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The Impact of the Business Environment on Young Firm Financing

Chavis, Larry W.; Klapper, Leora F.; Love, Inessa
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.09%
This paper uses a dataset of more than 70,000 firms in over 100 countries to systematically study the use of different financing sources for new and young firms, in comparison to mature firms. The authors find that in all countries younger firms rely less on bank financing and more on informal financing. However, they also find that younger firms use more bank finance in countries with stronger rule of law and better credit information, and that the reliance of young firms on informal finance decreases with the availability of credit information. Overall, the results suggest that improvements to the legal environment and availability of credit information are disproportionately beneficial for promoting access to formal finance by young firms.

Well-Structured Agribusiness Linkages Projects Lead to Happy Clients and a Developed Sector

Menkova, Viktoryia; Sethi, Sanwaree
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.82%
Despite the large potential of the agricultural sector in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, production is still limited by a lack of technical knowledge and, in many cases, an unwillingness to change agricultural practices inherited from Soviet times. The problem has more than one cause: poor technology, management skills, and quality of produce prevent farms from joining agribusiness supply chains. Limited access to financing further prevents farmers who want to improve practices from making the investments needed to achieve better productivity and efficiency. This situation is further complicated by an unfriendly regulatory environment, specifically, land ownership issues and corrupt state subsidies systems, which distort the market. International Financial Corporation (IFC) Private Enterprise Partnership in Eastern Europe and Central Asia (IFC PEP-ECA) has developed a comprehensive approach to tackling each of these issues in its agribusiness projects; this approach has also been affirmed by the independent evaluation group.

Scaling-Up SME Access to Financial Services

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.1%
Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) play a major role in economic development, particularly in emerging countries, but access to finance remains a key constraint to SME. In the light of the new understanding of the SME finance challenges that this report synthesizes, the Financial Inclusion Experts Group (FIEG) makes key recommendations for the G-20 leaders, in order to achieve a global scale-up of SME access to financial services in the developing world. The G-20 FIEG SME Finance Sub-Group executed a global SME Finance stocktaking exercise with various SME finance models to establish best practices in SME Finance.The report concludes that, given the fragmented SME finance data space, the G-20 has a unique opportunity to lead the collaborative effort on improving the availability and quality of SME finance data globally. This can be achieved through encouraging and coordinating the data collection efforts at regional, national, and global levels conducted by a multitude of sources including national governments/agencies and international organizations and effectively addressing the data collection challenges along the way to ensure continuity of these efforts moving forward.

Policy Note on SMEs Access to Finance in Tunisia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
The Tunisian government has long been aware of the need to support companies in their search for financing. Over the last decade, the government has strengthened legal and regulatory frameworks in this area, created public financing systems, facilitated the development of financial markets and helped to expand the supply of financial products, especially those geared at SMEs. SMEs play a vital role in Tunisia because at least 97.8 percent of Tunisian firms (across all sectors) fall into this category. The main consequence of the prevalence of SMEs in Tunisia s economic landscape is that all economic development strategies are de facto based on the performance of this category of companies. SMEs ability to obtain financing for their business operations and investments is therefore crucial to Tunisia s future economic development.

Financial Access 2009 : Measuring Access to Financial Services around the World

Consultative Group to Assist the Poor
Fonte: Consultative Group to Assist the Poor/The World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: Consultative Group to Assist the Poor/The World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.77%
Financial Access 2009 introduces the latest data from a survey of financial regulators in 139 countries. It presents indicators of access to savings, credit, and payment services in banks, and in regulated nonbank financial institutions. It is intended for a broad audience of policymakers, researchers, practitioners, multilateral and bilateral investors, in order to guide monetary policy, monitor systemic risks, and collect information on the values of deposits and credit. This report reviews three interventions: disclosure requirements, interest rate caps, and methods to address excessive lending that can result in consumer indebtedness. Improved transparency and disclosure allow borrowers to make informed choices and can facilitate competition in financial markets, eventually leading to lower prices and improved products. Policies to restrict interest rates or credit quantity, especially in consumer credit, seem to have limited effect but require further analysis.

Niger - Rural Financial Services : Expanding Financial Access to the Rural Poor

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.02%
The main objective of this study is to identify the major impediments to access to financial services in rural areas, and provide practical recommendations to address the identified problems. The study aims to inform on rural finance policies and innovative instruments by examining both supply and demand sides including an identification of non-financial issues that restrict development of the rural financial sector. Addressing the lack of rural access to financial services in the Niger development process continues to figure prominently on the Government agenda without, however, a systematic action plan and strategy. Adopting ad hoc solutions (such as the creation of an agricultural development bank) without addressing the structural issues that limit access to financial services will, unfortunately, not yield any positive long lasting results.

Access to Financial Services : A Review of the Issues and Public Policy Objectives

Claessens, Stijn
Fonte: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.97%
This article reviews the evidence on the importance of finance for economic well-being. It provides data on the use of basic financial services by households and firms across a sample of countries, assesses the desirability of universal access, and provides an overview of the macroeconomic, legal, and regulatory obstacles to access. Despite the benefits of finance, the data show that use of financial services is far from universal in many countries, especially developing countries. Universal access to financial services has not been a public policy objective in most countries and would likely be difficult to achieve. Countries can, however, facilitate access to financial services by strengthening institutional infrastructure, liberalizing markets and facilitating greater competition, and encouraging innovative use of know-how and technology. Government interventions to directly broaden access to finance, however, are costly and fraught with risks, among others the risk of missing the targeted groups. The article concludes with recommendations for global actions aimed at improving data on access and use and suggestions on areas of further analysis to identify constraints to broadening access.

Enhancing Access to Finance for Technology Entrepreneurs : Analysis of Highly Innovative, High Growth Start-Ups in Vietnam, Cambodia, and Nepal

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.12%
The first part of the study provides contextual background to the financing gaps and associated barriers, which restrict access to finance for HI start-ups. These barriers are driven by both supply and demand sides of the financing equation. Supply side barriers include: high transaction costs associated with financing; high levels of credit risk associated with HI start-ups; high collateral required by financial institutions; non-conducive legal and regulatory environments for investment in HI start-ups; lack of start-up expertise and dedicated resources by financiers; and finance products that are not tailored to HI start-ups needs and circumstances. Demand side barriers include: reliance by HI start-ups on informal financing sources; lack of awareness on the process to apply for funding from formal financing sources; low levels of financial literacy by HI start-ups; and the fear of losing control by involving external investors. This section also contains a broad overview of the country frameworks governing the start-up sector...

Financing Municipal Energy Efficiency Projects

Energy Sector Management Assistance Program
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.07%
Improving the energy efficiency (EE) of municipally owned buildings, such as schools and hospitals, and municipal infrastructure, such as public lighting, water supply, and district heating, offers budgetary savings on energy bills and a wide range of environmental and socioeconomic benefits. But relatively few municipal EE projects have been developed and implemented successfully. The challenges that limit EE investments in municipal buildings and facilities can be grouped into three broad areas: (i) a lack of awareness and incentives; (ii) insufficient implementation capacity; and (iii) limited access to financing. All three sets of challenges need to be addressed to scale up successful implementation of municipal EE projects. This Guidance Note focuses on the key issues faced by municipalities in accessing financing for EE investments, particularly for projects in the following four areas: indoor lighting, building retrofits, public lighting, and municipal utilities. The guidance note discusses the following potential financing mechanisms that can be used by municipalities to finance EE measures: budget financing...

Scaling-Up SME Access to Financial Services in the Developing World

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.12%
Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) play a major role in economic development, particularly in emerging countries. Access to finance remains a key constraint to SME development in emerging economies. Closing the credit gap for formal SMEs will be less daunting than for informal SMEs. The SME finance gap is the result of a mismatch between the needs of the small firms and the supply of financial services, which typically are easier for larger firms to access. Deficiencies in the enabling environment and residual market failures have motivated government interventions to foster SME access to financing. The stocktaking exercise confirms the rise in various parts of the world of specific business models aimed at providing financial services to SMEs in a cost-effective manner. Effective SME financing models can be implemented in different country and market environments, but greater outreach is achieved in the most developed environments for the financial sector. Although SME banking and microfinance models are successfully being rolled out in an increasing number of countries and regions...

Facilitating SME Financing through Improved Credit Reporting

International Committee on Credit Reporting
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.09%
The general principles for credit reporting were issued by the World Bank in September 2011. Since then, the World Bank and the international committee on credit reporting (ICCR) have been leading efforts towards the implementation of the general principles worldwide. This report is one of the concrete outputs of the work following the general principles. It addresses one of the most significant problems that limit the ability of most small and medium enterprises (SMEs) around the world to obtain adequate external financing to underpin their productive activities: information asymmetries. Creditors assess the creditworthiness of credit and loan applicants based on two basic criteria: ones financial capacity or ability to repay a loan, and ones willingness to repay the loan. A credit reporting system s (CRS) basic objective is to address information asymmetries, which is crucial for determining repayment capacity and repayment willingness. Credit reporting can therefore be extremely valuable to creditors for enhanced...

Potentials and Constraints of Using Warehouse Receipts Financing

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.11%
The paper starts with an overview of Cambodia’s rice sector, with a particular attention to aspects which affect its need for external working capital finance, and characteristics and constraints that could hinder access to such finance (e.g., warehousing capacity, processing constraints, logistics, and market risks). Chapter two describes the general conditions for crop-based financing in Cambodia’s rice sector. Chapter three discusses policy options for enhancing the use of paddy and rice as collateral for financing. The chapter sets out the two main modalities: collateral management, and public warehousing. Both collateral management and public warehousing work best when certain support structures are in place, in particular an indemnity system, a system for the electronic trading of warehouse receipts, and a facility for refinancing warehouse receipt loans (which could be managed by the Central Bank or outsourced to another competent entity such as an investment fund). These are discussed in separate sections. The various sections describe the situation as currently prevails in Cambodia...

Kyrgyz Republic : Access to Financial Services Policy Note

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.96%
The purpose of this paper is to report on the level of access to formal financial services in the Kyrgyz Republic, assess the key obstacles to improving access, and make recommendations to overcome these obstacles. The paper is organized as follows. Sections II to IV examine the supply of financial services. Specifically, section II presents a profile of financial intermediation by banks, focusing their supply of financial services, particularly lending and deposits. Section III presents a profile of lending by Aiyl Bank, a specialized bank with a limited license, which is mandated to lend for agriculture. Section IV presents a profile of lending by non-bank financial institutions (NBFIs), including microfinance organizations (MFOs) and credit unions. Section V examines the demand side for financial services, drawing on enterprise surveys to assess firms' perceptions of their access to finance. Section VI presents a brief analysis of the impact of the events of April 2010 on access to finance. Section VII discusses key obstacles in increasing access to finance from banks and NBFIs. Section VIII concludes with policy recommendations that derive from the preceding analysis.

Assessing Firms' Financing Constraints in Brazil

Claessens, Stijn; Sakho, Yaye Seynabou
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.1%
Firm surveys often indicate that firms complain a lot about lack of access to financial services, but financing constraints are difficult to identify, given demand and supply considerations and with only surveys based on firms' perceptions. Specifically, it is difficult to separate demand for access to finance of viable firms with good growth opportunities from that of firms that are not creditworthy and should not deserve financing. In Brazil, one of the main constraints to finance is related to the high level of interest rates, which affects both bank funding costs as well as bank intermediation spreads and, as such, the cost of finance and hence the demand and supply of bank financing. This paper analyzes a unique loan level data set that covers almost a decade of monthly firm bank information from credit registry information that is not publicly available as well as two cross-sections of Brazil's Investment Climate Assessment surveys in 2004 and 2008 that provide detailed information on firms' micro characteristics as well as perceptions of credit. The data allow identification of how firms' characteristics...

Drivers and Obstacles to Banking SMEs : The Role of Competition and the Institutional Framework

de la Torre, Augusto; Martínez Pería, María Soledad; Schmukler, Sergio L.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.05%
This paper studies the factors banks perceive as drivers and obstacles to financing small and medium enterprises (SMEs), focusing on the role of competition and the institutional framework. Using a survey of banks in Argentina and Chile, the paper shows that, despite alleged differences in the countries' environments regarding rules, regulations, and ease of doing business, SMEs have become a strategic segment for most banks in both countries. In particular, banks have begun to target SMEs due to the significant competition in the corporate and retail sectors. They perceive the SMEs market as highly profitable, large, and with good prospects. Moreover, banks are developing coping mechanisms to overcome the particular institutional obstacles present in each country and to compete for SMEs. Banks' interest in SMEs is not based on government programs, yet policy action might help reduce the cost of providing financing, especially long-term lending.

Informality among Formal Firms : Firm-level, Cross-country Evidence on tax Compliance and Access to Credit

Gatti, Roberta; Honorati, Maddalena
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.03%
The authors use firm-level, cross-county data from Investment Climate surveys in 49 developing countries to investigate an important channel through which informality can affect productivity: access to credit and external finance. Informality is measured as self-reported lack of tax compliance in a sample of registered firms that also answered questions on a large set of other characteristics. The authors find that more tax compliance is significantly associated with more access to credit both in OLS and in country fixed effects estimates. In particular, the link between credit and formality is stronger in high-formality countries. This suggests that firms' balance sheets are relatively more informative for financial institutions in environments where signal extraction is a less noisy process. The authors' results are robust to the inclusion of a wide array of correlates and to two-stage estimation.

Ready for Growth : Solutions to Increase Access to Finance for Women-Owned Businesses in the Middle East and North Africa

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.07%
The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is at one of the most critical turning points in its modern history. The Arab spring was driven by the desire for economic opportunity and justice in the face of poverty and unemployment. The development of strong economies that enable both women and men to enhance their livelihoods is crucial for the future of the region. The growth and success of women-owned businesses is one of the most profound changes in the business world today. There is no doubt that women are an emerging market force. However, many businesswomen are not accessing commercial credit, an essential driver of business success. Lack of access to finance and financial services is repeatedly identified as the major constraint for women business owners. This report 'ready for growth: solutions to increase access to finance for women-owned business in the Middle East and North Africa', is designed to shed a light on those barriers. It is the result of a unique International Finance Corporation (IFC) partnership with vital voices and the Middle East and North Africa Businesswomen's Network (MENA BWN). Its purpose is to fill a critical gap in our knowledge of what women-owned businesses need in terms of financial products and services. Building on our knowledge of how commercial banks currently reach the women's market...

Collateral Registries for Movable Assets : Does Their Introduction Spur Firms' Access to Bank Finance?

Love, Inessa; Martínez Pería, María Soledad; Singh, Sandeep
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.02%
Using firm-level surveys for up to 73 countries, this paper explores the impact of introducing collateral registries for movable assets on firms' access to bank finance. It compares firms' access to bank finance in seven countries that introduced collateral registries for movable assets against three control groups: firms in all countries that did not introduce a registry, firms in a sample of countries matched by location and income per capita to the countries that introduced registries for movable assets, and firms in countries that undertook other types of collateral reforms but did not set up registries for movable assets. Overall, the analysis finds that introducing collateral registries for movable assets increases firms' access to bank finance. There is also some evidence that this effect is larger among smaller firms.

Republic of Moldova Enterprise Access to Finance : Background Note; Moldova - Prioritati de politici pentru dezvoltarea sectorului privat

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Development Policy Review (DPR); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.02%
The Government of Moldova is seeking to change the country's development paradigm and build an export-oriented economy characterized by investment, innovation, and competitiveness, following a decade of 'jobless growth'. This report focuses on improvements that will be needed to move Moldova to the next stage of development as envisioned in the Moldova 2020 strategy; however, reforms over the past decade also deserve acknowledgment. Improving the business environment is an especially important task, given Moldova's low levels of natural resources and small internal market. This study aims to identify the most pressing problems in the business environment that are adversely affecting Moldovan companies' productivity and competitiveness, and to present recommendations that would help remove these obstacles. The analysis is based on a review of existing reports; interviews with government officials, private sector associations, a sample of businesses, and some subject matter experts; as well as original research on access to finance. This study has identified that the following aspects of doing business are the most problematic: customs administration; tax administration; business regulation...

Bringing Finance to Pakistan's Poor : Access to Finance for Small Enterprises and the Underserved

Nenova, Tatiana; Thioro Niang, Cecile; Ahmad, Anjum
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.01%
Access to financing is now widely acknowledged as a path to meaningful economic inclusion and reduction in poverty. Policy efforts to increase access to finance in Pakistan have taken time to bear fruit, but now access is indeed expanding quickly in certain financial sectors (microfinance, remittances), albeit from a very low base. Nevertheless, policy measures cannot single-handedly increase financial access; financial institutions' willingness to expand access in Pakistan has been stinted by slow technologic advances, weak legal foundations, and unsuitable financial processes and products. Poor socioeconomic conditions, gender bias, and low levels of basic education and financial literacy remain barriers, but perhaps the single strongest driver of low demand for financial access has been income. The primary purpose of this study is to measure and describe the state of financial service provision to underserved segments of the market in Pakistan, particularly those with low incomes and small enterprises, and to identify ways to improve investment and create inclusive markets that meet the needs of underserved people and enterprises.