Página 1 dos resultados de 778 itens digitais encontrados em 0.118 segundos

Welfare Impacts of Rural Electrification : Evidence from Vietnam

Khandker, Shahidur R.; Barnes, Douglas F.; Samad, Hussain; Minh, Nguyen Huu
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.96%
Access to electricity is crucial for economic development and there is a growing body of literature on the impact of rural electrification on development. However, most studies have so far relied on cross-sectional surveys comparing households with and without electricity, which have well known causal attribution problems. This paper is one of the first studies to examine the welfare impacts of households rural electrification based on panel surveys conducted in 2002 and 2005 for some 1,100 households in rural Vietnam,. The findings indicate that grid electrification has been both extensive (connecting all surveyed communes by 2005) and intensive (connecting almost 80 percent of the surveyed households by 2005). Vietnam is unusual in that once electricity is locally available, both rich and poor households are equally likely to get the connection. The econometric estimations suggest that grid electrification has significant positive impacts on households cash income, expenditure, and educational outcomes. The benefits...

The Impact of Structural Gender Differences and its Consequences on Access to Energy in Rural Bangladesh

Fatema, Naureen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.94%
This report studies the impact that gender differences in Bangladesh have on access to energy and energy services and the consequences of these impacts based on review of recent literature on the matter. The report concludes that the structural gender differences that arise from cultural and religious norms can lead to various impacts in access to energy services which in turn can have long term consequences on women and all these factors must be considered while designing rural energy- gender projects.

Powering Up Productivity in Rural Lao PDR : Stimulating Small and Medium Enterprises to Use Electricity for Income Generation

Tuntivate, Voravate Tig
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.97%
This study s broad goal was to identify opportunities for promoting productive uses of electricity in existing as well as among new small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the rural villages of Lao PDR to generate income for rural people and promote economic development. To this end, the study team conducted a market analysis of current businesses and services, as well as major agro-processing and other income-generating activities in (i) six selected central and southern provinces connected to grid-based electricity and (ii) 10 rural villages of a remote northern district that rely on renewable energy based, off-grid power supply. Based on the survey results, the study team identified opportunities for the SMEs to switch to or adopt electricity for productive purposes; major obstacles faced by the SME owners in utilizing electricity more fully; and suggested ways to overcome these barriers, including the facilitating role of EdL (Electricité du Laos, the country s national utility company. This study relied on a social marketing survey conducted in February 2011 as the primary data source. It also drew from literature reviews and information gathered from government agencies and international organizations. Three sets of field surveys were conducted. The first set focused on rural villages with access to grid electricity whose main crop is rice; the surveys covered three central (Bolikhamxai...

Connection Charges and Electricity Access in Sub-Saharan Africa

Golumbeanu, Raluca; Barnes, Douglas
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.02%
Sub-Saharan Africa trails other regions in providing access to electricity for poor urban and rural residents. This poor performance can be linked to various factors, including political interference in utility policy, higher investment costs and lower profitability of extending service to rural areas. But a major obstacle to wider access is the high charges consumers must pay to connect to the electricity network. The connection charges in Sub-Saharan Africa are among the highest in the world, which has resulted in low rates of electrification in many countries. This paper reviews ways to improve electrification rates by addressing the issue of high connection charges. Essential to the success of such efforts is concurrent political commitment to identify, examine, and implement various low-cost electrification approaches and financing solutions as part of a broad plan to improve access. Electricity companies can lower their connection-related costs, and thus consumer charges, by using a variety of low-cost technologies and materials in distribution networks and household connections; making bulk purchases of materials; and adjusting technical standards to reflect the lower loads of households that use a minimum amount of electricity. Strategies for lowering connection charges may also include spreading charges over a reasonable period...

Decentralized Energy Services to Fight Poverty : Outcome Driven Engagement of Small and Medium-size Enterprises in the Provision of Energy Services in IDA Countries

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.98%
The Department for International Development (DFID)-Funded Energy Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) Program was created to support SMEs by helping countries unblock the factors that prevent their potential in the delivery of energy services. With thirteen energy projects in twelve countries and one regional program in Africa, the implementation of the program started considerably slower than expected but has demonstrated potential to make an impact in a relatively neglected area of delivering energy services to the poor. Lack of access to sufficient and sustainable supplies of energy affects as much as 90 percent of the population of many developing countries. Some 2 billion people are without electricity; a similar number remain dependent on fuels such as animal dung, crop residues, wood, and charcoal to cook their daily meals. Widespread inefficient production and use of traditional energy sources, such as fuel-wood and agricultural residues, pose economic, environmental, and health threats. Uneven distribution and use of modern energy sources, such as electricity, petroleum products, and liquefied or compressed natural gas, pose important issues of economics, equity, and quality of life. The Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) Energy SME program focused on off-grid electrification and biomass use as many communities and households that have yet to be electrified are relatively isolated...

International Experience with Open Access to Power Grids : Synthesis Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66%
Reliable and affordable supply of electricity is a key driver of economic growth. In recent decades, many developing and emerging economies have embarked on efforts to enhance the efficiency of their electricity markets. The quest for efficiency often involves structural reforms such as unbundling and other measures designed to support greater competition in the power sector. Open Access (OA) to Transmission and Distribution (T&D) grids by market participants is an essential element in this reform process. The study has proceeded on two tracks: one based on empirical findings from specific country cases, and a generic one synthesizing the emerging global issues in OA. Reports for the country studies have been prepared for Brazil, Peru, Turkey, India, and the Philippines. In addition, a global review of the experience in a broader group of countries, both developed and developing, has been undertaken. Overall, the study has taken a broad approach to defining OA - going well beyond the minimalist notion of simply guaranteeing legal access to the grid for generators and wholesale buyers.

Assessing Markets for Renewable Energy in Rural Areas of Northwestern China

Voravate, Tuntivate; Barnes, Douglas F.; Bogach, V. Susan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.97%
The main objective of this study was to determine the market potential for photo-voltaic systems in the remote areas of China, particularly in villages without access to grid electricity. A number of photo-voltaic systems have been sold in the remote provinces, but the size and nature of this market was not well understood. The study produced data that addresses several needs: it yielded an estimate of the size of the potential market for photo-voltaic systems in four Chinese provinces; provided important information on the characteristics, ability to pay, and preferences of potential customers; detailed positive, and negative experiences with existing photo-voltaic systems; and, developed recommendations to increase the penetration of photo-voltaic systems in rural China, as part of the upcoming China Renewable Energy Development Project. The main conclusion of the report is that there is significant desire by households in remote areas, for electricity, and that there is significant potential market demand for photo-voltaic systems.

Scaling Up Access to Electricity : The Case of Lighting Africa

Murphy, Daniel; Sharma, Arsh
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.95%
This knowledge note is the first of three case studies that concerns scaling up access to electricity in Africa, Bangladesh, and Rwanda. Lighting Africa, a joint IFC and World Bank program launched in 2007, was the first private-sector-oriented effort to leverage new LED lighting technologies to build sustainable markets that provide safe, affordable, and modern off-grid lighting to communities in Africa that lack access to electricity. By 2030 the program aims to enable the private sector to reach 250 million people who now depend on fuel-based lighting. The case study for Africa is important, because the continent faces a huge rural electricity deficit. Global electrification in 2010 was estimated to be about 83 percent. The deficit of 17 percent encompasses some 1.2 billion people. Achieving universal access to modern energy services is one of the three complementary objectives of the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) initiative. Lighting Africa succeeded as a catalyst for the off-grid lighting market in Sub-Saharan Africa. Another success is apparent in the spectacular trajectory of solar lantern sales in Kenya. On the climate front...

Scaling Up Access to Electricity : Pay-as-You-Go Plans in Off-Grid Energy Services

Moreno, Alejandro; Bareisaite, Asta
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.98%
Although the payment models offered by off-grid energy companies are less flexible than those implemented with great success by mobile telephone companies, they may still have an important role to play in scaling up off-grid energy services for billions of people who lack access to electricity. More research is needed to assess the importance of flexible payments in attracting reliable low-income customers.

World Bank Group Support to Electricity Access, FY2000-2014; An Independent Evaluation

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.04%
The World Bank Group has committed to achieving universal access to electricity by 2030 under the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4All) initiative. This is a daunting challenge: more than 1 billion people do not have access, and another 1 billion have chronically inadequate or unreliable service. Most of those without access are poor, and the largest share is in Sub-Saharan Africa. Achieving universal access within 15 years for the low-access countries (those with under 50 percent coverage) requires a quantum leap from their present pace of 1.6 million connections per year to 14.6 million per year until 2030. The investment needed would be about $37 billion per year, including erasing generation deficits and meeting demand from economic growth. By comparison, in recent years, low-access countries received an average of $3.6 billion per year for their electricity sectors from public and private sources, including $1.5 billion per year from the World Bank Group. Development outcomes of the Bank Group’s assistance were generally favorable compared with other infrastructure sectors. However...

Africa Energy Poverty : G8 Energy Ministers Meeting 2009

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56%
Worldwide, about 1.6 billion people lack access to electricity services. There are also large populations without access in the poorer countries of Asia and Latin America, as well as in the rural and peri-urban areas of middle income countries. However large-scale electrification programs that is currently underway in middle income countries and the poor countries of Asia will increase household electricity access more rapidly than in sub-Saharan Africa. Africa has the lowest electrification rate of all the regions at 26 percent of households, meaning that as many as 547 million people are without access to electricity. On current trends less than half of African countries will reach universal access to electricity even by 2050. Without access to electricity services, the poor are deprived of opportunities to improve their living standards and the delivery of health and education services is compromised when electricity is not available in clinics, in schools and in the households of students and teachers. The total financing needs for Africa to resolve the power supply crisis are of the order of approximately US$40 billion per annum or 6.4 percent of region's Gross Domestic Product (GDP). In response to the power crisis...

Scaling Up Access to Electricity : The Case of Bangladesh

Sadeque, Zubair; Rysankova, Dana; Elahi, Raihan; Soni, Ruchi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.03%
This knowledge note is the second of three case studies that concerns scaling up access to electricity in Africa, Bangladesh, and Rwanda. Since its inception in 2003, Bangladesh's solar home system program has installed about three million electrification systems in rural households, two-thirds of them in the last three years. The program is the most dynamic off-grid electrification program in the world, benefitting more than 15 million people and contributing about 130 MW in renewable energy generation capacity. The case study for Bangladesh is interesting, because off-grid electrification is crucial to reaching universal access. Achieving universal access to modern energy services is one of the three complementary objectives of the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) initiative. Bangladesh's rural electrification program was initiated in 1977 with the creation of the Rural Electrification Board (REB). Yet, it was estimated that at the prevailing pace of grid electrification, Bangladesh was going to take 50 years to reach universal access. By 2002...

Scaling Up Access to Electricity : The Case of Rwanda

Baringanire, Paul; Malik, Kabir; Ghosh Banerjee, Sudeshna
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.83%
This knowledge note is the third of three case studies that concerns scaling up access to electricity in Africa, Bangladesh, and Rwanda. Rwanda s rapid achievements in expanding access to electricity after 2009 were made possible by one of the first applications of a sector-wide approach (SWAp) in the electricity sector. The World Bank played a pivotal role in the operationalization of the SWAp, first by assisting in the formulation of an investment prospectus that laid the groundwork for technical, financial, and implementation planning. The Rwandan experience is instructive for countries considering the adoption of a similar approach, particularly those starting from a low base. Rwanda's experience with electrification is an interesting case of how access to electricity can be quickly scaled up despite deficits in infrastructure and institutional capacity. In all, the SWAp in Rwanda delivered tremendous improvements in electricity access over a relatively short period of time. Although challenges remain...

Restoring Balance : Bangladesh's Rural Energy Realities

Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Barnes, Douglas F.; Khandker, Shahidur R.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56%
Bangladesh is one of the world's poorest countries. Nearly 80 percent of the nation's 140 million people reside in rural areas; of these, 20 percent live in extreme poverty. Geographically, many low-lying areas are vulnerable to severe flooding, while other regions are prone to drought, erosion, and soil salinity. Such an unfavorable agricultural landscape, combined with mismanagement of natural resources and increasing population pressure, is pushing many of the rural poor to the brink. Because Bangladesh is such a poor country, it also is one of the world's lowest energy producers. Total annual energy supply is only about 150 liters of oil equivalent per capita (International Energy Agency, or IEA 2003); in rural areas, conditions are even worse. Compared to other developing countries, Bangladesh uses little modern energy. Despite its successful rural electrification program, close to two-thirds of households remain without electricity and, with the exception of kerosene, commercial fuels are beyond reach for many. Moreover...

Rwanda - Extending Access to Energy : Lessons from a Sector-Wide Approach

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.94%
Rwanda is one of the first countries to use a Sector Wide-Approach (SWAp) in the energy sector to increase access to electricity. The SWAp emerged in the 1990s as an alternative to traditional development aid. The SWAp-based on a country-led, results-focused framework-encourages engagement across all sector stakeholders to ensure that investments work together to contribute to desired outcomes. With the assistance of energy sector management assistance program's Africa Renewable Energy Access (AFREA) program. This report provides a number of key lessons realized from the Rwanda energy SWAp for development partners and governments considering using such an approach. Country and government ownership and leadership is essential for efficient program planning and implementation, as is an alignment with national priorities and policies. In 2009, Rwanda initiated a SWAp in the energy sector to help achieve its target of increasing access to electricity from 6 percent of the population to 16 percent over a five-year period...

Policy and Governance Framework for Off-grid Rural Electrification with Renewable Energy Sources

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.04%
The objective of the study was to develop an adequate policy and governance framework for off- grid rural electrification by: assessing the effectiveness and key socio-economic factors and governance structures in present off-grid electricity supply schemes; and exploring and testing sustainable decentralized service-delivery models for future large-scale off-grid rural electrification in Pakistan. This study has attempted to develop a policy and governance framework for implementing sustainable large-scale off-grid rural electrification in Pakistan. This was done by assessing the effectiveness of existing policy, governance, and institutional frameworks in actual implementation of off-grid supply (OS) projects in the country; examining regional and global models for off-grid supply which have worked; and exploring which combination of these experiences might work to scale-up access in Pakistan to reach the roughly 7,000 villages which are not likely to be supplied by grid electricity in the near future. Pakistan has in place...

Nigeria : Expanding Access to Rural Infrastructure Issues and Options for Rural Electrification, Water Supply and Telecommunications

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.89%
Over two thirds of Nigeria's population resides in rural areas. Increasingly, poverty in the country is wearing a rural face. From 28.3 percent in 1980, poverty among the rural population grew to 51.4 percent in 1985, has since risen to 69.8 percent in 1996. Poverty tends to affect men and women differently. Women are generally less educated, more vulnerable, deprived and powerless than their male counterparts. 1.2 Poor people experience insecurity and vulnerability (drought, desertification, flooding, deforestation, diseases, volatile commodity markets etc.); lack of empowerment to influence public policies according to their priorities; and lack of opportunities for income generation and benefits from markets. Access to education, safe water supply, sanitation, health, modern energy, telecommunications and roads are important in reducing vulnerability and increasing prosperity.

One Goal, Two Paths : Achieving Universal Access to Modern Energy in East Asia and the Pacific

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.07%
The purpose of the current flagship report is to address energy access and related developmental issues in East Asia Pacific (EAP) that so far have received less attention compared to the macro energy issues of climate change and reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. EAP countries have two steep paths to climb to achieve universal access to modern energy: electricity and modern cooking solutions. Approximately 170 million people, or 34 million households, in EAP countries do not have electricity connections in their homes. This number is equivalent to approximately 9 percent of the Region's total population, and 30 percent of the Region's population excluding China. Moreover, approximately 6 times that number, or over 1 billion people, still lack access to modern cooking solutions. In addition, EAP is exceeded by only Sub Saharan Africa and South Asia in the number of people who lack access to electricity. However, access to both electricity and modern cooking solutions is essential to address the enduring impacts of poverty and to move the poor onto a rising development trajectory. The link between access to modern energy and development is most clearly defined by the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). The MDGs were formulated to reduce global poverty while increasing education...

Scaling Up Access to Electricity; Emerging Best Practices for Mini-Grid Regulation

Greacen, Chris; Nsom, Stephanie; Rysankova, Dana
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.02%
This brief will focus on enabling regulations for mini-grids, providing an overview of key issues, options, and good practices. While appropriate regulations are not all that is needed to spur mini-grid development, is usually one of the first obstacles that potential developers face and therefore the most urgent issue for governments. The authors draw on a case study of Tanzania, a pioneer in setting an enabling and light-handed regulatory framework for mini-grids. Given the urgency of leveraging private sector investments for reaching the universal access targets of the international sustainable energy for all projects, the authors also focus on regulatory issues relevant to private sector entrepreneurs and investors. Mini-grid entrepreneurs need to know that their investment of time and money will have a reasonable chance not just of being repaid but also of returning a profit. A clear and credible regulatory framework that makes and enforces fair and efficient decisions in a timely manner helps entrepreneurs make informed investment decisions. The key characteristics of such a framework...

Providing dynamic virtualized access to grid resources via the Web 2.0 paradigm

Clementi, Luca; Ding, Zhaohui; Krishnan, Sriram; Wei, Xiaohui; Arzberger, Peter; Li, Wilfred
Fonte: Grid Computing Environments (GCE) Publicador: Grid Computing Environments (GCE)
Tipo: Proceedings
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.94%
Grid systems provide mechanisms for single sign-on, and uniform APIs for job submission and data transfer, in order to allow the coupling of distributed resources in a seamless manner. However, new users face a daunting barrier of entry due to the high cost of deployment and maintenance. They are often required to learn complex concepts relative to grid infrastructures (credential management, scheduling systems, data staging, etc). To most scientific users, running their applications with minimal changes and yet getting results faster is highly desirable, without having to know much about how the resources are used. Hence, a higher level of abstraction must be provided for the underlying infrastructure to be used effectively. For this purpose, as part of our prior work, we have developed the Opal toolkit for exposing applications on grid resources as simple Web services [1]. Opal provides a basic set of APIs that allows users to execute their deployed applications through graphical user interfaces, or via programmatic means. In this paper, we present our ongoing work to extend the Opal toolkit that enables the creation of an end-to-end infrastructure to dynamically leverage scientific applications on grid resources. In particular, we focus on the following two key extensions. We have developed a command-line syntax description language that can be published via the Opal interface. This enables the creation of dynamic Web forms for job submission...