Women are generally less educated, more vulnerable, deprived and powerless than their male counterparts. 1.2 Poor people experience insecurity and vulnerability (drought, desertification, flooding, deforestation, diseases, volatile commodity markets etc.); lack of empowerment to influence public policies according to their priorities; and lack of opportunities for income generation and benefits from markets. Access to education, safe water supply, sanitation, health, modern energy, telecommunications and roads are important in reducing vulnerability and increasing prosperity.

Approaches to Private Participation in Water Services : A Toolkit

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.88%
This Toolkit aims to help developing country governments, interested in using private firms to help expand access to safe water and sanitation services at reasonable cost. Specifically, it aims to help them, and their advisers design arrangements that maximize the benefits for their countries, provinces, or municipalities. It is intended to complement other work being undertaken by the Bank, and others on options for improving public provision of water services. Instead of identifying a single best approach to addressing the issues it discusses, the Toolkit presents options and discusses their main advantages and disadvantages. In so doing, it aims to give advisers and policy makers the information needed to make decisions, while taking account of local circumstances and the policy makers' objectives. Private participation in water and sanitation (or "water services" for short) can take many forms. This Toolkit focuses on arrangements that involve a private firm in the delivery of services to households and businesses...

Access to Safe Water in Rural Artibonite, Haiti 16 Months after the Onset of the Cholera Epidemic

Patrick, Molly; Berendes, David; Murphy, Jennifer; Bertrand, Fabienne; Husain, Farah; Handzel, Thomas
Fonte: The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Publicador: The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/10/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.91%
Haiti has the lowest improved water and sanitation coverage in the Western Hemisphere and is suffering from the largest cholera epidemic on record. In May of 2012, an assessment was conducted in rural areas of the Artibonite Department to describe the type and quality of water sources and determine knowledge, access, and use of household water treatment products to inform future programs. It was conducted after emergency response was scaled back but before longer-term water, sanitation, and hygiene activities were initiated. The household survey and source water quality analysis documented low access to safe water, with only 42.3% of households using an improved drinking water source. One-half (50.9%) of the improved water sources tested positive for Escherichia coli. Of households with water to test, 12.7% had positive chlorine residual. The assessment reinforces the identified need for major investments in safe water and sanitation infrastructure and the importance of household water treatment to improve access to safe water in the near term.