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Impactos socioambientais locais decorrentes de acesso aos recursos genéticos para fins comerciais; Socio-environmental impacts resulting from the access to genetic resources for commercial purposes

Cavalcanti, Cintia Munch
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/11/2010 PT
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O presente estudo tem como objetivo analisar através de um estudo de caso os impactos socioambientais locais decorrentes de dois acordos comerciais para o acesso aos recursos genéticos e participação nos benefícios entre uma empresa de cosméticos e um grupo de pequenos produtores rurais da região do Vale do Ribeira-SP. Embora acordos entre empresas privadas e comunidades locais para a utilização comercial de componentes da biodiversidade venham sendo estimulados atualmente como forma de conciliar o uso sustentável dos recursos naturais com desenvolvimento local, alguns estudos têm demonstrado que, além de benefícios, tais acordos podem ter efeitos socioambientais negativos sobre as condições locais em que são estabelecidos. No Brasil, desde 2001, vigora a Medida Provisória 2.186-16/01 que regulamenta a Convenção sobre Diversidade Biológica (CDB) no país instituindo normas para o acesso a componentes do patrimônio genético e aos conhecimentos tradicionais associados. Tais normas baseiam-se, fundamentalmente, na anuência prévia e na repartição de benefícios junto a seus provedores. Apesar da existência desses instrumentos jurídicos, ainda pouco se sabe a respeito de sua aplicação prática e de seus impactos locais. A partir de técnicas qualitativas (entrevistas semiestruturadas...

Niger - Rural Financial Services : Expanding Financial Access to the Rural Poor

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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The main objective of this study is to identify the major impediments to access to financial services in rural areas, and provide practical recommendations to address the identified problems. The study aims to inform on rural finance policies and innovative instruments by examining both supply and demand sides including an identification of non-financial issues that restrict development of the rural financial sector. Addressing the lack of rural access to financial services in the Niger development process continues to figure prominently on the Government agenda without, however, a systematic action plan and strategy. Adopting ad hoc solutions (such as the creation of an agricultural development bank) without addressing the structural issues that limit access to financial services will, unfortunately, not yield any positive long lasting results.

Equity, Access to Health Care Services and Expenditures on Health in Nicaragua

Angel-Urdinola, Diego; Cortez, Rafael; Tanabe, Kimie
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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65.77%
Nicaragua has embarked on an ambitious health sector program, which has contributed to significant progress in the health sector over the past decade. Health indicators show gradual but steady improvements: access to basic services such as clean water and sanitation facilities has improved, as have other related performance indicators such as life expectancy, infant/child mortality, immunization rates, and child nutrition among others. Despite these achievements, there are still large inequities in access and quality of health services across socioeconomic groups and regions. Poor individuals living in rural areas (especially in the Central and Atlantic regions), the indigenous population, and individuals living in households engaged in agriculture have average access to health care services and preventive care. The lack of risk mitigation mechanisms such as insurance and social security is causing users in Nicaragua to spend, out-of-pocket, a significant share of their income on health care, especially to buy medications and other non-consultation items such as medical tests. Long distances...

Improving Energy Access to the Urban Poor in Developing Countries

The Energy and Resources Institute
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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The case studies documented in this report aim to inform the energy access community (including practitioners, civil society groups, project planners, end users) about best practices of successful energy access initiatives targeted at slum dwellers. Eight case studies focusing on electrification and household energy were selected from India, Bangladesh, Colombia and Brazil, all countries that have had varying success in providing access to modern energy services for slum dwellers. The cases had to meet all or some of the following criteria: 1) limited to developing countries; 2) demonstrate innovative methods of improving energy access, including collaborative stakeholder engagement; 3) at least one example of small local energy service providers; 4) contributed to community development by promoting local skill development and income generation; and 5) representative of electricity and different sources of household energy. The case studies describe the existing conditions in the slum, type of energy service provided...

Explaining Gender Differentials in Agricultural Production in Nigeria

Oseni, Gbemisola; Corral, Paul; Goldstein, Markus; Winters, Paul
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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This paper uses data from the General Household Survey Panel 2010/11 to analyze differences in agricultural productivity across male and female plot managers in Nigeria. The analysis utilizes the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method, which allows for decomposing the unconditional gender gap into (i) the portion caused by observable differences in the factors of production (endowment effect) and (ii) the unexplained portion caused by differences in returns to the same observed factors of production (structural effect). The analysis is conducted separately for the North and South regions, excluding the west of the country. The findings show that in the North, women produce 28 percent less than men after controlling for observed factors of production, while there are no significant gender differences in the South. In the decomposition results, the structural effect in the North is larger than the endowment at the mean. Although women in the North have access to less productive resources than men, the results indicate that even if given the same level of inputs...

Guidelines to Mainstream Gender in Transport Projects

Caballero, Luz
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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The consideration of gender in transport is essential to ensure that transport is equitable, affordable, and provides access to resources and opportunities required for development. This note aims to provide guidance for mainstreaming gender into transport projects. It provides examples of how to do this, in relation to the various transport modes used in development operations by the World Bank, and well-known good practices in this area. The note is based on a number of key studies and projects from the World Bank and partner organizations, including the EU and UN. It highlights a number of constraints that women face in accessing transport infrastructure and services, as well as examples of interventions that could circumvent these constraints. Also, it identifies employment and participatory opportunities where women could play a role in the planning and implementation of transport operations. The information provided is not meant to be exhaustive but simply to draw attention to the most basic gender aspects in relation to transport.

Enhancing Access to Finance for Technology Entrepreneurs : Analysis of Highly Innovative, High Growth Start-Ups in Vietnam, Cambodia, and Nepal

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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The first part of the study provides contextual background to the financing gaps and associated barriers, which restrict access to finance for HI start-ups. These barriers are driven by both supply and demand sides of the financing equation. Supply side barriers include: high transaction costs associated with financing; high levels of credit risk associated with HI start-ups; high collateral required by financial institutions; non-conducive legal and regulatory environments for investment in HI start-ups; lack of start-up expertise and dedicated resources by financiers; and finance products that are not tailored to HI start-ups needs and circumstances. Demand side barriers include: reliance by HI start-ups on informal financing sources; lack of awareness on the process to apply for funding from formal financing sources; low levels of financial literacy by HI start-ups; and the fear of losing control by involving external investors. This section also contains a broad overview of the country frameworks governing the start-up sector...

The Future of Water in African Cities : Why Waste Water? Urban Access to Water Supply and Sanitation in Sub-Saharan Africa, Background Report

Dominguez Torres, Carolina
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The main purpose of this paper is to explain the patterns of access to water supply and sanitation facilities in urban areas in Sub-Saharan Africa since the late 90's, and its relation with the performance of service providers in the case of improved water supply. It also seeks to explore the institutional context of the water supply and sanitation sectors. The paper concludes that services providers in Sub-Saharan Africa have been unable to keep up with urban population growth. Service providers are overwhelmed by the pace of urban population growth as they face high distributional losses, low billing collection, overstaffing, and under recovery of costs. The institutional frameworks are yet to be completed as there is vast political inference in service provision and regulation, as well as obstacles for effectively undertake public private partnerships. The paper is organized as follows. Section one presents definitions of water supply sources and sanitation, as well as the sources of data used for the analysis. Section two discusses the current and projected trends of urbanization...

Kyrgyz Republic : Access to Financial Services Policy Note

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The purpose of this paper is to report on the level of access to formal financial services in the Kyrgyz Republic, assess the key obstacles to improving access, and make recommendations to overcome these obstacles. The paper is organized as follows. Sections II to IV examine the supply of financial services. Specifically, section II presents a profile of financial intermediation by banks, focusing their supply of financial services, particularly lending and deposits. Section III presents a profile of lending by Aiyl Bank, a specialized bank with a limited license, which is mandated to lend for agriculture. Section IV presents a profile of lending by non-bank financial institutions (NBFIs), including microfinance organizations (MFOs) and credit unions. Section V examines the demand side for financial services, drawing on enterprise surveys to assess firms' perceptions of their access to finance. Section VI presents a brief analysis of the impact of the events of April 2010 on access to finance. Section VII discusses key obstacles in increasing access to finance from banks and NBFIs. Section VIII concludes with policy recommendations that derive from the preceding analysis.

PACTA : Rural Development in Honduras through Access to Land and the Development of Productive Enterprises; PACTA : Desarrollo rural en honduras por medio del acceso a tierras y el fomento de las empresas productivas

Korczowski, Thomas; Reyes, Hiska; Galeana, Fernando; Pichón, Francisco
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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This note centers on the Honduras Access to Land Pilot Project (PACTA). PACTA's objectives are twofold, to: (1) facilitate access to land for landless households through the land market; and (2) promote the development of sustainable rural enterprises. PACTA's achievements, thus far, can be summarized as follows: 1) It established a working model for rural enterprise formation that leverages private sector financing. 2) Grants made to families are used to establish productive projects, leverage a proportionally large private investment, and improve access to land. 3) Twenty-seven group productive enterprises and 54 individual enterprises have been established in 24 municipalities in 10 departments in Honduras, benefiting 414 families. No enterprise is in arrears on loan repayment. 4) The program's methodology has been validated in different regions with very different social and environmental conditions. 5) Institutional alliances have been established on a local level in support of the target population. 6) Participatory monitoring and evaluation has proven to be an essential component in the process and enabled PACTA not only to make a number of adjustments in a timely manner but to generate a stronger foundation for moving beyond the pilot phase.

Women’s Access to Land in Mauritania; Problématique de l’accès des femmes a la propriété foncière en Mauritanie : etude de cas en préparation du (COP) pour promouvoir le genre; A Case Study in Preparation for the COP

Bal, Salamata; Baro, Mamadou; O'Sullivan, Niamh
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Mauritania is a vast country covering over a million square kilometers, where a relatively small population of 3.5 million people lives on just one-fifth of the country’s total area. With extremely advanced desertification, the country is particularly vulnerable to the impact of climate change and other external shocks. The main sources of income in Mauritania are agriculture, which is either irrigated or rain-fed, and livestock. This is especially the case in the Senegal River Valley, where people make their living farming, raising livestock, and fishing, while mining is prevalent in the north. Arable land is therefore one of the country’s main resources, but it is also a major source of contention due to increasing urbanization and the limited availability of arable land. This presentation relies on the key recommendations emphasized in the Land Governance Framework Report (LGAF), published by the World Bank in 2014. This report established a far-reaching and more inclusive national land policy that strengthens the security of land tenure for vulnerable groups...

Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook

World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization; International Fund for Agricultural Development
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Three out of every four poor people in developing countries live in rural areas, and most of them depend directly or indirectly on agriculture for their livelihoods. In many parts of the world, women are the main farmers or producers, but their roles remain largely unrecognized. The 2008 World development report: agriculture for development highlights the vital role of agriculture in sustainable development and its importance in achieving the millennium development goal of halving by 2015 the share of people suffering from extreme poverty and hunger. Climate change and rising food prices are reminders of the need to focus on food security and agriculture for development; and the material presented in the gender in agriculture sourcebook suggests that accounting for the different roles of women and men and gender equality in access to resources and opportunities is a necessary condition for doing so. This sourcebook is a particularly timely resource. It combines descriptive accounts of national and international experience in investing in agriculture with practical operational guidance on to how to design agriculture for development strategies that capitalize effectively on the unique properties of agricultural growth and rural development involving women and men as a high-impact source of poverty reduction. It looks at gender equality and women's empowerment...

Gender and Agriculture : Inefficiencies, Segregation, and Low Productivity Traps

Croppenstedt, Andre; Goldstein, Markus; Rosas, Nina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Women make essential contributions to agriculture in developing countries, where they constitute approximately 43 percent of the agricultural labor force. However, female farmers typically have lower output per unit of land and are much less likely to be active in commercial farming than their male counterparts. These gender differences in land productivity and participation between male and female farmers are due to gender differences in access to inputs, resources, and services. In this paper, the authors review the evidence on productivity differences and access to resources. They discuss some of the reasons for these differences, such as differences in property rights, education, control over resources (e.g., land), access to inputs and services (e.g., fertilizer, extension, and credit), and social norms. Although women are less active in commercial farming and are largely excluded from contract farming, they often provide the bulk of wage labor in the nontraditional export sector. In general, gender gaps do not appear to fall systematically with growth...

Nigeria : Expanding Access to Rural Infrastructure Issues and Options for Rural Electrification, Water Supply and Telecommunications

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Over two thirds of Nigeria's population resides in rural areas. Increasingly, poverty in the country is wearing a rural face. From 28.3 percent in 1980, poverty among the rural population grew to 51.4 percent in 1985, has since risen to 69.8 percent in 1996. Poverty tends to affect men and women differently. Women are generally less educated, more vulnerable, deprived and powerless than their male counterparts. 1.2 Poor people experience insecurity and vulnerability (drought, desertification, flooding, deforestation, diseases, volatile commodity markets etc.); lack of empowerment to influence public policies according to their priorities; and lack of opportunities for income generation and benefits from markets. Access to education, safe water supply, sanitation, health, modern energy, telecommunications and roads are important in reducing vulnerability and increasing prosperity.

China : Accelerating Household Access to Clean Cooking and Heating

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The China Clean Stove Initiative (CSI), a collaborative effort of the Chinese government and the World Bank, aims to scale up access to clean cooking and heating stoves for poor, primarily rural households, who are likely to continue using solid fuels beyond 2030. More than half of China's population still relies on solid fuels (coal and biomass) for cooking and heating; many of these households, located mainly in rural areas, are likely to continue using solid fuels in the near future. Switching to modern energy alternatives would be the most effective way to achieve clean cooking and heating solutions and should be encouraged; yet such fuels are more expensive than solid fuels, requiring more costly stoves and delivery infrastructure. Effective strategies to scale up the dissemination of clean burning, fuel-efficient stoves for household cooking and heating can mitigate the health hazards associated with the burning of solid fuels. It is estimated that Household Air Pollution (HAP) from solid fuel use results in more than a million premature deaths each year in China. Scaled-up access to clean and efficient stoves is consistent with China's strategy to promote energy conservation...

Jordan Country Gender Assessment : Economic Participation, Agency and Access to Justice in Jordan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Gender Assessment (CGA); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Over the last three decades Jordan has made substantial investments in its human resources, spending more than 10 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on health and education. Like their male counterparts, women and girls have benefitted from these policies and their quality of life has improved. The Jordan Country Gender Assessment (CGA) has two primary objectives. The first is to assess gender imbalances in the areas of economic participation in the labor market, agency, and access to justice; provide a framework for policies or interventions to the Government of Jordan (GoJ) on addressing imbalances; and provide a basis for implementing the activities included in the Gender Action Plan (GAP). The second objective is to develop and strengthen partnerships with GoJ agencies, Civil Society Organization's (CSOs), and academic institutions to promote collaboration on addressing gender-related issues impacting development, and in particular to develop mechanisms for cooperation on implementation of the GAP. This CGA will further explore...

One Goal, Two Paths : Achieving Universal Access to Modern Energy in East Asia and the Pacific

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
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The purpose of the current flagship report is to address energy access and related developmental issues in East Asia Pacific (EAP) that so far have received less attention compared to the macro energy issues of climate change and reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. EAP countries have two steep paths to climb to achieve universal access to modern energy: electricity and modern cooking solutions. Approximately 170 million people, or 34 million households, in EAP countries do not have electricity connections in their homes. This number is equivalent to approximately 9 percent of the Region's total population, and 30 percent of the Region's population excluding China. Moreover, approximately 6 times that number, or over 1 billion people, still lack access to modern cooking solutions. In addition, EAP is exceeded by only Sub Saharan Africa and South Asia in the number of people who lack access to electricity. However, access to both electricity and modern cooking solutions is essential to address the enduring impacts of poverty and to move the poor onto a rising development trajectory. The link between access to modern energy and development is most clearly defined by the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). The MDGs were formulated to reduce global poverty while increasing education...

Strengthening Economic Rights and Women's Occupational Choice : The Impact of Reforming Ethiopia's Family Law

Hallward-Driemeier, Mary; Gajigo, Ousman
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This paper evaluates the impact of strengthening legal rights on the types of economic opportunities that are pursued. Ethiopia changed its family law, requiring both spouses' consent in the administration of marital property, removing the ability of a spouse to deny permission for the other to work outside the home, and raising women's minimum age of marriage. Thus both access to resources and the removal of restrictions on employment served to strengthen women's bargaining position within the household and their ability to pursue economic opportunities. Although this reform now applies nationally, it was initially rolled out in the two chartered cities and three of Ethiopia's nine regions. Using nationally representative household surveys from just prior to the reform and five years later allows for a difference-in-difference estimation of the reform's impact. The analysis finds that women were relatively more likely to work in occupations that require work outside the home, employ more educated workers...

Negotiating with the PNG Mining Industry for Women's Access to Resources and Voice : The Ok Tedi Mine Life Extension Negotiations for Mine Benefit Packages

Popoitai, Yasap; Ofosu-Amaah, Waafas
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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In mining communities, women in particular often bear the negative consequences associated with mismanagement of extractive industries. Women need to be part of the processes and strategies aimed at transforming the negative aspects of the extractive industries into visible social and economic benefits in affected communities. With the permission of senior management of the Ok Tedi mining company, a World Bank consultant was included in the final 5-week long mine life extension (MLE) negotiations as an observer. The purpose was to observe women's roles in the negotiations and, through interviews with the participants, document the women negotiators' aspirations and expectations from the process. The ultimate goal is to provide a forward-looking assessment of the outcomes and draw lessons for analysis and program design not only in the Community Mine Continuation Agreement (CMCA) regions but elsewhere in Papua New Guinea (PNG) resource areas. This report documents the unique and pioneering experience in PNG of women and their roles in negotiating mining operations' benefit streams for local communities. The lessons it draws for development policy-making...

Empowering Participation: Examining Women’s Access to Formal Financial Resources and Women’s National Parliamentary Representation

Ready, Courtney
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Publicado em 31/01/2014 EN_US
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Women’s access to financial resources is popularly hailed and strongly evidenced to be a development tool that champions women’s economic empowerment. Globally, does economic empowerment through women’s access to formal financial resources translate to women’s political empowerment in established political institutions? To what extent do women’s use of formal financial resources (defined as use of financial and savings accounts, credit cards, and the taking of loans from financial institution) correlate with women’s political representation in national parliaments? The purpose of this thesis is to utilize cross-national data to investigate this question by examining the extent to which women’s access to formal financial services is correlated with increased women’s representation in national parliaments. This thesis will utilize data from the World Bank’s “Gender Statistics and Indicators” database from 195 countries around the world to test the existence, direction, and strength of any potential relationship, controlling for important confounding variables. (World Bank, 2013) Statistically significant relationships that emerge will then be analyzed in the context of other scholarly works to draw conclusions, discuss policy implications...