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Trends in Household Coverage of Modern Infrastructure Services in Africa

Banerjee, Sudeshna; Diallo, Amadou; Foster, Vivien; Wodon, Quentin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
76%
Household surveys have long been used to estimate poverty and inequality trends, as well as trends in education and health indicators, but they have not been used to the same extent to assess trends in the access to or coverage of modern infrastructure services. In this paper, we use Demographic and Health Surveys from a larger sample of sub-Saharan African countries in order to collect comparable information across countries on coverage of piped water, flush toilets, electricity, and landline telephones over time. The results suggest that coverage rates for electricity, flush toilets have improved slightly over the last decade. Coverage of piped water has declined, at the same time as coverage of landline (as well as cellular) telephone has increased rapidly. The decline has been primarily in the urban areas while the infrastructure coverage has either increased or remained stable in rural Africa. For all four services, among the poorest households coverage remains virtually inexistent. If business as usual continues...

Options to Increase Access to Telecommunications Services in Rural and Low-Income Areas

Muente-Kunigami, Arturo; Navas-Sabater, Juan
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.04%
Recent evidence suggests that increasing overall service coverage and promoting access to telecommunications services have a high economic benefit. Overall, it is estimated that a ten percent increase in mobile telephony penetration could increase economic growth by 0.81 percent in developing countries, whereas a ten percent increase in broadband penetration could increase economic growth by 1.4 percent. In rural and low-income areas in particular, not only do basic telephony services and broadband access allow population to connect with relatives and friends, but they have also introduced a dramatic increase in productivity and in many cases have become the only way for small and medium enterprises in rural areas to access national and, in some cases, global markets. Moreover, the impact of access to telecommunications in rural areas on health, education, disaster management, and local governments has allowed better and more rapid responses, improved coordination, and more effective public management. It is therefore worthwhile to take a second look at all possible policy options...

Sri Lanka : Improving Access to Financial Services, Selected Issues

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.81%
Sri Lanka has made significant achievements in the provision of financial services in some areas, but there are still critical market segments that remain underserved, especially for small and rural enterprises. Low-income households could also benefit from access to a more diverse set of financial products, such as enhanced remittances and payment services, longer-term savings instruments, insurance products, and improved access to housing finance. The complexity and diversity of the needs suggest that various approaches have to be examined and that a broad range of institutions can be engaged in the delivery of financial services. This report analyzes opportunities for expanding services to key underserved markets. Chapter 2 looks at the expansion of financing opportunities for small businesses. Chapter 3 complements the analysis of Chapter 2 by examining how to improve finance for agriculture through supply chains. Chapter 4 focuses on delivery channels for rural remittances. Remittances to Sri Lanka have been growing rapidly, and the risks posed by informal networks need to be minimized. Moreover, linking migrants to formal financial institutions will yield additional benefits by exposing them to a broad range of financial services (such as savings...

Scaling-Up SME Access to Financial Services

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.87%
Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) play a major role in economic development, particularly in emerging countries, but access to finance remains a key constraint to SME. In the light of the new understanding of the SME finance challenges that this report synthesizes, the Financial Inclusion Experts Group (FIEG) makes key recommendations for the G-20 leaders, in order to achieve a global scale-up of SME access to financial services in the developing world. The G-20 FIEG SME Finance Sub-Group executed a global SME Finance stocktaking exercise with various SME finance models to establish best practices in SME Finance.The report concludes that, given the fragmented SME finance data space, the G-20 has a unique opportunity to lead the collaborative effort on improving the availability and quality of SME finance data globally. This can be achieved through encouraging and coordinating the data collection efforts at regional, national, and global levels conducted by a multitude of sources including national governments/agencies and international organizations and effectively addressing the data collection challenges along the way to ensure continuity of these efforts moving forward.

Access, Affordability, and Alternatives : Modern Infrastructure Services in Africa

Banerjee, Sudeshna; Wodon, Quentin; Diallo, Amadou; Pushak, Taras; Uddin, Helal; Tsimpo, Clarence; Foster, Vivien
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.99%
Africa lags well behind other developing regions in infrastructure access. The limited gains of the 1990s have not increased much in the 2000s. There is clear evidence that many countries are failing to expand services fast enough to keep ahead of rapid demographic growth and even faster urbanization. As a result, if present trends continue, Africa is likely to lag even further behind other developing regions, and universal access will be more than 50 years away in many countries. However, there is variation in performance across countries, even within the low and middle income brackets. A significant number of countries have succeeded in increasing the number of people who have access to water, electricity, and sanitation, by an annual average of 5-10 percent. Further investigation is warranted to explain what determines the superior performance of these countries.

Timor Leste : Access to Finance for Investment and Working Capital

Conroy, John
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.81%
This study argues the need for a policy environment supporting both urban informal sector dynamism and rapid transition from subsistence to monetization in agriculture. Such policies must include measures facilitating access to financial services for households, which are the backbone of the informal and subsistence economies. The economy of Timor-Leste is divided between a farm sector in which as many of 80 percent of workers remain, with most of these still dependent on subsistence production, and a non-farm sector in which micro- and small enterprises are an overwhelming majority. Most urban enterprises operate in an informal environment, while in both the farm and non-farm sectors the household is the basic unit of economic activity.

Identifying Traditional and Non-traditional Mechanisms for Reaching the Poor in Infrastructure Services

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.03%
The improvement of infrastructure services has proven to be a powerful tool in poverty alleviation initiatives. Providing people with access to basic and reliable infrastructure services are tools for improving their standard of living and rising their productivity-thus endowing them with the opportunity for growth. This work aims to document the existing traditional and non-traditional mechanisms used by Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) to reach the poor in infrastructure access and affordability, and to provide factual anecdotal case studies that represent this situation at a country, community, and utility specific/sensitive level. The specific objectives are: 1) to identify traditional and alternate mechanisms for targeting the poor or those designed by the poor in order to gain access to and maintain infrastructure services; and b) to design a framework of analysis in order to understand and analyze the various components that account for the traditional and non-traditional tools used to reach the poor (including social tariffs...

Financial Sector Assessment Program : Malawi - Access to Financial Services

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.97%
This technical note the Malawi 2007 Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) reviews the current challenges of increasing access to financial services in Malawi. After a cursory assessment of the state of the financial sector in chapter one, it summarizes the key challenges of rural financial sector development (chapter two); then discusses the opportunities that branchless banking technology offers (chapter three), the options for strengthening the financial infrastructure (chapter four) and the role of government in increasing access (chapter five). It concludes with recommendations on how authorities may seek to realize these opportunities (chapter six).

Access to Financial Services : A Review of the Issues and Public Policy Objectives

Claessens, Stijn
Fonte: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.95%
This article reviews the evidence on the importance of finance for economic well-being. It provides data on the use of basic financial services by households and firms across a sample of countries, assesses the desirability of universal access, and provides an overview of the macroeconomic, legal, and regulatory obstacles to access. Despite the benefits of finance, the data show that use of financial services is far from universal in many countries, especially developing countries. Universal access to financial services has not been a public policy objective in most countries and would likely be difficult to achieve. Countries can, however, facilitate access to financial services by strengthening institutional infrastructure, liberalizing markets and facilitating greater competition, and encouraging innovative use of know-how and technology. Government interventions to directly broaden access to finance, however, are costly and fraught with risks, among others the risk of missing the targeted groups. The article concludes with recommendations for global actions aimed at improving data on access and use and suggestions on areas of further analysis to identify constraints to broadening access.

Barriers to Access to Payment Systems and Proposed Actions : Special-Purpose Note

Global Remittances Working Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.95%
This paper analyzes the difficulties for nonbank RSPs in their indirect access to the domestic payment system infrastructure. It presents the background (section three) and the current situation, giving examples from a few key sending markets (section four). The main factors underlying the current situation are outlined (section five), and several potential pragmatic solutions are presented as a basis for further discussion along with implementable action plans (section six). The paper concludes with possible next steps (section seven).

Scaling-Up SME Access to Financial Services in the Developing World

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.89%
Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) play a major role in economic development, particularly in emerging countries. Access to finance remains a key constraint to SME development in emerging economies. Closing the credit gap for formal SMEs will be less daunting than for informal SMEs. The SME finance gap is the result of a mismatch between the needs of the small firms and the supply of financial services, which typically are easier for larger firms to access. Deficiencies in the enabling environment and residual market failures have motivated government interventions to foster SME access to financing. The stocktaking exercise confirms the rise in various parts of the world of specific business models aimed at providing financial services to SMEs in a cost-effective manner. Effective SME financing models can be implemented in different country and market environments, but greater outreach is achieved in the most developed environments for the financial sector. Although SME banking and microfinance models are successfully being rolled out in an increasing number of countries and regions...

Arab Republic of Egypt - Inequality of Opportunity in Access to Basic Services among Egyptian Children

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.84%
Egypt's children and youth, representing more than one-third of the country´s population and its future, face several significant challenges, as shown by higher child poverty rates and unequal access to basic services. The objective of this report is three-fold: (i) to analyze the extent of inequality of opportunity among Egyptian children; (ii) to inform government policy on how success in life is influenced by factors predetermined at birth; and (iii) to identify policies and interventions that may contribute to improving equality of opportunity. The underlying premise is that ensuring equality of opportunity entails leveling the playing field in such a way that every child, regardless of the circumstances of his/her birth, will have an equal chance to succeed in life. This report analyzes the extent of provision of equal access to basic opportunities to all children (including healthcare, education, clean water and sanitation), and identifies the main circumstances that affect it and therefore determine human development outcomes. The analysis in this report builds on the concepts and ideas developed in the World Development Report (WDR). The findings are aimed at supporting debates and discussions...

Kyrgyz Republic : Access to Financial Services Policy Note

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.85%
The purpose of this paper is to report on the level of access to formal financial services in the Kyrgyz Republic, assess the key obstacles to improving access, and make recommendations to overcome these obstacles. The paper is organized as follows. Sections II to IV examine the supply of financial services. Specifically, section II presents a profile of financial intermediation by banks, focusing their supply of financial services, particularly lending and deposits. Section III presents a profile of lending by Aiyl Bank, a specialized bank with a limited license, which is mandated to lend for agriculture. Section IV presents a profile of lending by non-bank financial institutions (NBFIs), including microfinance organizations (MFOs) and credit unions. Section V examines the demand side for financial services, drawing on enterprise surveys to assess firms' perceptions of their access to finance. Section VI presents a brief analysis of the impact of the events of April 2010 on access to finance. Section VII discusses key obstacles in increasing access to finance from banks and NBFIs. Section VIII concludes with policy recommendations that derive from the preceding analysis.

Papua New Guinea : Poverty and Access to Public Services

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.93%
This report analyzes the distribution of income, constructs a poverty profile, and looks at the extent to which the poor have access to basic services in Papua New Guinea. The analysis is based on data collected during a national household survey in 1996, and, data on a range of socioeconomic indicators, were collected nationally among urban, and rural households, within the country's five major regions. This shows that the distribution of consumption is highly uneven, since real per capita consumption level is over eight times higher than the poorest quartile, with marked disparities in consumption levels. A detailed review on the distribution of access to basic services, such as education, health care, rural infrastructure, and utilities is presented, suggesting the unequal access to these services further accentuates the effects of unequal income distribution. The county's safety net system is examined, revealing this system allows for income transfers from members of a particular "wantok" - informal network based on ethnicity...

Access to Financial Services and the Financial Inclusion Agenda around the World : A Cross-Country Analysis with a New Data Set

Ardic, Oya Pinar; Heimann, Maximilien; Mylenko, Nataliya
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.85%
Recent empirical evidence highlights that access to basic financial services can make a substantial positive difference in improving poor people's lives. Accordingly, financial sector reforms that promote financial inclusion are increasingly at the core of policymakers agendas. The Consultative Group to Assist the Poor and the World Bank Group, in response, launched the Financial Access project, including a cross-country database on financial inclusion topics and an annual report to inform the policy debate. Using this database, this paper (i) counts the number of unbanked adults around the world at 56 percent, (ii) analyzes the state of access to deposit and loan services as well as the extent of retail networks, and (iii) discusses the state of financial inclusion mandates around the world.

Infrastructure in Latin America : An Update, 1980-2006

Calderón, César; Servén, Luis
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.96%
This paper documents the trends in infrastructure in major Latin American economies over the last quarter century. Drawing from an expanded and updated data set, the paper sheds light on the region's infrastructure performance along four major dimensions. First, the paper documents the trends in the quantity of Latin America's infrastructure assets, using a comparative cross-regional perspective. Second, the paper presents a battery of indicators of the quality of infrastructure services, taking the same comparative perspective. Third, the paper reviews Latin America's performance in terms of the universality of access to infrastructure services. Lastly, the paper offers a detailed account of the trends in infrastructure investment in Latin America's six major economies since 1980, disaggregated by both sector of origin (public and private) and destination (power, transport and telecommunications).

The Role of Postal Networks in Expanding Access to Financial Services : Kazakhstan's Postal Finance Services

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Public Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.94%
This paper discusses the role of the postal network in expanding access to financial services in Kazakhstan. It reviews the public postal operator within the postal sector and within the broader context of the communications sector. The roles of the postal network and state and privately-owned banks are also reviewed from the perspective of the financial sector development, with particular focus on payments systems development and microfinance. While this country case on Kazakhstan can stand alone, it is an integral part of this large study of the potential of postal networks to coordinate with financial service providers in 7 countries (Egypt, Kazakhstan, Namibia, Romania, Sri Lanka, Uganda, and Vietnam) and 5 regions (Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the Middle East and Northern Africa). Within Central Asia and the other countries of the former Soviet Union, Kazakhstan's postal network is widely regarded as a leader and pioneer in postal innovation, setting an example for other postal operators in the region. An in-depth assessment of Kazakhstan's postal network development options could also be a model to guide other postal networks.

Infrastructure Gap in South Asia : Inequality of Access to Infrastructure Services

Biller, Dan; Andres, Luis; Herrera Dappe, Matias
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
116.07%
The South Asia region is home to the largest pool of individuals living under the poverty line, coupled with a fast-growing population. The importance of access to basic infrastructure services on welfare and the quality of life is clear. Yet the South Asia region's rates of access to infrastructure (sanitation, electricity, telecom, and transport) are closer to those of Sub-Saharan Africa, the one exception being water, where the South Asia region is comparable to East Asia and the pacific and Latin America and the Caribbean. The challenge of increasing access to these services across the South Asia region is compounded by the unequal distribution of existing access for households. This study improves understanding of this inequality by evaluating access across the region's physical (location), poverty, and income considerations. The paper also analyzes inequality of access across time, that is, across generations. It finds that while the regressivity of infrastructure services is clearly present in South Asia, the story that emerges is heterogeneous and complex. There is no simple explanation for these inequalities...

Liberalization and Universal Access to Basic Services : Telecommunications, Water and Sanitation, Financial Services, and Electricity

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; World Bank
Fonte: OECD and the World Bank, Paris Publicador: OECD and the World Bank, Paris
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.99%
Access to basic services plays an important role in both individual well-being and a country's economic development. For this reason, general availability of these services to citizens, regardless of income level and geographical location, has generally been viewed as an important public policy goal. However, the precise definition of this goal and the means of attaining it have provoked controversy. This volume explores whether liberalization can contribute to achieving universal service goals and, if so, how, and looks at the types of complementary policies that may be required. It focuses on experience in four sectors: telecommunications, financial, water and sanitation, and energy services. For each sector, an overview paper and one or two case studies from developing countries examine the experience of governments in harnessing liberalization to meet social goals. It is hoped that this cross-sector view will yield general insights which a focus on a single sector may not, and help each sector to generate ideas by drawing upon experience in other sectors. A horizontal assessment also helps to determine how far the services negotiations at the World Trade Organization (WTO)...

How Relevant Is Infrastructure to Growth in East Asia?

Seethepalli, Kalpana; Bramati, Maria Caterina; Veredas, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.88%
This paper seeks to shed some light on the extent to which infrastructure sub-sectors - energy, telecommunications, water supply, sanitation, and transport - contributed to growth in East Asia during 1985-2004. It also attempts to provide additional insights on whether the relationship between infrastructure and growth depends on five additional variables: the degree of private participation in infrastructure, the quality of governance, the extent of rural-urban inequality in access to infrastructure services, country income levels, as well as geography. The findings show that greater stocks of infrastructure were indeed associated with higher growth. However, a more nuanced look at the sensitivity of infrastructure impacts on the five additional variables yields different results, with some sectors supporting conventional expectations and others yielding mixed or counter-intuitive results. In particular, the telecom and sanitation sectors yield statistically significant results supporting the a priori hypotheses; electricity and water infrastructure provide mixed results; and road infrastructure consistently contradicts a priori expectations. The results are consistent with the widely-accepted idea in policy research that infrastructure plays an important role in promoting growth...