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Towards Equitable Access to Postsecondary Education: Learning From the Voices of First Generation Students

Winter, Ellyse
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.72%
This qualitative, phenomenological study investigated first generation students’ perceptions of the challenges they experienced in the process of accessing higher education and the type of school-based support that was received. Particular emphasis was placed on the impact of parental education level on access to postsecondary education (PSE) and how differences in support at the primary and secondary levels of schooling influenced access. Purposeful, homogenous sampling was used to select 6 first generation students attending a postsecondary institution located in Ontario. Analysis of the data revealed that several interrelated factors impact first generation students’ access to postsecondary education. These include familial experiences and expectations, school streaming practices, secondary school teachers’ and guidance counselors’ representations of postsecondary education, and the nature of school-based support that participants received. The implications for theory, research, and practice are discussed and recommendations for enhancing school-based support to ensure equitable access to postsecondary education for first generation students are provided.

School Construction Strategies for Universal Primary Education in Africa : Should Communities Be Empowered to Build their Schools?

Theunynck, Serge
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.84%
This book examines the scope of the infrastructure challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa and the constraints to scaling up at an affordable cost. It assesses the experiences of African countries with school planning, school facility designs, construction technologies, and construction management over the past thirty years, and draws lessons on promising approaches to enable African countries to scale up the facilities required to achieve the Education for All (EFA) goals and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of complete quality primary education for all children at the lowest marginal cost. The book is organized along the following lines. Chapter one reviews the nature and scope of the primary school infrastructure challenges. Chapter two reviews the experience of African countries with school planning and resource allocation norms and how they have affected the volume, functionality, and distribution of primary school facilities. Chapters three, four, and five examine the impact of construction technology and approaches to construction management on the cost of school infrastructure and the ability to scale up. Chapter six delves more deeply into how to set up one of the most cost- effective approaches to school provision the community-based approach. Chapter seven looks at maintenance issues. Chapter eight deals with corruption and chapter nine with donors. Chapter ten provides an estimate of the infrastructure cost of the EFA challenge and recommendation for countries and donors to improve the efficiency of the resources spent for school construction.

Education Inputs In Uganda : An Analysis of Factors Influencing Learning Achievement in Grade Six

Nannyonjo, Harriet
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.86%
This study on effective use of school inputs in Uganda is intended to contribute to the policy debate on how to make the best use of available resources to improve learning outcomes. It comes at an opportune time in Uganda when there are increasing demands on the education budget, yet it is unlikely that substantial increases in the sector budget envelope will be provided given other competing national priorities, as well as the need for additional resources to finance post primary education and training. This report emphasizes: the need for a balanced focus on resource availability and use, because without appropriate use or management, resources may not lead to improved learning; helping teachers to effectively teach large classes; and the importance of investing more in in-service training focused on pedagogical practices than on training teachers to acquire academic qualifications. The study also points to the need to examine and include teacher effectiveness as key criteria for determining teacher remuneration. With regard to automatic promotion...

Expanding Opportunities and Building Competencies for Young People : A New Agenda for Secondary Education

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.85%
The report offers policy options to support developing countries and transition economies in adapting their secondary education systems to the demands arising from the successful expansion of primary education and the socio-economic challenges presented by globalization and the knowledge-based economy. The work is the result of an extensive consultative process that involved education specialists worldwide.

Education for All : The Cost of Accessibility

Steinfeld, Edward
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.82%
The goal of Education for All (EFA) is to provide universal access to primary education throughout the world. To accomplish this goal, as many as 10 million classrooms will be built in developing countries by 2015. A key objective of the program is to ensure that no child is denied access to education because of disability. Access to all schools is necessary to ensure that children with disabilities can participate independently in a mainstreamed environment since most villages will have only one school building. The related construction costs, if any, are not a barrier to providing access and are insignificant when compared to the benefits. Children who are educated with their peers have greater opportunities to become productive members of their societies and be more integrated socially in their communities.

Equity in Tertiary Education in Central America : An Overview

Bashir, Sajitha; Luque, Javier
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.86%
This paper analyzes the evolution in socio-economic and ethnic disparities in tertiary education attainment, participation, and completion and labor market outcomes in the six countries of Central America. There is evidence of differential progress, with Costa Rica, a middle-income country, and Nicaragua, a low-income country, having improved participation of low-income students in tertiary education, while this continues to be negligible in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras. Wide differentials in salaries linked to socio-economic background can signal differences in the quality of tertiary education or prior educational experiences. The analysis distinguishes between long-term and short-term constraints and the key transitions in the education cycle that impede access to tertiary education. The main obstacle to accessing tertiary education for poor students is the failure to either start or complete secondary education, suggesting different priorities for different countries in addressing long-term constraints. However...

Seeding Fertile Ground : Education that Works for Bangladesh

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.88%
Bangladesh is recognized globally for its achievements and potential, despite a number of difficult challenges. Given the sustained economic growth over the last three decades, Bangladesh is identified as one of the next eleven emerging economies in the world. The country is at a crossroads given its educational development and economic growth pattern. This report includes a series of three policy notes on access and equity, education quality, and skills development. They aim to support, over the medium term, a coherent and articulated policy dialogue on education and skills development that will help Bangladesh achieve its target of becoming a middle-income country. The three policy notes, which are a culmination of work over the last 18 months, were guided by two principles: (i) to provide just-in-time analysis and policy directions on topics of greatest interest to policy makers, civil society, think tanks, development partners, and researchers in Bangladesh; and (ii) to undertake this work in a collaborative manner...

Student Learning in South Asia : Challenges, Opportunities, and Policy Priorities

Dundar, Halil; Beteille, Tara; Riboud, Michelle; Deolalikar, Anil
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.88%
For the past decade, South Asian governments have been investing heavily to achieve the education millennium development goals (MDGs). The region has also made great progress in enrolling girls in both primary and secondary school. The rapid gains in enrollment have not been accompanied by commensurate improvements in learning levels, with the average level of skill acquisition in South Asia being low by both national and international standards. A major reason for this is that throughout the 2000s, most South Asian countries focused on: (a) achieving universal access to primary education, and (b) sustained investment in better-quality school inputs to improve the quality of primary and secondary education. This report covers education from primary through upper secondary school. Given its importance for school readiness, this report also reviews early childhood development even though that is outside formal education systems in the region. To examine what types of policies hold promise for improving student learning...

Tanzania Skills for Competitiveness in the Small and Medium Enterprise Sector

Sabarwal, Shwetlena
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.86%
We examine the question of workforce skills for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Tanzania and find a mixed picture full of potential. On the one hand, education access has expanded at all levels and a more educated cohort is now entering the labor market - signaling the availability of a more skilled workforce for SMEs. On the other hand, acute shortages of secondary and postsecondary graduates persist. Disturbingly, the quality and relevance of primary education has come into question. It is unclear whether increased access to primary education is actually translating into acquisition of crucial basic skills in the country. In light of this, it is unsurprising that education attainment no longer appears to be a reliable proxy for relevant skills, as perceived by employers. Further, SMEs seem to have very little meaningful connection with education institutions for recruitment of workers. A related but equally concerning problem relates to the culture of recruitment among SMEs in Tanzania. It is one of passive hiring...

Tanzania Engaging the Private Sector in Education; SABER Country Report 2015

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.87%
As countries redouble their efforts to achieve learning for all at the primary and secondary levels, the private sector is a resource for adding capacity to the education system. This report presents an analysis of how effectively the current policies in Tanzania engage the private sector in basic (primary and secondary) education. The analysis draws on the engaging the private sector (EPS) framework, a product of the World Bank’s systems approach for better education results (SABER). SABER EPS research in Tanzania has found that access to primary education is nearly universal; however enrolments at the secondary level are low. The report provides an overview of SABER EPS, followed by a description of the basic education system in Tanzania, with a focus on the private sector and government policies related to private provision of education. The report benchmarks Tanzania’s policy environment utilizing the SABER EPS framework, and finally offers policy options to enhance learning for all children in primary and secondary school.

Achieving Universal Primary Education in Uganda : The ‘Big Bang’ Approach

Bertoncino, Carla; Murphy, Paud; Wang, Lianqin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.84%
Uganda's primary enrollment rates have risen remarkably since 1996, when the Government eliminated fees in a bold attempt to achieve universal primary education. But the massive expansion in numbers has affected the quality of education; and it will be a major challenge to cope with the rising demand for post-primary education. Key lessons learned include: Successful education reform in developing countries like Uganda require high levels of political and education management commitment that is sustained over a long period. The big bang approach can be a very powerful policy instrument for getting all the children into school and Uganda had managed to do this very well. Timely, flexible donor support is a critical factor.

Republic of Madagascar : Primary Education in Time of Crisis

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Education Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.91%
The Malagasy population has undergone a severe political and economic crisis since 2009, whose impact on children's enrollment is little documented. The stagnation of primary school enrollment in a context of sustained demographic growth points to a rapid deterioration in the access to basic education services. The objective of this study is thus to evaluate the effects of the current crisis on household education choices, to orient education policy decisions over the short and medium term. The study combines recent available qualitative and quantitative data, to propose a set of assumptions on the effects of the crisis and its impact channels on education. Short of being able to carry out a full impact analysis of the crisis, due to its national coverage, the following data and sources are analyzed in detail to better document its effects: 1) monetary and budget data; 2) education statistics from the Ministry of Education (MEN); 3) the last two household surveys (EPM), of 2005 and 2010; 4) a follow-up survey of the pupils...

Equality of Opportunities and Fiscal Incidence in Cote d'Ivoire

Abras, Ana; Cuesta, Jose; Hoyos, Alejandro; Narayan, Ambar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.87%
This study analyzes opportunities for children in Cote d'Ivoire, where opportunities refer to access to basic services and goods that improve the likelihood of a child maximizing his or her human potential. The principle that guides this analysis is one of equality of opportunity, which is that a child's circumstances at birth should not determine his or her access to opportunities. The analysis computes the Human Opportunity Index, which measures the extent to which access to basic services is universal and evenly distributed among children of different circumstances. Opportunities are limited in Cote d'Ivoire, despite some improvements in access to electricity and timely access to primary education. Otherwise, trends on access remain stagnant. Scale effects (variations across the board) are behind these trends, with little improvement observed from equalizing interventions. Circumstances such as region and household head characteristics affect a child's access to opportunities, while household incomes and a child's gender and ethnicity play a relatively small role in access differentials. Public spending on education opportunities is shown to be regressive and pro-rich...

Egypt : Teachers

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.79%
In 2008 (the most recent data available), Egypt spent 3.8 percent of Gross Domestic Product, or GDP on public education; in 2003 this figure was recorded as 4.9 percent. In 2008, Egypt spent 11.9 percent of total public spending on education; in 2003, this figure was recorded as 16.2 percent. However, over recent years, Egypt has achieved important improvements in access to primary education. The primary enrollment rate reached 94 percent (2007) from 86 percent at the beginning of the decade. Egypt's secondary enrollment rate (71 percent in 2002) compares favorably to other countries in the Middle East and North Africa region and to other low-middle income countries. Despite these improvements, learning outcomes remain a source of concern. Egyptian students mean scores in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study Mathematics (TIMSS) declined between 2003 and 2007, from 406 to 391 points. Thus, improving the quality of education is a priority for the country.

At the Crossroads Choice for Secondary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa

Verspoor, Adriaan M
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.89%
The challenges of education development in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) at the beginning of the 21st century are urgent and unprecedented. Faced with persistent gaps in the coverage of primary schooling, almost all countries have launched major efforts to ensure that all children will have the opportunity to complete primary education of acceptable quality. Concurrently, accelerating economic growth and social change are creating an urgent imperative to expand access to further learning to strengthen the human resources base. This report provides a timely resource on good practices and potential solutions for developing and sustaining high-quality secondary education systems in African countries. It contains elements of a roadmap for improving the responsiveness of Africa's secondary education systems to the challenges of the 21st century. Its main objective is to facilitate policy dialogue within African countries and between those countries and their development partners. This book addresses issues concerning the education of youth about 12 to 18 years old. It draws on the outcomes of the Secondary Education in Africa (SEIA) initiative...

Infrastructure Gap in South Asia : Inequality of Access to Infrastructure Services

Biller, Dan; Andres, Luis; Herrera Dappe, Matias
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.7%
The South Asia region is home to the largest pool of individuals living under the poverty line, coupled with a fast-growing population. The importance of access to basic infrastructure services on welfare and the quality of life is clear. Yet the South Asia region's rates of access to infrastructure (sanitation, electricity, telecom, and transport) are closer to those of Sub-Saharan Africa, the one exception being water, where the South Asia region is comparable to East Asia and the pacific and Latin America and the Caribbean. The challenge of increasing access to these services across the South Asia region is compounded by the unequal distribution of existing access for households. This study improves understanding of this inequality by evaluating access across the region's physical (location), poverty, and income considerations. The paper also analyzes inequality of access across time, that is, across generations. It finds that while the regressivity of infrastructure services is clearly present in South Asia, the story that emerges is heterogeneous and complex. There is no simple explanation for these inequalities...

Transforming Primary Education in Sri Lanka : From a 'Subject' of Education to a 'Stage' of Education

Little, Angela; Aturupane, Harsha; Shojo, Mari
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.89%
Sri Lanka is a lower-middle income country with a per capita income of approximately US$ 2,400, and a population of around 20 million people. Sri Lanka's high rate of literacy is due to its sustained growth through the twentieth century. Primary education spans the first five grades of schooling, grades 1-5. Student's progress automatically to lower secondary education for four years of education in grades 6-9 and then on to upper secondary education in grades 10-11 for a two year course that culminates in the General Certificate of Education Ordinary level examination (GCE O-L). The curriculum for primary education is designed separately from those for subsequent stages of education. The primary education curriculum stage is encapsulated in a primary curriculum framework that derives from extensive debate during the 1990s in connection with the recommendations in 1997 of the national education commission, the work of the technical committee on primary education appointed by the presidential task force and detailed implementation work by the primary education unit of the national institute of education. Since 2003 the National Educational Research Centre (NEREC) based at the University of Colombo has administered tests in first Language...

From Schooling Access to Learning Outcomes, An Unfinished Agenda : An Evaluation of World Bank Support to Primary Education

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
105.91%
The Education for All (EFA) movement, launched in 1990, has resulted in an extraordinary mobilization of World Bank and country resources in support of basic education over the past 15 years. World Bank EFA financing, mostly focused on primary education, has become increasingly progressive, targeting the most disadvantaged countries and often the disadvantaged within countries. Over the years of Bank support for EFA and its world conferences in 1990 and 2000, the Bank's policy objectives for increased support to primary education have been simple and remarkably stable: universal primary school completion, equality of access for girls and other disadvantaged groups, and improved student learning outcomes. This Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) evaluation assesses the extent to which these objectives have been met in countries supported by the Bank. and it provide lessons for countries in their development strategies and for the Bank in its support to those strategies.

Mobilizing the Private Sector for Public Education : A View from the Trenches

Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Sosale, Shobhana
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.81%
Historically, ensuring access to primary education has been seen as a predominantly public responsibility. However, governments are increasingly sharing this responsibility through a variety of subsidiary arrangements. Some governments are contracting services out to the private sector, to nongovernmental organizations, and even to other public agencies. Some societies are transferring responsibility for financing, providing, and regulating primary education to lower levels of government, and in some cases, to communities. In education policy, public-private partnerships play an important role in enhancing the supply and the quality of human capital. This book explores the burgeoning number of public-private partnerships in public education in different parts of the world. The partnerships differ in form and structure, in the extent of public and private participation, and in the forms of their engagement. The essays in this book are written mainly from the provider's perspective and offer valuable insights into the purpose...

Skilling Up Vietnam : Preparing the Workforce for a Modern Market Economy

Bodewig, Christian; Badiani-Magnusson, Reena; Macdonald, Kevin; Newhouse, David; Rutkowski, Jan
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.87%
Education has played an important role in making Vietnam a development success story over the last 20 years. In the 1990s and early 2000s Vietnam experienced rapid economic growth. The accelerated growth was driven predominantly by productivity increases that came in the wake of a rapid shift of employment from low-productivity agriculture to higher-productivity nonfarm jobs. Vietnam's economy began to industrialize and modernize. Poverty fell dramatically. And education played an enabling role. Vietnam's committed effort to promote access to primary education for all and to ensure its quality through centrally set minimum quality standards has contributed to the country's reputation for having a young, well-educated workforce. Results from the 2012 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) and new evidence from an adult skills survey presented in this book show that literacy and numeracy among Vietnam's youth and young urban adult workforce are strong and exceed those of even some wealthier countries. Despite its clear progress...