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Programa luz para todos - da eletrificação rural à universalização do acesso à energia elétrica - da necessidade de uma política de Estado; Luz para Todos - from rural electrification to universal access to electricity. The need for a state policy

Camargo, Ednaldo Jose Silva de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/04/2010 PT
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CAMARGO, Ednaldo J. S. Programa Luz para Todos da eletrificação rural à universalização do acesso à energia elétrica. Da necessidade de uma política de Estado, 2010, 127 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Energia) Programa de Pós-Graduação em Energia da Universidade de São Paulo, 2010 A criação do Programa Luz para Todos, em 11 de novembro de 2003, por meio da Lei 10.762, e sua regulamentação pelo Decreto 4.873, da mesma data, trouxe novos temas para o âmbito do estudo da eletrificação rural. O Programa luz para Todos acumulou em sua estruturação uma somatória de conhecimentos e experiências anteriores, com um arranjo financeiro que possibilitou uma solução até então inédita para o atendimento do morador pobre das áreas rurais: a total gratuidade da ligação. Esta solução foi possível graças a um arranjo financeiro que envolveu diversas partes. O Governo Federal, com recursos de dois fundos setoriais a RGR Reserva Global de Reversão e a CDE Conta de Desenvolvimento Energético, sendo a CDE lançada a fundo perdido, como subvenção e a RGR na forma de financiamento, os Governos Estaduais e os agentes concessionários e permissionários, não havendo qualquer participação financeira de parte do consumidor a ser ligado. Este arranjo tripartite varia dependendo do impacto tarifário que a ligação ou conjunto de ligações gerar para o agente executor da obra...

The Impact of Structural Gender Differences and its Consequences on Access to Energy in Rural Bangladesh

Fatema, Naureen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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This report studies the impact that gender differences in Bangladesh have on access to energy and energy services and the consequences of these impacts based on review of recent literature on the matter. The report concludes that the structural gender differences that arise from cultural and religious norms can lead to various impacts in access to energy services which in turn can have long term consequences on women and all these factors must be considered while designing rural energy- gender projects.

Connection Charges and Electricity Access in Sub-Saharan Africa

Golumbeanu, Raluca; Barnes, Douglas
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Sub-Saharan Africa trails other regions in providing access to electricity for poor urban and rural residents. This poor performance can be linked to various factors, including political interference in utility policy, higher investment costs and lower profitability of extending service to rural areas. But a major obstacle to wider access is the high charges consumers must pay to connect to the electricity network. The connection charges in Sub-Saharan Africa are among the highest in the world, which has resulted in low rates of electrification in many countries. This paper reviews ways to improve electrification rates by addressing the issue of high connection charges. Essential to the success of such efforts is concurrent political commitment to identify, examine, and implement various low-cost electrification approaches and financing solutions as part of a broad plan to improve access. Electricity companies can lower their connection-related costs, and thus consumer charges, by using a variety of low-cost technologies and materials in distribution networks and household connections; making bulk purchases of materials; and adjusting technical standards to reflect the lower loads of households that use a minimum amount of electricity. Strategies for lowering connection charges may also include spreading charges over a reasonable period...

International Experience with Open Access to Power Grids : Synthesis Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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Reliable and affordable supply of electricity is a key driver of economic growth. In recent decades, many developing and emerging economies have embarked on efforts to enhance the efficiency of their electricity markets. The quest for efficiency often involves structural reforms such as unbundling and other measures designed to support greater competition in the power sector. Open Access (OA) to Transmission and Distribution (T&D) grids by market participants is an essential element in this reform process. The study has proceeded on two tracks: one based on empirical findings from specific country cases, and a generic one synthesizing the emerging global issues in OA. Reports for the country studies have been prepared for Brazil, Peru, Turkey, India, and the Philippines. In addition, a global review of the experience in a broader group of countries, both developed and developing, has been undertaken. Overall, the study has taken a broad approach to defining OA - going well beyond the minimalist notion of simply guaranteeing legal access to the grid for generators and wholesale buyers.

Improving Energy Access to the Urban Poor in Developing Countries

The Energy and Resources Institute
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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The case studies documented in this report aim to inform the energy access community (including practitioners, civil society groups, project planners, end users) about best practices of successful energy access initiatives targeted at slum dwellers. Eight case studies focusing on electrification and household energy were selected from India, Bangladesh, Colombia and Brazil, all countries that have had varying success in providing access to modern energy services for slum dwellers. The cases had to meet all or some of the following criteria: 1) limited to developing countries; 2) demonstrate innovative methods of improving energy access, including collaborative stakeholder engagement; 3) at least one example of small local energy service providers; 4) contributed to community development by promoting local skill development and income generation; and 5) representative of electricity and different sources of household energy. The case studies describe the existing conditions in the slum, type of energy service provided...

Tracking Access to Electricity

Ghosh Banerjee, Sudeshna; Portale, Elisa
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Access to electricity in flexible, reliable, and sustainable forms brings a range of social and economic benefits, enabling people to leap from poverty to a better future, enhancing the quality of household life, and stimulating the broader economy. Modern energy is essential for the provision of health care; clean water and sanitation; and reliable and efficient lighting, heating, cooking, mechanical power, transportation, and telecommunications. To support the achievement of these goals, a starting point must be set, indicators developed, and a framework established to track those indicators until 2030. The World Bank and International Energy Agency have led a consortium of 15 international agencies to produce data on access to electricity for the SE4ALL Global Tracking Framework. Launched in 2013, the framework defines electricity access as the presence of an electricity connection in the household as typically reported through household surveys.

Scaling Up Access to Electricity : The Case of Lighting Africa

Murphy, Daniel; Sharma, Arsh
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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This knowledge note is the first of three case studies that concerns scaling up access to electricity in Africa, Bangladesh, and Rwanda. Lighting Africa, a joint IFC and World Bank program launched in 2007, was the first private-sector-oriented effort to leverage new LED lighting technologies to build sustainable markets that provide safe, affordable, and modern off-grid lighting to communities in Africa that lack access to electricity. By 2030 the program aims to enable the private sector to reach 250 million people who now depend on fuel-based lighting. The case study for Africa is important, because the continent faces a huge rural electricity deficit. Global electrification in 2010 was estimated to be about 83 percent. The deficit of 17 percent encompasses some 1.2 billion people. Achieving universal access to modern energy services is one of the three complementary objectives of the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) initiative. Lighting Africa succeeded as a catalyst for the off-grid lighting market in Sub-Saharan Africa. Another success is apparent in the spectacular trajectory of solar lantern sales in Kenya. On the climate front...

Planning for Electricity Access

Chattopadhyay, Debabrata; Kitchlu, Rahul; Jordan, Rhonda L.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This brief examines planning for access to electricity. That electricity for all campaigns around the globe often fall short of their targets is partly a failure of planning. In the area of generation and transmission, technical changes could improve the handling of key constraints, such as fuel availability, funding, and the rate of building. Planning for distribution networks could be improved by gathering data on end-use demand and deploying geospatial tools. Most important of all, the entire planning process from generation to distribution must be better coordinated if access plans are to be successful.

Scaling Up Access to Electricity : Pay-as-You-Go Plans in Off-Grid Energy Services

Moreno, Alejandro; Bareisaite, Asta
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Although the payment models offered by off-grid energy companies are less flexible than those implemented with great success by mobile telephone companies, they may still have an important role to play in scaling up off-grid energy services for billions of people who lack access to electricity. More research is needed to assess the importance of flexible payments in attracting reliable low-income customers.

A Quarter Century Effort Yet to Come of Age

Jamasb, Tooraj; Nepal, Rabindra; Timilsina, Govinda R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
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It has been more than two decades since the widespread initiation of global power sector reforms and restructuring. However, empirical evidence on the intended microeconomic, macroeconomic, and quality-related impacts of reforms across developing countries is lacking. This paper comprehensively reviews the empirical and theoretical literature on the linkages between power sector reforms, economic and technical efficiency, and poverty reduction. The review finds that the extent of power sector reforms has varied across developing countries in terms of changes in market structures, the role of the state, and the regulation of the sector. Overall, the reforms have improved the efficiency and productivity in the sector among many reforming countries. However, the efficiency gains have not always reached the end consumers because of the inability of sector regulators and inadequate regulatory frameworks. Reforms alleviate poverty and promote the welfare of the poor only when the poor have access to electricity. From a policy-making perspective...

World Bank Group Support to Electricity Access, FY2000-2014; An Independent Evaluation

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The World Bank Group has committed to achieving universal access to electricity by 2030 under the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4All) initiative. This is a daunting challenge: more than 1 billion people do not have access, and another 1 billion have chronically inadequate or unreliable service. Most of those without access are poor, and the largest share is in Sub-Saharan Africa. Achieving universal access within 15 years for the low-access countries (those with under 50 percent coverage) requires a quantum leap from their present pace of 1.6 million connections per year to 14.6 million per year until 2030. The investment needed would be about $37 billion per year, including erasing generation deficits and meeting demand from economic growth. By comparison, in recent years, low-access countries received an average of $3.6 billion per year for their electricity sectors from public and private sources, including $1.5 billion per year from the World Bank Group. Development outcomes of the Bank Group’s assistance were generally favorable compared with other infrastructure sectors. However...

Scaling Up Access to Electricity : The Case of Bangladesh

Sadeque, Zubair; Rysankova, Dana; Elahi, Raihan; Soni, Ruchi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This knowledge note is the second of three case studies that concerns scaling up access to electricity in Africa, Bangladesh, and Rwanda. Since its inception in 2003, Bangladesh's solar home system program has installed about three million electrification systems in rural households, two-thirds of them in the last three years. The program is the most dynamic off-grid electrification program in the world, benefitting more than 15 million people and contributing about 130 MW in renewable energy generation capacity. The case study for Bangladesh is interesting, because off-grid electrification is crucial to reaching universal access. Achieving universal access to modern energy services is one of the three complementary objectives of the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) initiative. Bangladesh's rural electrification program was initiated in 1977 with the creation of the Rural Electrification Board (REB). Yet, it was estimated that at the prevailing pace of grid electrification, Bangladesh was going to take 50 years to reach universal access. By 2002...

Scaling Up Access to Electricity : The Case of Rwanda

Baringanire, Paul; Malik, Kabir; Ghosh Banerjee, Sudeshna
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This knowledge note is the third of three case studies that concerns scaling up access to electricity in Africa, Bangladesh, and Rwanda. Rwanda s rapid achievements in expanding access to electricity after 2009 were made possible by one of the first applications of a sector-wide approach (SWAp) in the electricity sector. The World Bank played a pivotal role in the operationalization of the SWAp, first by assisting in the formulation of an investment prospectus that laid the groundwork for technical, financial, and implementation planning. The Rwandan experience is instructive for countries considering the adoption of a similar approach, particularly those starting from a low base. Rwanda's experience with electrification is an interesting case of how access to electricity can be quickly scaled up despite deficits in infrastructure and institutional capacity. In all, the SWAp in Rwanda delivered tremendous improvements in electricity access over a relatively short period of time. Although challenges remain...

Kenya : Rural Electrification Access Expansion Study

de Gouvello, Christophe
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The Government of Kenya adopted in 2004 an Economic Recovery Strategy for Wealth and Employment Creation (ERSWEC), which recognizes three main pillars for economy recovery namely: (i) strengthening economic growth; (ii) enhancing equity and reducing poverty; and (iii) improving governance. The ERSWEC reiterates that the achievement of the three pillars is dependent on adequate and reliable access to least-cost energy. Since agriculture continues to be the mainstay of Kenya's economy, ensuring adequate access to electricity in rural areas is an important component to achieving the objectives of the ERSWEC. This is confirmed by investigations made by this study regarding specific energy needs for the different sectors of productive and social activities in the rural areas, for agriculture, livestock, fishery, tea and coffee cooperatives, telecommunications, water pumping and health and education services.The Government of Kenya has adopted a National Energy formulated in the Sessional Paper No 4 of 2004 consistent with the ERSWEC...

A New Slant on Slopes : Measuring the Benefits of Increased Electricity Access in Developing Countries

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study
ENGLISH
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The objective of this paper is to shed some light on the benefits of improved access to electricity supply, specifically the benefits referred to as, 'consumer's surplus', which is the difference between what customers are willing to pay for the utilities associated with electricity access and the price that they actually pay. The paper leads to several important policy messages for the preparation of investments aiming to increase energy access in developing countries: consumer surplus as the measure for estimating benefits of enlarged access by households to public electricity supply needs to be used with caution; make sure that benefits of increased access to electricity are measured both in terms of gains in consumer surplus and gains in real income from electrification; plan electricity access expansion taking into account that reinforced electricity access may increase consumption of electricity modestly; plan electrification along with accompanying measures to ease access to electricity consuming appliances; and strengthen public data on energy consumption. The paper leads to specific conclusions relative to: the methodology to calculate benefits of increased electricity access; demand patterns for lighting purposes; demand patterns for entertainment and information purposes...

Rwanda - Extending Access to Energy : Lessons from a Sector-Wide Approach

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Rwanda is one of the first countries to use a Sector Wide-Approach (SWAp) in the energy sector to increase access to electricity. The SWAp emerged in the 1990s as an alternative to traditional development aid. The SWAp-based on a country-led, results-focused framework-encourages engagement across all sector stakeholders to ensure that investments work together to contribute to desired outcomes. With the assistance of energy sector management assistance program's Africa Renewable Energy Access (AFREA) program. This report provides a number of key lessons realized from the Rwanda energy SWAp for development partners and governments considering using such an approach. Country and government ownership and leadership is essential for efficient program planning and implementation, as is an alignment with national priorities and policies. In 2009, Rwanda initiated a SWAp in the energy sector to help achieve its target of increasing access to electricity from 6 percent of the population to 16 percent over a five-year period...

Introducing Competition into the Electricity Supply Industry in Developing Countries : Lessons from Bolivia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This report summarizes the Bolivian power sector reform experience from 1993 until the end of 1999. The reform of Bolivia's electric sector is considered one of the most successful to date. Bolivia opted for both vertical and horizontal separation. Large power company generations units were capitalized; transmission grid and distribution were privatized. Since the capitalization or privatization, there has been a dramatic expansion in generation capacity, and distribution networks are also growing well. However, access to electricity remains limited. The main issues in the sector are now a) privatizing the smaller systems, and b) expanding access in the under-served rural areas. A review will be essential after a few years of implementation. The effect of power sector reform on poverty alleviation will need to be assessed at that point.

Togo Energy Sector Policy Review : Review of the Electricity Sub-Sector; Togo - Apercu du sous-secteur de l'electricite

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The main objective of this sector work (ESW) is to provide the World Bank and the Government of Togo with a sound basis and proposals for decision-making about the main electricity sub-sector issues facing the country. The ESW therefore assesses the key challenges facing the sub-sector and provides information, analysis and recommendations regarding: 1) the overall energy policy and strategy framework; 2) the institutional and regulatory framework including the necessary reforms within the context of Togo's regional undertakings; 3) the electricity demand and supply balance including access to electricity services; 4) electricity tariffing; 5) the investment program and the financing requirements; and 6) the utility's financial situation and the sub-sector financial outlook. The review also summarizes recommendations addressing the key issues facing Togo's electricity sub-sector. Togo will need to confront several constraints to promote economic recovery and reduce poverty. Weak public sector capacity has become the Government's most pressing challenge and is hampering the country's ability to manage the rapidly expanding portfolio of projects funded by the donors...

One Goal, Two Paths : Achieving Universal Access to Modern Energy in East Asia and the Pacific

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
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The purpose of the current flagship report is to address energy access and related developmental issues in East Asia Pacific (EAP) that so far have received less attention compared to the macro energy issues of climate change and reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. EAP countries have two steep paths to climb to achieve universal access to modern energy: electricity and modern cooking solutions. Approximately 170 million people, or 34 million households, in EAP countries do not have electricity connections in their homes. This number is equivalent to approximately 9 percent of the Region's total population, and 30 percent of the Region's population excluding China. Moreover, approximately 6 times that number, or over 1 billion people, still lack access to modern cooking solutions. In addition, EAP is exceeded by only Sub Saharan Africa and South Asia in the number of people who lack access to electricity. However, access to both electricity and modern cooking solutions is essential to address the enduring impacts of poverty and to move the poor onto a rising development trajectory. The link between access to modern energy and development is most clearly defined by the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). The MDGs were formulated to reduce global poverty while increasing education...

Scaling Up Access to Electricity; Emerging Best Practices for Mini-Grid Regulation

Greacen, Chris; Nsom, Stephanie; Rysankova, Dana
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This brief will focus on enabling regulations for mini-grids, providing an overview of key issues, options, and good practices. While appropriate regulations are not all that is needed to spur mini-grid development, is usually one of the first obstacles that potential developers face and therefore the most urgent issue for governments. The authors draw on a case study of Tanzania, a pioneer in setting an enabling and light-handed regulatory framework for mini-grids. Given the urgency of leveraging private sector investments for reaching the universal access targets of the international sustainable energy for all projects, the authors also focus on regulatory issues relevant to private sector entrepreneurs and investors. Mini-grid entrepreneurs need to know that their investment of time and money will have a reasonable chance not just of being repaid but also of returning a profit. A clear and credible regulatory framework that makes and enforces fair and efficient decisions in a timely manner helps entrepreneurs make informed investment decisions. The key characteristics of such a framework...