Página 1 dos resultados de 3113 itens digitais encontrados em 0.106 segundos

Increasing Access to Credit through Reforming Secured Transactions in the MENA Region

Alvarez de la Campa, Alejandro
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.02%
This paper provides a comparative summary of secured transactions systems related to the use of movable property as collateral in the MENA region vis a vis international practices in countries with modern secured transactions systems. The paper sets out the importance of introducing reforms in the area of secured transactions with the objective of increasing access to credit for businesses, particularly SMEs. The MENA region clearly lags behind all other regions in the introduction of secured transactions reforms. The paper summarizes many of the weaknesses common across the region. The two main critical areas that need urgent reforms are the creation of modern secured transactions laws and electronic movable collateral registries, and the need to improve enforcement mechanisms for security interests in movable property.

Foreign Direct Investment, Access to Finance, and Innovation Activity in Chinese Enterprises

Girma, Sourafel; Gong, Yundan; Görg, Holger
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.99%
A recent, comprehensive database is used to investigate the link between inward foreign direct investment (FDI) and innovation activity in China. The results of the analysis suggest that private and collectively owned firms with foreign capital participation and those with good access to domestic bank loans innovate more than other firms do. Among enterprises not owned by the state, inward FDI at the sectoral level is positively associated with domestic innovative activity only among firms that engage in their own research and development or that have good access to domestic finance. At the sector level the effect of inward FDI into technology transfer is distinguished from the effect on domestic credit opportunities. FDI affecting credit is of little significance for state-owned enterprises and is independent of their access to finance. In contrast, better access to credit is an important channel through which FDI affects the innovation of domestic private and collectively owned enterprises.

The Right to Borrow : Legal and Regulatory Barriers that Limit Access to Credit by Small Farms and Businesses

Fleisig, Heywood
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.89%
Many laws and regulations in developing countries drive small businesspeople out of the formal banking sector and into the hands of high-cost and sometimes unscrupulous moneylenders in the informal sector. The author looks at these barriers to credit for small farmers and firms and suggests solutions.

Using Credit Ratings to Improve Water Utility Access to Market Finance in Sub-Saharan Africa

Advani, Rajesh
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.04%
Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) is working to leverage domestic private sector expertise and resources to deliver services that benefit the poor. The aim is to help an estimated 1.5 million poor people gain sustained access to improved water supply and sanitation services and leverage over US$80 million in investments by donors, governments, and the domestic private sector through three main activity lines: building water and sanitation business models for the poor; public-private partnerships in non-traditional markets; and, banking the unbanked water and sanitation providers. Encouraging creditworthy utilities to finance a portion of their investment program using commercial debt will improve the allocation of public funds for investment. Taking steps to address performance issues that hinder access to credit could see significantly more investment in water by the private sector, resulting in improved access in urban areas.

Scaling-Up SME Access to Financial Services

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.1%
Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) play a major role in economic development, particularly in emerging countries, but access to finance remains a key constraint to SME. In the light of the new understanding of the SME finance challenges that this report synthesizes, the Financial Inclusion Experts Group (FIEG) makes key recommendations for the G-20 leaders, in order to achieve a global scale-up of SME access to financial services in the developing world. The G-20 FIEG SME Finance Sub-Group executed a global SME Finance stocktaking exercise with various SME finance models to establish best practices in SME Finance.The report concludes that, given the fragmented SME finance data space, the G-20 has a unique opportunity to lead the collaborative effort on improving the availability and quality of SME finance data globally. This can be achieved through encouraging and coordinating the data collection efforts at regional, national, and global levels conducted by a multitude of sources including national governments/agencies and international organizations and effectively addressing the data collection challenges along the way to ensure continuity of these efforts moving forward.

Financial Access 2009 : Measuring Access to Financial Services around the World

Consultative Group to Assist the Poor
Fonte: Consultative Group to Assist the Poor/The World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: Consultative Group to Assist the Poor/The World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.11%
Financial Access 2009 introduces the latest data from a survey of financial regulators in 139 countries. It presents indicators of access to savings, credit, and payment services in banks, and in regulated nonbank financial institutions. It is intended for a broad audience of policymakers, researchers, practitioners, multilateral and bilateral investors, in order to guide monetary policy, monitor systemic risks, and collect information on the values of deposits and credit. This report reviews three interventions: disclosure requirements, interest rate caps, and methods to address excessive lending that can result in consumer indebtedness. Improved transparency and disclosure allow borrowers to make informed choices and can facilitate competition in financial markets, eventually leading to lower prices and improved products. Policies to restrict interest rates or credit quantity, especially in consumer credit, seem to have limited effect but require further analysis.

Niger - Rural Financial Services : Expanding Financial Access to the Rural Poor

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.1%
The main objective of this study is to identify the major impediments to access to financial services in rural areas, and provide practical recommendations to address the identified problems. The study aims to inform on rural finance policies and innovative instruments by examining both supply and demand sides including an identification of non-financial issues that restrict development of the rural financial sector. Addressing the lack of rural access to financial services in the Niger development process continues to figure prominently on the Government agenda without, however, a systematic action plan and strategy. Adopting ad hoc solutions (such as the creation of an agricultural development bank) without addressing the structural issues that limit access to financial services will, unfortunately, not yield any positive long lasting results.

Access to Financial Services : A Review of the Issues and Public Policy Objectives

Claessens, Stijn
Fonte: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.12%
This article reviews the evidence on the importance of finance for economic well-being. It provides data on the use of basic financial services by households and firms across a sample of countries, assesses the desirability of universal access, and provides an overview of the macroeconomic, legal, and regulatory obstacles to access. Despite the benefits of finance, the data show that use of financial services is far from universal in many countries, especially developing countries. Universal access to financial services has not been a public policy objective in most countries and would likely be difficult to achieve. Countries can, however, facilitate access to financial services by strengthening institutional infrastructure, liberalizing markets and facilitating greater competition, and encouraging innovative use of know-how and technology. Government interventions to directly broaden access to finance, however, are costly and fraught with risks, among others the risk of missing the targeted groups. The article concludes with recommendations for global actions aimed at improving data on access and use and suggestions on areas of further analysis to identify constraints to broadening access.

What Have We Learned from the Enterprise Surveys Regarding Access to Credit by SMEs?

Kuntchev, Veselin; Ramalho, Rita; Rodriguez-Meza, Jorge; Yang, Judy S.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.08%
Using a unique firm level data set -- the Enterprise Surveys -- this paper develops a new measure of credit-constrained status for firms using hard data instead of perceptions data. The paper classifies firms into four ordinal categories: Not Credit Constrained, Maybe Credit Constrained, Partially Credit Constrained, and Fully Credit Constrained to understand the characteristics of the firms that fall into each group. Comparable data from the Enterprise Surveys for 116 countries are used to look at the relationship between firm size and credit-constrained status. First, the analysis finds that small and medium enterprises are more likely to be credit constrained (either partially or fully) than large firms. Furthermore, small and medium enterprises finance their working capital and investments mainly through trade credit and informal sources of finance. These two results hold to a large extent in all the regions of the developing world. Second, although size is a significant predictor of the probability of being credit constrained...

Child Labor, Income Shocks, and Access to Credit

Beegle, Kathleen; Dehejia, Rajeev H.; Gatti, Roberta
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.94%
Although a growing theoretical literature points to credit constraints as an important source of inefficiently high child labor, little work has been done to assess its empirical relevance. Using panel data from Tanzania, the authors find that households respond to transitory income shocks by increasing child labor, but that the extent to which child labor is used as a buffer is lower when households have access to credit. These findings contribute to the empirical literature on the permanent income hypothesis by showing that credit-constrained households actively use child labor to smooth their income. Moreover, they highlight a potentially important determinant of child labor and, as a result, a mechanism that can be used to tackle it.

Scaling-Up SME Access to Financial Services in the Developing World

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.11%
Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) play a major role in economic development, particularly in emerging countries. Access to finance remains a key constraint to SME development in emerging economies. Closing the credit gap for formal SMEs will be less daunting than for informal SMEs. The SME finance gap is the result of a mismatch between the needs of the small firms and the supply of financial services, which typically are easier for larger firms to access. Deficiencies in the enabling environment and residual market failures have motivated government interventions to foster SME access to financing. The stocktaking exercise confirms the rise in various parts of the world of specific business models aimed at providing financial services to SMEs in a cost-effective manner. Effective SME financing models can be implemented in different country and market environments, but greater outreach is achieved in the most developed environments for the financial sector. Although SME banking and microfinance models are successfully being rolled out in an increasing number of countries and regions...

Access to Credit among Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises

Alper, Oya; Hommes, Martin
Fonte: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC Publicador: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC
Tipo: Brief
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.92%
In 2010, IFC conducted a study to estimate the number of micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) in the world, and to determine the degree of access to credit and use of deposit accounts for formal and informal MSMEs. The study used primarily data from the World Bank Enterprise Surveys (ES). In 2011 the data was revisited as new enterprise surveys became available. The resulting database, IFC Enterprise Finance Gap Database, covers 177 countries. This fact sheet summarizes and highlights the key data points available for the formal micro, formal small and medium enterprises (SME), and the aggregated formal and informal MSME sectors.

Facilitating SME Financing through Improved Credit Reporting

International Committee on Credit Reporting
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.1%
The general principles for credit reporting were issued by the World Bank in September 2011. Since then, the World Bank and the international committee on credit reporting (ICCR) have been leading efforts towards the implementation of the general principles worldwide. This report is one of the concrete outputs of the work following the general principles. It addresses one of the most significant problems that limit the ability of most small and medium enterprises (SMEs) around the world to obtain adequate external financing to underpin their productive activities: information asymmetries. Creditors assess the creditworthiness of credit and loan applicants based on two basic criteria: ones financial capacity or ability to repay a loan, and ones willingness to repay the loan. A credit reporting system s (CRS) basic objective is to address information asymmetries, which is crucial for determining repayment capacity and repayment willingness. Credit reporting can therefore be extremely valuable to creditors for enhanced...

The Effect of a Land Titling Programme on Households’ Access to Credit

Piza, Caio; Barros de Moura, Mauricio José Serpa
Fonte: Taylor and Francis Publicador: Taylor and Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.94%
This paper assesses the effects of property titling on households’ access to and use of credit by focusing on household responses to an exogenous change in their formal ownership status. We isolate the credit effect on legal ownership by comparing households from communities in Osasco, Brazil. Our statistical estimates suggest that land titling increases credit use, decreases reliance on credit borrowed from relatives, and increases credit borrowed from commercial banks. We also find that treated households increased their consumption of time-saving durable goods, which explains an observed reallocation of time among household members, with adults working more and children less.

Kyrgyz Republic : Access to Financial Services Policy Note

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.11%
The purpose of this paper is to report on the level of access to formal financial services in the Kyrgyz Republic, assess the key obstacles to improving access, and make recommendations to overcome these obstacles. The paper is organized as follows. Sections II to IV examine the supply of financial services. Specifically, section II presents a profile of financial intermediation by banks, focusing their supply of financial services, particularly lending and deposits. Section III presents a profile of lending by Aiyl Bank, a specialized bank with a limited license, which is mandated to lend for agriculture. Section IV presents a profile of lending by non-bank financial institutions (NBFIs), including microfinance organizations (MFOs) and credit unions. Section V examines the demand side for financial services, drawing on enterprise surveys to assess firms' perceptions of their access to finance. Section VI presents a brief analysis of the impact of the events of April 2010 on access to finance. Section VII discusses key obstacles in increasing access to finance from banks and NBFIs. Section VIII concludes with policy recommendations that derive from the preceding analysis.

Bank Competition, Financing Obstacles, and Access to Credit

Beck, Thorsten; Demirguc-Kunt, Asli; Maksimovic, Vojislav
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.88%
Theory makes ambiguous predictions about the effects of bank concentration on access to external finance. Using a unique data base for 74 countries of financing obstacles and financing patterns for firms of small, medium, and large size, the authors assess the effects of banking market structure on financing obstacles and the access of firms to bank finance. The authors find that bank concentration increases financing obstacles and decreases the likelihood of receiving bank finance, with the impact decreasing in size. The relation of bank concentration and financing obstacles is dampened in countries with well developed institutions, higher levels of economic and financial development, and a larger share of foreign-owned banks. The effect is exacerbated by more restrictions on banks' activities, more government interference in the banking sector, and a larger share of government-owned banks. Finally, it is possible to alleviate the negative impact of bank concentration on access to finance by reducing activity restrictions.

Informality among Formal Firms : Firm-level, Cross-country Evidence on tax Compliance and Access to Credit

Gatti, Roberta; Honorati, Maddalena
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.09%
The authors use firm-level, cross-county data from Investment Climate surveys in 49 developing countries to investigate an important channel through which informality can affect productivity: access to credit and external finance. Informality is measured as self-reported lack of tax compliance in a sample of registered firms that also answered questions on a large set of other characteristics. The authors find that more tax compliance is significantly associated with more access to credit both in OLS and in country fixed effects estimates. In particular, the link between credit and formality is stronger in high-formality countries. This suggests that firms' balance sheets are relatively more informative for financial institutions in environments where signal extraction is a less noisy process. The authors' results are robust to the inclusion of a wide array of correlates and to two-stage estimation.

Child Labor : The Role of Income Variability and Access to Credit in a Cross-Section of Countries

Dehejia, Rajeev H.; Gatti, Roberta
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.97%
Even though access to credit is central to child labor theoretically, little work has been done to assess its importance empirically. Dehejia and Gatti examine the link between access to credit and child labor at a cross-country level. The authors measure child labor as a country aggregate, and proxy credit constraints by the level of financial market development. These two variables display a strong negative (unconditional) relationship. The authors show that even after they control for a wide range of variables-including GDP per capita, urbanization, initial child labor, schooling, fertility, legal institutions, inequality, and openness-this relationship remains strong and statistically significant. Moreover, they find that, in the absence of developed financial markets, households resort to child labor to cope with income variability. This evidence suggests that policies aimed at increasing households' access to credit could be effective in reducing child labor.

Acceso al crédito y límites del crecimiento en Pymes: una mirada a través de la dinámica de sistemas; Access to credit and limits to growth in SMEs: a system dynamics approach

Arenas Guerrero, Fernando Antonio
Fonte: Universidad Icesi; Facultad de Ingeniería Publicador: Universidad Icesi; Facultad de Ingeniería
Tipo: article; Artículo Formato: PDF; p.13-32; Electrónico
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.9%
El acceso al crédito se considera como uno de los mayores problemas que deben afrontar las Pymes para su supervivencia y crecimiento. Este documento describe un modelo de dinámica de sistemas basado en el caso de una empresa manufacturera de tamaño mediano localizada en Colombia. El modelo integra aspectos operativos y financieros de la empresa e incluye variables asociadas con el crédito comercial y el crédito bancario. Se realizó un análisis de sensibilidad sobre el modelo con el fin de encontrar variables con un alto nivel de apalancamiento sobre los resultados deseados. Dichos resultados indican que las políticas operativas y financieras, cuando se aplican de manera aislada, no son suficientes para resolver los problemas de estancamiento de la empresa. Una combinación apropiada de acceso a crédito, condiciones de crédito, y políticas operativas y financieras adecuadas, parece ser la manera más conveniente para manejar la complejidad inherente a la supervivencia y crecimiento de las Pymes.; Access to credit has been considered as one of the main problems that SMEs have to deal with in order to survive and keep growing. This document describes a system dynamics model based on the case of a medium-sized manufacturing firm located in Colombia. The model integrates operational and financial aspects of the firm...

Psychometrics as a Tool to Improve Screening and Access to Credit

Arráiz, Irani; Bruhn, Miriam; Stucchi, Rodolfo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.08%
This paper studies the use of psychometric tests, which were designed by the Entrepreneurial Finance Lab as a tool to screen out high credit risk and potentially increase access to credit for small business owners in Peru. The analysis uses administrative data covering the period from June 2011 to April 2014 to compare debt accrual and repayment behavior patterns across entrepreneurs who were offered a loan based on the traditional credit-scoring method versus the Entrepreneurial Finance Lab tool. The paper finds that the psychometric test can lower the risk of the loan portfolio when used as a secondary screening mechanism for already banked entrepreneurs—that is, those with a credit history. For unbanked entrepreneurs—those without a credit history—using the Entrepreneurial Finance Lab tool can increase access to credit without increasing portfolio risk.