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Rural Road Investment Efficiency : Lessons from Burkina Faso, Cameroon, and Uganda

Raballand, Gaël; Macchi, Patricia; Petracco, Carly
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.6%
This report is the second in a series of studies on transport and aid effectiveness in Sub-Saharan Africa. It follows a study on transport costs and prices along the main international trade corridors (Teravaninthorn and Raballand 2008). One of the principal findings of the research on international corridors in Africa was that trucking market structure and regulation differ widely among sub-regions in Sub-Saharan Africa; therefore, transport prices (but not necessarily transport costs)1 differ greatly among sub-regions and corridors. The trucking environment and market structure in West and Central Africa are characterized by cartels offering low transport quality, whereas in East Africa, the trucking environment is more competitive and the market is more mature. Much of the transport price burden along African corridors seems to depend on the political economy of freight logistics.

Improving the Sustainability of Road Management and Financing in Armenia

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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46.52%
The objectives of this study are: 1) to identify weaknesses and challenges confronting the sustainability of road maintenance and rehabilitation management; 2) to determine to what extent these are linked to particular institutional and financing arrangements; and 3) to assess how these factors can be resolved. The Study makes a series of recommendations aimed at improving the sustainability of the management and financing of the road sector. First, the study provides an overview of the road sector and the condition of the road network. Then it turns to a review of road management and financing in Georgia. The study reviews the current institutional and technical arrangements, with regard to the ability to effectively plan, design, construct, and maintain the road network. It gives particular emphasis to the implementation arrangements for the road sector, including: budgeting; management and resources; technical standards in use; quality assurance and education/training; and provision of maintenance for different road classes. The findings of the study are timely. It is hoped that they will inform a policy discussion on the need to raise expenditures on the maintenance of the road network...

Uganda - Public Expenditure Review : Strengthening the Impact of the Roads Budget

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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36.56%
Uganda needs to focus on improving the effectiveness of its roads investment strategy for rural Uganda and improving the manner in it procures and implements roads contracts at the national level. In recent years the Government of Uganda has shifted the priorities in its national development strategy as there was accumulating evidence that infrastructure deficiencies had become a binding constraint to economic growth and poverty reduction. Consequently the Government of Uganda increased in particular the budget allocation for the road sector substantially as a means to tackle this constraint to growth and poverty reduction: i) by investing in rural roads it aims to facilitate market access for farmers, which will allow them to increase their earnings capacity; and ii) by improving the national roads network, transport cost will be reduced, competitiveness enhanced and additional income generated. However, to ensure the highest economic return for its investment, it is advised to rebalance the way allocations are set for rural roads and to increase absorptive capacity to efficiently utilize the augmented budgetary resources for the national roads sector.

Revising the Roads Investment Strategy in Rural Areas : An Application for Uganda

Raballand, Gaël; Macchi, Patricia; Merotto, Dino; Petracco, Carly
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.6%
Based on extensive data collection in Uganda, this paper demonstrates that the rural access index, as defined today, should not be a government objective because the benefit of such investment is minimal, whereas achieving rural accessibility at less than 2 kilometers would require massive investments that are not sustainable. Taking into account the fact that plot size is limited on average to less than 1 hectare, a farmer s transport requirement is usually minimal and does not necessarily involve massive investments in infrastructure. This is because most farmers cannot fully load a truck or pay for this service and, even if productivity were to increase significantly, the production threshold would not be reached by most individual farmers. Therefore, in terms of public policy, maintenance of the existing rural roads rather than opening new roads should be given priority; the district feeder road allocation maintenance formula should be revised to take into account economic potential and, finally, policy makers should devote their attention to innovative marketing models from other countries where smallholder loads are consolidated through private-based consolidators.

Designing Toll Road Concessions : Lessons from Argentina

Estache, Antonio; Carbajo, Jose
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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46.47%
Argentina began to concession its intercity highways and the access roads to Buenos Aires in the early 1990s. It first offered the intercity highways for competitive bids, setting the terms, the tolls, and the service levels and basing bid selection primarily on the rental offered for the infrastructure. When it concessioned the access roads in a second round, it set the terms and the investments and selected the bid offering the lowest tolls. The results so far have been mixed. Investment has lagged, but maintenance of the intercity highways has improved. The authors review the lessons from this experience and identify some of the challenges for future concessions: following clear and simple rules in the bidding process, establishing clear rules for renegotiation, and strengthening regulatory capacity.

Where to Use Cost Effectiveness Techniques Rather Than Cost Benefit Analysis

Mackie, Peter; Nellthorp, John; Laird, James
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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36.57%
Cost Benefit Analysis, and the measures of economic performance that can be derived from it (see Note 6: When and How to Use NPV, IRR and Adjusted IRR), is the preferred method for demonstrating the economic justification of transport investments. Such an approach, however, relies on the ability to be able to measure costs and benefits in monetary terms (see Note 5: Framework), which renders it problematic for projects where the majority of benefits cannot be readily monetised. Such a project could be a Low Volume Rural Road (see Note 21: Low Volume Rural Roads). In such situations consideration should be given to the use of measures derived from cost effectiveness or weighted cost effectiveness (also known as Multi Criteria Analysis) techniques as the basis for the decision regarding whether to invest or not. Cost effectiveness techniques are also a very useful tool for project screening or ranking. Such a screening process ensures that projects that are subjected to a more detailed analysis (including cost benefit analysis) are those that best fit with the objectives of the investment (e.g. poverty alleviation). Section 1 of this note outlines the situations in which cost effectiveness techniques should be used...

Economically Justified Levels of Road Works Expenditures on Unpaved Roads

Archondo-Callao, Rodrigo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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46.48%
Unpaved roads require periodic road works to maintain a certain road condition over time, comprising typically of routine maintenance, grading, spot regravelling, and regravelling activities, which require planning and economic justification. A main concern in developing counties is defining a proper level of investments and quality of maintenance on unpaved roads. This technical note, targeted to road sector professionals, presents a methodology for an analytical study done to access economically justified levels of road works expenditures on unpaved roads with different traffic levels. The results presented in this technical note should be considered no more than a first approximation of country specific results. To obtain country specific results, the methodology should be replicated and adapted with refined country data.

Design and Appraisal of Rural Transport Infrastructure : Ensuring Basic Access for Rural Communities

Lebo, Jerry; Schelling, Dieter
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.59%
Isolation contributes to rural poverty. Without a minimum of reliable and efficient access to locations of basic social and economic activities, rural life stagnates and local development prospects remain limited. Providing and maintaining a minimum level of access, referred to in this paper as basic access, is therefore a necessary element of any rural development strategy. Overcoming isolation necessitates holistic strategies. Approaches include improved logistics to support trade and communication, the promotion of transport services and intermediaite means of transport, improved quality and location of services, and the sustaianable provision of cost-effective transport infrastrucutre. Among these, the cost-effective design and appraisal of rural transport infrastructure (RTI) is the topic of this paper. A basic access approach to the provision of RTI is presented which gives priority to the provision and maintenance of reliable, all-season access. Basic access interventions are defined as the least-cost investments which provide a minimum level of all-season passability. In a majority of cases...

Farther on Down the Road : Transport Costs, Trade and Urban Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa

Storeygard, Adam
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.53%
Transport costs are widely considered an important barrier to local economic activity but their impact in developing countries is not well-studied. This paper investigates the role of inter-city transport costs in determining the income of Sub-Saharan African cities, using two new data sources. Specifically, it asks how important access to a large port city is for the income of hinterland cities in 15 countries. Satellite data on lights at night proxy for city economic activity, and shortest routes between cities are calculated using new road network data. Cost per unit of distance is identified by world oil prices. The results show that an oil price increase of the magnitude experienced between 2002 and 2008 induces the income of cities near a major port to increase by 6 percent relative to otherwise identical cities 500 kilometers farther away. Cities connected to the port by paved roads are chiefly affected by transport costs to the port, while cities connected to the port by unpaved roads are more affected by connections to secondary centers. These are important findings for economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa since the majority of its population growth over the next few decades is expected to be in urban areas.

A Review of Institutional Arrangements for Road Asset Management : Lessons for the Developing World

Queiroz, Cesar; Kerali, Henry
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
The type of institutional arrangement for managing roads adopted by a country depends on the objectives and performance that it sets for its road networks. This paper reviews such arrangements for selected countries; China, Brazil, Slovenia, New Zealand, United Kingdom, and the Slovak Republic. These countries have adopted different approaches in several dimensions, such as decentralization, sources of financing, management structure, and modal responsibility. This paper reviews main factors affecting the efficiency of road agencies and describes the steps taken in creating a new institution, or transforming an existing one, and assesses the effort required to achieve such results. In all countries reviewed, the ministry responsible for the transport sector remains the authority responsible for the overall transport policy and for putting in place checks and balances for good governance and management of fiscal risk. The main aspects of institutional reforms that can contribute to increase the efficiency of road and transport agencies include: improved institutional structures...

Towards the Mainstreaming of an Approach to Include Social Benefits Within Road Appraisal : A Case Study from Uganda

Odoki, Jennaro B.; Ahmed, Farhad; Taylor, Gary; Okello, Sunday A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.59%
Developing countries dedicate a considerable share of total infrastructure investment to roads. The adoption in 2000 of the Millennium Development Goals and an increasing emphasis on justifying road investments in terms of their contribution to poverty reduction have directed considerable attention to low volume rural roads. Often the poorest of the poor live in remote rural areas and improved access to social and economic services is a key factor in raising their living standards. The traditional road appraisal frameworks do not fit well with this trend as they generally ignore the impact of social benefit and poverty reduction. Past attempts to overcome these problems have lacked consistency. Therefore, there is a need to develop a consistent framework to address the poverty and social benefit aspects in a systematic manner. A study into the identification and treatment of social benefits in road transport project appraisal was conducted in 2003-04. The study highlighted the problems of identification...

Private Sector Involvement in Road Financing

Brocklebank, Peter
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.31%
Achieving private sector involvement in financing, provision and management of roads requires specialized legal and institutional frameworks, public sector expertise, advisor support and sustained political commitment. In many African States, there is little experience of private sector involvement in the road sector but there is encouragement to promote such involvement from development partners. Increased private sector involvement in public sector procurement has been for many years an important aspect of the infrastructure investment policy of development partners, such as the World Bank and the African Development Bank. Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) are one of a number of initiatives being pursued within Africa, in relation to road sector reforms. In particular, the road sector reforms under the Road Management Initiative (RMI), launched in 1988 by the SSATP and the World Bank, in collaboration with other development partners have sought to improve road service delivery by reforming public sector institutions and legislation through clearly defined responsibility...

The social and economic impacts of a logging access road: a case study of Marudi Town, Sarawak, Malaysia.

Wong, Bemen Win Keong
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2010
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.55%
The biggest problem of Marudi Town, the major town of the districts in Sarawak, Malaysia, is the lack of an access road to connect it to the outside world, especially to the nearest city, Miri City. The Sarawak state government argued that the main reason for not providing an access road between Marudi and Miri was to reduce rural-urban migration. Since July 2005, a logging access road built by a logging company has made the Marudi Town community accessible to Miri City by land transportation. This thesis examines the social and economic impacts of the logging access road on the Marudi Town community since July 2005. A case study approach has been applied and two models of access road have been examined. The first model argues that rural access roads stimulate outward migration, while the second model suggests that access roads facilitate rural economic development. Data has been collected through questionnaire surveys, face-to-face in depth interviews, field observation and secondary data analysis. The results show that outward migration occurred before the existence of the logging access road, and the justification given by the state government for not providing an access road between Marudi Town and Miri City is questioned by the local people. Various positive impacts have been created since July 2005; namely an increase in weekend residents and visitors...

West Bank and Gaza - Transport Sector Strategy Note

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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36.6%
The purpose of this Transport Sector Note (TSN) is to assist the Palestinian Authority (PA) in developing a strategy for the sector that can aid in addressing the immediate constraints and transport issues in support of the PA's effort to revive the national economy, improve mobility and reduce poverty. The TSN also aims to assist the responsible sector ministries prepare a coherent strategic framework and program for the sector. Secondary objectives are to update the Bank's knowledge of the transport sector priorities and identify priority interventions and support for the donor community s consideration. The scope of this TSN encompasses the transport infrastructure, including the road network, ports, and crossings, as well as the public transport system. After an introductory chapter, the Note includes a review of the following topics: current status of the transport sector; proposed strategic framework for development of the transport sector; and financing the proposed strategic framework.

A Framework for a Pro-Growth, Pro-Poor Transport Strategy : Guidance Note

Mitiku, Tesfamichael Nahusenay
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.57%
A pro-growth, pro-poor transport strategy (PGPTS) responsive to the second generation poverty reduction strategies (SGPRSs) and the millennium development goals (MDGs) are essential instruments to promote transport development that facilitates economic growth and poverty reduction. However, the national poverty reduction and transport strategy reviews, undertaken by Sub-Saharan Africa Transport Policy Program (SSATP) member countries, and the MDG review, have shown that the existing transport strategies are deficient in many respects in supporting this objective. The strategies have not been successful in delivering adequate access to the rural and urban poor in Africa to reach economic opportunities, and to social and administrative services. The purpose of this framework document (guidance note) is to highlight possible options for the development of a PGPTS. It identifies the questions that need to be asked and the choices that need to be made in framing such a strategy. It offers, at each stage, a checklist of issues for consideration and some examples of good practices. Its aim is to encourage policy-makers and planners to adopt a structured approach to assessing gaps...

Ethiopian Poverty Reduction and Transport Strategy Review

World Bank
Fonte: Addis Ababa Publicador: Addis Ababa
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.53%
The strategic objective of Sub-Saharan Africa Transport Policy Program (SSATP) long term development plan is to anchor transport policies and strategies in national strategies for poverty reduction, so as to enable the transport sector contribute fully to pro-poor growth and poverty reduction. To this end, many SSA countries have conducted the Poverty Reduction and Transport Strategy Review (PRTSR) workshops to assess and review the coherence and link between their poverty reduction strategies and transport strategies and policies. This report presents the processes and the outcomes of the three workshops held between July and September 2007 that reviewed Ethiopia's road sector policy/programs and PASDEP. The first workshop was conducted from 26 - 28th July 2007. In this workshop, stakeholders extracted relevant information from the A Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty (PASDEP) regarding goals, objectives and targets as well as the difficulties on access and mobility. They also identified the interventions concerning transport infrastructure and services in the priority economic and social sectors...

Yemen, Republic of - Road Sector : Strategy Note

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.64%
The Republic of Yemen has experienced steady development in the recent past and its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita is approaching US$1,000. By many aspects, Yemen is unique. It is still a rural country (with more than 70 percent of the population living in the countryside). It has about 140,000 villages and small settlements spread out all over the territory, many of which still need road access and harbor most of the country's poor (40 percent of the total population). Given the uneven distribution of population, transport demand varies enormously between different parts of the country. It is highest by far in the densely populated mountainous northwest part of the country and generally very small in the vast low density eastern part. Transport is essential to ensure that the rural areas participate in the main stream of economic and social life. Transport is also essential for trade, which is a key to the future of the economy. This is reinforced by the fact that most of the population is located away from the coastal areas...

Connecting Afghanistan : A Policy Note on Rural Access in Afghanistan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.61%
The objectives of this rural access policy note are to: (i) provide a first-level analysis of rural access issues in Afghanistan, (ii) identify key issues, achievements, and challenges in the provision of rural access, (iii) make recommendations for the Government's rural access policy, and (iv) stimulate the policy dialogue on provision of rural access between the Government of Afghanistan and stakeholders including civil society, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), development partners, and private enterprise. Nearly 80 percent of Afghanistan's people live in rural areas. Incidence of rural poverty is high as the country recovers from the long-term effects of the nearly thirty years of conflict and a recently ended six-year drought. The insurgency in some parts of the country continues to hamper development efforts. As lack of rural access is one of the sources of rural poverty, and holds back the replacement of the poppy economy with licit rural livelihoods, the World Bank has supported the provision of rural roads to improve rural accessibility. Many of these recommendations are cross-cutting; to plan and implement them would involve several ministries. Investments and recurrent expenditures in rural access are substantial and should be leveraged in the most effective manner. It is therefore recommended that the Ministry of Finance take the lead in bringing this policy note to the attention of Government...

Rural Access and Mobility in Pakistan : A Policy Note

Essakali, Mohammed Dalil
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.61%
This note presents a number of policy options to improve basic access and promote the mobility of Pakistan's rural population in support of the Government's Poverty Reduction Strategy. This is achieved through more focused and community driven interventions to meet the direct needs of the rural population. The current state of rural accessibility and mobility are examined together with their effect on both the social and economic dimensions of rural poverty. Key challenges and constraints to reform are identified. The note contributes to the current debate within Pakistan with regard to the better targeting of interventions to assist the rural poor. It should also be of interest to policy makers in other countries concerned with how rural transport policy may be developed to meet the Millennium Development Goals.

Making Transport Work for Women and Men : Challenges and Opportunities in the Middle East and North Africa, Lessons from Case Studies

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.58%
Transport is not 'gender neutral'. Men and women hold different socio-economic roles and responsibilities that are associated with different patterns of transport access, needs, and use. Yet, there is often not much recorded evidence on the differences in gender travel needs between men and women, in urban areas in particular. Transport planning has not routinely addressed these differences and sex-disaggregated data on transport needs and patterns is very limited. The present regional report summarizes the findings and recommendations of four separate case studies on gender and transport conducted in Casablanca, Morocco, Sana'a and rural Yemen, and Nablus, Jenin, and Tulkarem in the northern part of the West Bank, during between September 2008 and September 2009. The main objective with summarizing the case studies into a regional report is to provide a regional overview relevant for a better understanding of how transport infrastructure and services are facilitating or constraining mobility by gender in the MENA region. In particular...