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As quotas tarifárias e o acesso dos produtos agroindustriais brasileiros ao mercado internacional.; Tariff-rate quotas and international market access to brazilian agricultural products.

Cunha Filho, Joaquim Henrique da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/03/2004 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.67%
O presente estudo visa a discutir a influência do sistema de quotas tarifárias sobre as exportações agroindustriais brasileiras. Para tanto, descreve o funcionamento e as características das quotas tarifárias e aponta algumas inconsistências em relação aos princípios de não-discriminação e transparência, do sistema GATT/OMC, e perante o compromisso de acesso mínimo e corrente proposto no Acordo sobre Agricultura da Rodada Uruguai (AARU). Por meio de ilustrações gráficas, o presente trabalho demonstra os fatores condicionantes e os efeitos sobre o bem-estar, desvio de renda e possíveis impactos sobre a demanda por importação. Cabe salientar que as ilustrações gráficas desta pesquisa são caracterizadas como seu instrumental metodológico, enquanto a teoria microeconômica e a economia internacional compõem seu arcabouço teórico. Além disso, foram escolhidos como mais importantes, 32 produtos agroindustriais da pauta exportadora brasileira, o que resultou na análise de 352 dentre 1.425 quotas tarifárias, compreendendo 26 dos 43 países que impõem este sistema às suas importações. Os resultados apontaram para uma interferência do sistema de quotas tarifárias sobre a exportação agroindustrial brasileira. Não puderam demonstrar...

Assessment of Costs and Benefits of the Customs Union for Kazakhstan

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.78%
In 2010, Kazakhstan entered into a customs union with Belarus and Russia. The first, relatively easy step in the implementation of the customs union was accomplished in 2010 with the adoption of a common external tariff, with varying exceptions in each of the three member countries. It is the intention of the customs union to eliminate the exceptions, in phases, by 2015. In fact, the goals of the customs union are much more ambitious than implementation of the common external tariff. The governments of the member countries are working to achieve deep integration in key areas. Clearly, successfully addressing the challenge of reducing trade-facilitation costs is a major task that requires significant institutional development both in Kazakhstan and in the other member countries of the customs union. It is very difficult, however, to assess the probability of success that the customs union will have with the reduction of these costs.

Implications of the Doha Market Access Proposals for Developing Countries

Laborde, David; Martin, Will; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.8%
This paper uses detailed data on bound and applied tariffs to assess the consequences of the World Trade Organization s December 2008 Modalities for tariffs levied and faced by developing countries, and the welfare implications of these reforms. The authors find that the tiered formula for agriculture would halve tariffs in industrial countries and lower them more modestly in developing countries. In non-agriculture, the formulas would reduce the tariff peaks facing developing countries and cut average industrial country tariffs by more than a third. The authors use a political-economy framework to assess the implications of flexibilities for the size of the tariff cuts and find they are likely to substantially reduce the outcome. However, despite the flexibilities, there are likely to be worthwhile gains, with applied tariffs facing developing countries cut by about 20 percent in agriculture and 27 percent in non-agriculture, and sizeable cuts in tariffs facing industrial countries. The welfare impacts of reform are evaluated using a new approach to aggregation that improves on the traditional...

Beyond Market Access : The New Normal of Preferential Trade Agreements

Chauffour, Jean-Pierre; Maur, Jean-Christophe
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.67%
This paper takes stock of the growing success of preferential trade agreements. It revisits what are the defining characteristics of modern preferential trade agreements, which are typically pursued for a diverse array of motives. In particular, the market access justification traditionally used to analyze the desirability and impact of preferential trade agreements misses increasingly important dimensions. The "Beyond Market Access" agenda of preferential trade agreements presents a new and broad set of deep regulatory and policy issues that differs in substance from the removal of tariff and quantitative barriers to trade. Issues related to preferences and discrimination, as well as the nature and implementation of commitments acquire a different meaning in deep preferential trade agreements. This change of paradigm presents significant opportunities and challenges for reform-minded developing countries to use preferential trade agreements to their own advantage.

Assessing the Adjustment Implications of Trade Policy Changes Using TRIST : Tariff Reform Impact Simulation Tool

Brenton, Paul; Saborowski, Christian; Staritz, Cornelia; von Uexkull, Erik
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.67%
TRIST is a simple, easy to use tool to assess the adjustment implications of trade reform. It improves on existing tools. First, it is an improvement in terms of accuracy because projections are based on revenues actually collected at the tariff line level rather than simply applying statutory rates. Second, it is transparent and open; runs in Excel, with formulas and calculation steps visible to the user; and is open-source and users are free to change, extend, or improve according to their needs. Third, TRIST has greater policy relevance because it projects the impact of tariff reform on total fiscal revenue (including VAT and excise) and results are broken down to the product level so that sensitive products or sectors can be identified. And fourth, the tool is flexible and can incorporate tariff liberalization scenarios involving any group of trading partners and any schedules of products. This paper describes the TRIST tool and provides a range of examples that demonstrate the insights that the tool can provide to policy makers on the adjustment impacts of reducing tariffs.

Trade Diversion under Selective Preferential Market Access

Borchert, Ingo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.78%
Through its diverse trade preference schemes, the European Union provides different groups of developing countries with different degrees of market access. This paper is the first to demonstrate empirically that such staggered market access induces sizable trade diversion to the detriment of relatively less preferred beneficiary countries. In particular, preferences granted to African, Caribbean and Pacific economies are shown to impair the export performance of seven developing countries whose products only qualify for basic preferences under the Generalized System of Preferences. Exports to the European Union decline by about 30 percent if the African, Caribbean and Pacific tariff falls by 10 percentage points. In terms of forgone trade volume, losses for these relatively disadvantaged countries amount on average to 9 percent of their total trade with the European Union, depending on the country and its main exports. These intra-developing country distortions are driven by highly substitutable, often labor-intensive commodities.

Kazakhstan : Assessment of Costs and Benefits of the Customs

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.76%
In 2010, Kazakhstan entered into a customs union with Belarus and Russia. The first, relatively easy step in the implementation of the customs union was accomplished in 2010 with the adoption of a common external tariff, with varying exceptions in each of the three member countries. It is the intention of the customs union to eliminate the exceptions, in phases, by 2015. In fact, the goals of the customs union are much more ambitious than implementation of the common external tariff. The governments of the member countries are working to achieve deep integration in key areas. Clearly, successfully addressing the challenge of reducing trade-facilitation costs is a major task that requires significant institutional development both in Kazakhstan and in the other member countries of the customs union. It is very difficult, however, to assess the probability of success that the customs union will have with the reduction of these costs.

Preferential Market Access Design: Evidence and Lessons from African Apparel Exports to the US and the EU

de Melo, Jaime; Portugal-Perez, Alberto
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.69%
Least developed countries rely on preferential market access. Proof of sufficient transformation has to be provided to customs in importing countries by meeting Rules of Origin requirements to benefit from these preferences. These Rules of Origin have turned out to be complicated and burdensome for exporters in the least developed countries. Starting around 2001, under the United States Africa Growth Opportunity Act, 22 African countries exporting apparel to the United States can use fabric from any origin (single transformation) and still meet the criterion for preferential access (the so-called Special Rule), while the European Union continued to require yarn to be woven into fabric and then made into apparel in the same country (double transformation). This paper uses panel estimates over 1996-2004 to exploit this quasi-experimental change in the design of preferences. The paper estimates that this simplification contributed to an increase in export volume of about 168 percent for the top seven beneficiaries or approximately four times as much as the 44 percent growth effect from the initial preference access under the Africa Growth Opportunity Act without the single transformation. This change in design also mattered for diversity in apparel exports...

Developing Country Trade Policies and Market Access Issues : 1990-2012

Michalopoulos, Constantine; Ng, Francis
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.76%
The study presents a comprehensive review of developing country trade policies and market access issues as they evolved over the period 1990-2012. The main findings are, first, that applied tariffs as well as traditional core non-tariff measures have declined significantly over time in both developed and developing countries. Second, the instruments of protection used by developed and developing countries are becoming increasingly similar: trade remedies, especially anti-dumping are the instruments of choice for all except low-income developing countries. Third, agriculture is the main sector where developing countries face access problems in OECD markets. Fourth, regional and other preferential trade agreements are both a result and a cause of the lack of progress in multilateral trade negotiations. They violate the basic World Trade Organization tenet of most favored nation and thus pose a potential threat to the multilateral system and a potential stimulus to further multilateral collaboration. Fifth...

The Impact of Liberalizing Barriers to Foreign Direct Investment in Services: The Case of Russian Accession to the World Trade Organization

Jensen, Jesper; Rutherford, Thomas; Tarr, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
The authors use a computable general equilibrium model of the Russian economy to assess the impact of accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO), which encompasses improved market access, tariff reduction, and reduction of barriers against multinational service providers. They assume that foreign direct investment in business services is necessary for multinationals to compete well with Russian business service providers, but cross-border service provision is also present. The model incorporates productivity effects in both goods and services markets endogenously through a Dixit-Stiglitz framework. As a result, the estimated gains from WTO accession are much larger than would be obtained from a typical model with perfect competition. The ad valorem equivalent of barriers to foreign direct investment have been estimated based on detailed questionnaires completed by specialized research institutes in Russia. The authors estimate that Russia will gain about 7.2 percent of the value of Russian consumption in the medium run from WTO accession and up to 24 percent in the long run. They estimate that the largest gains to Russia will derive from liberalization of barriers against multinational service providers. Piecemeal and systematic sensitivity analysis shows that their results are robust.

Trade Reforms, Market Access, and Poverty in Argentina

Porto, Guido G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.71%
Much of the literature that studies the relationship between trade and poverty in developing countries focuses on the effects of national trade reforms, such as own tariff reductions. In contrast, the World Trade Organization negotiations at the Doha Round were more concerned with the poverty effects on low-income countries, and of foreign reforms, such as the elimination of agricultural subsidies in industrial economies. The author empirically compares the relative poverty impacts of national and foreign trade reforms in Argentina. The author investigates national trade reforms, including tariff cuts on consumption goods and capital goods in Argentina. Foreign trade reforms include the elimination, in industrial countries, of agricultural subsidies and trade barriers on agricultural manufactures and industrial manufactures. These policies enhance the market access of Argentine exports. Overall, a combination of own reforms and enhanced market access would cause poverty to decline by between 1.7 and 4.6 percentage points. This evidence suggests that trade policies can be important poverty-reducing instruments in Argentina.

Does Input Tariff Reduction Impact Firms Exports in the Presence of Import Tariff Exemption Regimes?

Cruz, Marcio; Bussolo, Maurizio
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.72%
In the last decade Morocco undertook substantial, if gradual, trade liberalization by reducing tariffs, reforming trade regulations and signing free and preferential trade agreements with several regions and countries, including the United States, Turkey, the European Union and Arab countries. This paper analyzes the impact of input tariff reduction on Moroccan exporting firms through the channel of intermediate goods. Gaining access to more varied and cheaper inputs can make exporting firms more competitive, and as a result they export more. To evaluate how this policy may impact firms export performance, the paper analyzes the impact of input tariff reduction on different margins of trade with emphasis on export markets and product diversification. The identification of the effect of input tariffs on exports relies on a difference-in-difference estimator using heterogeneous access to import tariff exemption as a measure of different levels of exposure to input tariff reduction at the firm level. Overall...

Trade Policy Options for Chile : Importance of Market Access

Harrison, Glenn W.; Rutherford, Thomas F.; Tarr, David G.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.86%
This article uses a multi sector, multi county, computable general equilibrium model to examine Chile's strategy of 'additive regionalism' negotiating bilateral free trade agreements with all of its significant trading partners. Taking Chile regional arrangements bilaterally, only its agreements with Northern partners provide sufficient market access to overcome trade diversion costs. Due to preferential market access, however, additive regionalism is likely to provide Chile with gains that are many multiples of the static welfare gains from unilateral free trade. At least one partner country loses from each of the regional agreements considered, and excluded countries as a group always lose. Gains to the world from global free trade are estimated to be vastly larger than gains from any of the regional arrangements.

Market Access and Welfare under Free Trade Agreements : Textiles under NAFTA

Cadot, Olivier; Carrere, Celine; de Melo, Jaime; Portugal-Perez, Alberto
Fonte: Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.78%
The effective market access granted to textiles and apparel under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is estimated, taking into account the presence of rules of origin. First, estimates are provided of the effect of tariff preferences combined with rules of origin on the border prices of Mexican final goods exported to the United States (U.S.) and of U.S. intermediate goods exported to Mexico, based on eight-digit harmonized system tariff-line data. A third of the estimated rise in the border price of Mexican apparel products is found to compensate for the cost of complying with NAFTA's rules of origin, and NAFTA is found to have raised the price of U.S. intermediate goods exported to Mexico by around 12 percent, with downstream rules of origin accounting for a third of that increase. Second, simulations are used to estimate welfare gains for Mexican exporters from preferential market access under NAFTA. The presence of rules of origin is found to approximately halve these gains.

Chinese Trade Reforms, Market Access and Foreign Competition : The Patterns of French Exporters

Bas, Maria; Bombarda, Pamela
Fonte: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.09%
A unilateral trade reform generates two opposite effects: market access expansion and strengthening of competitive pressures in the liberalized market. Using detailed trade and firm-level data from France, we investigate how French firms' product scope and export sales changed after Chinese liberalization vis-à-vis Asian liberalization. Our findings suggest that lower Chinese import tariffs account on average for 7 percent of the new products exported by French firms, and for 18 percent of additional French export sales. These results are robust when accounting for foreign competition faced by French firms in the liberalized market.

Market Access for Sale: Latin America's Lobbying for U.S. Tariff Preferences

Kee, Hiau Looi; Olarreaga, Marcelo; Silva, Peri
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.7%
This paper assesses the foreign lobbying forces behind the tariff preferences that the United States grants to Latin American and Caribbean countries. The basic framework is the one developed that is extended to explain the relationship between foreign lobbying and tariff preferences. Results suggest that returns to Latin American and Caribbean exporters lobbying for tariff preferences in the United States are around 50 percent. The reason for these large returns is the relatively low estimated weight given to social welfare in the U.S. government's objective function when deciding whether or not to grant tariff preferences to Latin American and Caribbean exporters.

Quantifying the Value of U.S. Tariff Preferences for Developing Countries

Dean, Judith M.; Wainio, John
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.7%
In recent debates, trade preference erosion has been viewed by some as damaging to developing countries, and by others as insignificant, except in a few cases. But little data have been available to back either view. The objective of this paper is to improve our measures of the size, utilization, and value of all U.S. nonreciprocal trade preference programs in order to shed light on this debate. Highly disaggregated data are used to quantify the margins, coverage, utilization, and value of agricultural and nonagricultural tariff preferences for all beneficiary countries in the U.S. regional programs and in the Generalized System of Preferences. Results show that U.S. regional tariff preference programs are generally characterized by high coverage of beneficiary countries'exports, high utilization by beneficiary countries, and low tariff preference margins (except on apparel). For 29 countries, the value of U.S. tariff preferences was 5 percent or more of 2003 dutiable exports to the United States, even after incorporating actual utilization. Most of this value is attributable to nonagricultural tariff preferences, and to apparel preferences in particular. These results suggest that preference erosion may be significant for more countries than many had thought.

Chile's Regional Arrangements and the Free Trade Agreement of the Americas : The Importance of Market Access

Harrison, Glenn W.; Rutherford, Thomas F.; Tarr, David G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.87%
Using a multisector, computable general equilibrium model, the authors examine Chile's strategy of negotiating bilateral free trade agreements with all of its significant trading partners (referring to this policy as additive regionalism). They also evaluate the Free Trade Agreement of the Americas (FTAA) and global free trade. Among Chile's bilateral regional agreements, only Chile's agreements with "Northern" partners provide enough market access to offset the costs to Chile of trade diversion. Because of preferential market access, however, additive regionalism is likely to provide Chile with many times as many gains as the static welfare gains from unilateral free trade. The authors find that at least one partner country loses from each of the regional trade agreements they consider, and excluded countries as a group they always lose. They estimate that the FTAA produces large welfare gains for the members, with the European Union being the big loser. Gains to the world from global free trade are estimated to be at least 36 times greater than gains from the FTAA. Even countries of the Americas in aggregate gain more from global free trade than from the FTAA.

Unrestricted Market Access for Sub-Saharan Africa : How Much Is It Worth and Who Pays?

Ianchovichina, Elena; Mattoo, Aaditya; Olarreaga, Marcelo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.75%
The European Union (EU), Japan, and the United States (US) have recently announced initiatives to improve market access for the poorest countries. The authors assess the impact on Sub-Saharan Africa of these initiatives, and others that might be taken. They find that fully unrestricted access to all the Quad countries (Canada, The EU, Japan, and the US) would produce substantial gains for Sub-Saharan Africa, leading to a fourteen percent increase in non-oil exports ($ 2.5 billion), and boosting real incomes by about one percent ($ 1.8 billion). Most of these gains would come from preferential access to the highly protected Japanese, and European agricultural markets, especially the heavily protected Japanese market for meat, and certain cereal grains. The smallness of Sub-Saharan Africa's trade ensures that the costs of trade diversion for the Quad, other developing countries, and the world, would be on the whole, negligible. One concern, however, is that preferential access to protected markets might lead Sub-Saharan Africa to produce goods in which it does not have a global comparative advantage...

Assessing the Economic Impact of the ECOWAS CET and Economic Partnership Agreement on Ghana

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.78%
Ghana is currently facing two major trade policy adjustments - the economic community of West African states (ECOWAS) common external tariff (CET) is a significant milestone within the long history of regional integration in West Africa. In addition to the CET, Ghana faces the economic partnership agreement (EPA) with the European Union, which has been designed to build on the CET in West Africa. This study aims to enhance the debate by presenting an intuitive and data-driven technical perspective on the likely effects of the CET and the EPA. The study seeks to improve the information available to policy makers in Ghana. This is highly relevant, as the CET currently awaits parliamentary approval and the EPA will soon also require ratification. The study also aims to expand the information with which policy makers can develop accompanying policies to support and derive maximum benefit from the CET and EPA trade reforms. The first stage of the study employs the trade reform impact simulation tool (TRIST)...