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Análise da metodologia aplicada às tarifas de uso dos sistemas de distribuição para geradores - TUSDg.; Analysis of the methodology for the calculation of the distribution use of system charge for generation plants.

Soares, Bruno Franco
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/10/2009 PT
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A regulamentação do livre acesso aos sistemas de transmissão e distribuição possibilitou aos agentes do setor elétrico o direito à utilização dos sistemas elétricos mediante ressarcimento dos respectivos custos. O livre acesso é parte do processo de reestruturação do setor elétrico que visava ao atendimento da expansão da demanda de energia com a liberalização do mercado energético nacional, promovendo a competitividade entre os agentes. Com o livre acesso, surgiu a necessidade de desenvolver métodos eficientes de remuneração pelo uso dos sistemas de transmissão e distribuição, de modo a incentivar o acesso racional a essas redes, minimizando os custos com ampliações e otimizando a operação do sistema elétrico interligado (SIN) e das redes de distribuição. Nesse sentido, definiu-se uma metodologia para o cálculo das tarifas de uso dos sistemas de transmissão (TUST), que procura sinalizar o impacto individual causado pelos usuários na rede, enquanto que as tarifas de uso dos sistemas de distribuição (TUSD) foram definidas a partir dos Custos Marginais de Expansão para cada nível de tensão destes sistemas. Entretanto, a metodologia de TUSD implementada não se aplicava ao segmento geração, que passou a ser cobrado pelo menor valor do segmento consumo...

Open Access, a breakthrough for science that every neuroscientist should know about

Suber, Peter; Koudinov, Alexei
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Conference Paper
EN_US
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Open Access is the online access to scientific journal literature, free of charge and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open Access was named one of the top science news stories of 2003 by Nature, Science, The Scientist, and The Wall Street Journal. Open Access is supported by major science funding bodies, such as Howard Hughes Medical Institute (USA), the Wellcome trust (UK), the Max Planck Society, the DFG (Germany), the CNRS and INSERM (France). Rapidly rising conventional journal prices have been denounced by leading research universities (Harvard, Stanford, Cornell, Duke, more), found dysfunctional/unsustainable by independent financial analysts (PNB Paribas, Citigroup, Credit Suisse), and are now under investigation by Science and Technology Committee of the United Kingdom House of Commons. The advantages of an Open Access journal are compelling: articles are accessible to everyone with an internet connection; authors reach larger audiences and have greater impact; no permission is needed for copying, printing, distributing, storing or other educational uses; copyright remains with authors. Open Access does not violate copyright, but uses the consent of the copyright holder. Open Access journals are peer-reviewed and use the same high standards (ex. WAME) as conventional journals. Open Access journals are indexed in major databases (ex. National Institutes of Health...

Open access: academic publishing and its implications for knowledge equity in Kenya

Matheka, Duncan Mwangangi; Nderitu, Joseph; Mutonga, Daniel; Otiti, Mary Iwaret; Siegel, Karen; Demaio, Alessandro Rhyll
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Traditional, subscription-based scientific publishing has its limitations: often, articles are inaccessible to the majority of researchers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where journal subscriptions or one-time access fees are cost-prohibitive. Open access (OA) publishing, in which journals provide online access to articles free of charge, breaks this barrier and allows unrestricted access to scientific and scholarly information to researchers all over the globe. At the same time, one major limitation to OA is a high publishing cost that is placed on authors. Following recent developments to OA publishing policies in the UK and even LMICs, this article highlights the current status and future challenges of OA in Africa. We place particular emphasis on Kenya, where multidisciplinary efforts to improve access have been established. We note that these efforts in Kenya can be further strengthened and potentially replicated in other African countries, with the goal of elevating the visibility of African research and improving access for African researchers to global research, and, ultimately, bring social and economic benefits to the region. We (1) offer recommendations for overcoming the challenges of implementing OA in Africa and (2) call for urgent action by African governments to follow the suit of high-income countries like the UK and Australia...

Utility Reform : Regulating Quality Standards to Improve Access for the Poor

Baker, Bill; Trémolet, Sophie
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Privatization of infrastructure services is often followed by stricter enforcement of quality standards, which raises costs, maintaining, or worsening the exclusion of the poor. The poor would get easier access to service, if the main provider was permitted to deviate from this uniform standard, offering poor consumers a service in which an acceptable relaxation in quality, led to a lower price. This note reviews the legal, and technical challenges for quality diversification by utilities, and early results from efforts by some to diversify.

Open Access: el papel de las bibliotecas en los repositorios institucionales de acceso abierto.; The role of libraries in open access institutional repositories

Hernández Pérez, Tony; Rodríguez Mateos, David; Bueno De la Fuente, Gema
Fonte: Murcia, Universidad de Murcia, Servicio de Publicaciones Publicador: Murcia, Universidad de Murcia, Servicio de Publicaciones
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
SPA
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En España, como en muchos otros países, el número de repositorios institucionales ha ido creciendo paulatinamente en los últimos tres años. En febrero de 2007 estos repositorios contienen ya más de 30000 documentos en acceso abierto, es decir, disponibles a texto completo de forma gratuita, y con posibilidad de descarga, impresión o copia sin coste añadido. La práctica totalidad de estos repositorios están siendo gestionados por los servicios de biblioteca de las distintas instituciones que los albergan. Este artículo explica las razones de la crisis del modelo tradicional de comunicación científica, iniciado en la era de lo impreso y que se ha trasladado a la era digital, la alternativa que representa el modelo basado en el acceso abierto, y el importante papel que las bibliotecas pueden jugar, un reto y una oportunidad que no deben perder, en la construcción de colecciones digitales propias.; ABSTRACT: Nowadays, there are more and more institutional repositories in Spain, as in a large number of countries all over the world, which contains thousands of digi-tal objects in open access, full-text, no-charge and available to free download, print or copy. Nearly every repository is managed and mantained by the library services of the institution they serve. This article explains the reasons for the crisis in the scholarly communication model...

Access Regulation, Entry, and Investment in Telecommunications

MANENTI, Fabio; SCIALÀ, Antonio
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
EN
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This paper presents a model of competition between an incumbent and an entrant firm in telecommunications. The entrant has the option to enter the market with or without having preliminary invested in its own infrastructure; in case of facility based entry, the entrant has also the option to invest in the provision of enhanced services. In case of resale based entry the entrant needs access to the incumbent network. Unlike the rival, the incumbent has always the option to upgrade the existing network to provide advanced services. We study the impact of access regulation on the type of entry and on firms' investments. Without regulation, we find that the incumbent sets the access charge to prevent resale based entry and this overstimulates rival's investment that may turn out to be socially inefficient. Access regulation may discourage welfare enhancing investments, thus also inducing a socially inefficient outcome. We extend the model to account for negotiated interconnection in case of facilities based entry.

Access pricing, competition, and incentives to migrate from "old" to "new" technology

BOURREAU, Marc; CAMBINI, Carlo; DOGAN, Pinar
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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In this paper, we analyze the incentives of an incumbent and an entrant to migrate from an “old” technology to a “new” technology, and discuss how the terms of wholesale access affect this migration. We show that the coverage of the new technology varies non-monotonically with the access price of the old technology: a higher access charge on the legacy network pushes the entrant firm to invest more, but has an ambiguous effect on the incumbent's investments, due to two conflicting effects: the wholesale revenue effect, and the retail-level migration effect. When the new technology is also subject to access provision, we find that migration from the old to the new generation network at the wholesale level can be incentivized if a positive correlation between the access prices (to the two old and new generation networks) is maintained.

World's knowledge base should be open to all: Are you free? Australia well placed to react to UK open access initiatives

Steele, Colin
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 67771 bytes; 356 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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ANU academics Peter Drahos and John Braithwaite in their 2002 publication INFORMATION FEUDALISM (Earthscan) emphasised the importance of intellectual property rights in the modern knowledge economy. They took their title from the medieval period when feudalism became a system of government and the majority of the working class had to live with the arbitrariness of ultimate power. They saw the need to establish public intellectual commons to protect against knowledge monopolization imposed by multinational publishers especially in science. University and institutional researchers create a large part of the worlds knowledge base. Researchers tend to give away their intellectual output free of charge to large multinational publishers who generate hundreds of millions of dollars of profits annually. In many instances academics provide peer review and editorial work free of charge as part of a misguided belief in academic collegiality. Depending on ones viewpoint of this Faustian bargain between academics and publishers, the scholarly publishing environment has been in crisis for a number of years, although the term crisis has been with us for so long as to almost nullify the term! The maxim has been Plus ça change, plus c est la meme chose.

The access implications of income contingent charges for higher education: lessons from Australia

Chapman, Bruce; Ryan, Chris
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 503655 bytes; 350 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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This paper describes the Higher Education Contribution Scheme (HECS), Australia's income contingent charge mechanism, and analyses its impact on the social composition of university participation. We analyse university participation data from three cohorts of young Australians. The first cohort completed their schooling prior to the introduction of HECS, the second following its introduction and the third after the scheme was amended substantially. We find that the social composition of participants was different in 1999 from that of 1988. However, the distribution was more equal than it was in the late 1980s. That outcome reflected the growth in participation in the middle of the wealth distribution, which was stronger than growth at either the top or the bottom of the distriution. Other aspects of university participation also changed: participation grew more strongly among females than males. We find no evidence that participation fell among 'marginal decision makers' - those who, while at school, said they did not intend to study at university. We conclude that HECS did not act to discourage university participation in general or among individuals from the lowest wealth groups.; no

Output-Based Aid in the Philippines : Improved Access to Water Services for Poor Households in Metro Manila

Menzies, Iain; Suardi, Mario
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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This project aims to provide access to water services through individual household connections to several low-income communities in Rizal province (Antipolo City, Baras, Rodriguez, and San Mateo) and Taguig city in the Manila Metropolitan region through collaboration with the concessionaire for Manila's east zone, the Manila Water Company (MWC). The GPOBA intervention supports Manila Water's flagship program, launched in 1998, the 'Water for the Community' or Tubig Para sa Barangay (TPSB) program, which provides a regular supply of clean, safe, and affordable drinking water to the urban poor. The scheme builds on the successful track record of the TPSB program and seeks to speed up rollout of individual connections to poor households through one-time subsidies to cover the cost of the connection fee.

Impact Evaluation of Free-of-charge CFL Bulb Distribution in Ethiopia

Costolanski, Peter; Elahi, Raihan; Iimi, Atsushi; Kitchlu, Rahul
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Electricity infrastructure is one of the most important development challenges in Africa. While more resources are clearly needed to invest in new capacities, it is also important to promote energy efficiency and manage the increasing demand for power. This paper evaluates one of the recent energy-efficiency programs in Ethiopia, which distributed 350,000 compact fluorescent lamp bulbs free of charge. The impact related to this first phase is estimated at about 45 to 50 kilowatt hours per customer per month, or about 13.3 megawatts of energy savings in total. The overall impact of the compact fluorescent lamp bulb programs, thanks to which more than 5 million bulbs were distributed, could be significantly larger. The paper also finds that the majority of the program beneficiaries were low-volume customers -- mostly from among the poor -- although the program was not targeted. In addition, the analysis determines the distributional effect of the program: the energy savings relative to the underlying energy consumption were larger for the poor. The evidence also supports a rebound effect. About 20 percent of the initial energy savings disappeared within 18 months of the program's completion.

Access Pricing, Competition, and Incentives to Migrate From "Old" to "New" Technology

Bourreau, Marc; Cambini, Carlo; Dogan, Pinar
Fonte: John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University Publicador: John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University
Tipo: Research Paper or Report
EN_US
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In this paper, we analyze the incentives of an incumbent and an entrant to migrate from an "old" technology to a "new" technology, and discuss how the terms of wholesale access affect this migration. We show that a higher access charge on the legacy network pushes the entrant firm to invest more, but has an ambiguous effect on the incumbent's investments, due to two conflicting effects: the wholesale revenue effect, and the business migration effect. If both the old and the new infrastructures are subject to ex-ante access regulation, we also find that the two access charges are positively correlated.

Funding free and universal access to Journal of Neuroinflammation

Mrak, Robert E; Griffin, W Sue T
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/10/2004 EN
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Journal of Neuroinflammation is an Open Access, online journal published by BioMed Central. Open Access publishing provides instant and universal availability of published work to any potential reader, worldwide, completely free of subscriptions, passwords, and charges. Further, authors retain copyright for their work, facilitating its dissemination. Open Access publishing is made possible by article-processing charges assessed "on the front end" to authors, their institutions, or their funding agencies. Beginning November 1, 2004, the Journal of Neuroinflammation will introduce article-processing charges of around US$525 for accepted articles. This charge will be waived for authors from institutions that are BioMed Central members, and in additional cases for reasons of genuine financial hardship. These article-processing charges pay for an electronic submission process that facilitates efficient and thorough peer review, for publication costs involved in providing the article freely and universally accessible in various formats online, and for the processes required for the article's inclusion in PubMed and its archiving in PubMed Central, e-Depot, Potsdam and INIST. There is no remuneration of any kind provided to the Editors-in-Chief...

Scaling Up Access to Electricity; Emerging Best Practices for Mini-Grid Regulation

Greacen, Chris; Nsom, Stephanie; Rysankova, Dana
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This brief will focus on enabling regulations for mini-grids, providing an overview of key issues, options, and good practices. While appropriate regulations are not all that is needed to spur mini-grid development, is usually one of the first obstacles that potential developers face and therefore the most urgent issue for governments. The authors draw on a case study of Tanzania, a pioneer in setting an enabling and light-handed regulatory framework for mini-grids. Given the urgency of leveraging private sector investments for reaching the universal access targets of the international sustainable energy for all projects, the authors also focus on regulatory issues relevant to private sector entrepreneurs and investors. Mini-grid entrepreneurs need to know that their investment of time and money will have a reasonable chance not just of being repaid but also of returning a profit. A clear and credible regulatory framework that makes and enforces fair and efficient decisions in a timely manner helps entrepreneurs make informed investment decisions. The key characteristics of such a framework...

Calling vs receiving party pays : market penetration and the importance of the call externality

Majer, Tommaso; Pistollato, Michele
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2011 ENG
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In this paper we study how the access price affects the choice of the tariff regime taken by the network operators. We show that for high values of the access price, that is taken as a parameter by the firms, networks decide to charge only the callers. Otherwise, for low values of the access charge, networks charge also the receivers. Moreover, we compare market penetration and total welfare between the two price regimes. Our model suggests that, for high values of call externality, market penetration and total welfare are larger in Receiving Party Pays regime when the access charge is close to zero.

Essays on the industrial organization of telecommunications

Pistollato, Michele
Fonte: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Department of Economics and Economic History, Publicador: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Department of Economics and Economic History,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2012 ENG; ENG
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Descripció del recurs: 24 gener 2013; A portada: International Doctorate in Economic Analysis (IDEA); La tesis consiste en tres diferentes ensayos que analizan de forma teórica distintos temas relacionados con la organización industrial de las telecomunicaciones. El primer ensayo trata de competencia oligopólica en los mercados de telecomunicaciones, cuando las empresas cobran tarifas planas a los usuarios finales. No obstante las tarifas planas sean muy comunes en la actualidad, los economistas han prestado poca atención a esta práctica de fijación de precios. Las teorías actuales argumentan que, bajo este esquema de competencia, la regulación del mercado no afecta el bienestar social si un duopolio de operadores compite para los usuarios finales. En la tesis se demuestra que, cuando hay competencia imperfecta entre por lo menos tres operador, el bienestar social es sensible a la regulación del precio de acceso. Además se analizan los efectos de asimetrías informativas en los niveles de eficiencia en la prestación de servicios de telecomunicaciones, y se caracterizan los precios de acceso óptimos. Se incluyen también otras indicaciones de políticas económicas. El segundo ensayo es un estudio sobre cómo el precio de acceso afecta la elección de los precios minoristas. Se demuestra que...

Subpixel sensitivity map for a charge-coupled device sensor

Kavaldjiev, Daniel; Ninkov, Zoran
Fonte: International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE) Publicador: International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1494509 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
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The sensitivity across a solid state detector array varies as a result of differences in transmission, diffusion and scattering properties over the sensor. This variation will occur over a range of scale lengths and its knowledge is of importance for improved device design and in a variety of applications, for example, event centroiding in photon counting systems. A measurement of the sensitivity variation on a subpixel scale for a two-phase front-illuminated CCD is reported. The measurement is made using a scanning reflection microscope. A variation in sensitivity between the phases within a pixel is clearly observed, as well as variations on a much smaller spatial scale.; RIT community members may access full-text via RIT Libraries licensed databases: http://library.rit.edu/databases/; This work was supported in part by funding from the National Science Foundation, the S/IUCRC program, and the New York State CAT program. We would like to acknowledge the help of our colleagues, namely Mehdi Vaez- Iravani, now of KLA-Tencor, Gerry Lubberts of the Rochester Institute of Technology and Bruce Burkey at Eastman Kodak.

Subpixel sensitivity maps for a back-illuminated charge-coupled device and the effects of nonuniform response on measurement accuracy

Piterman, Albert; Ninkov, Zoran
Fonte: International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE) Publicador: International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 323369 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
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A measurement program designed to investigate the variations in sensitivity of focal plane arrays on a subpixel scale has produced such information for a front-illuminated CCD device, results for which have been previously presented. New measurements have been made to provide information on sensitivity variations within a single pixel for a back-illuminated CCD. The measurements were made using a stable broadband light source and two high-precision translation stages. The pixel scans were obtained using four different spectral filters (three broadband and one narrowband). These results are compared to the pixel response functions of the front-illuminated CCD. These experimentally measured pixel response functions were used to determine their effect on photometric and astrometric measurements. The uncertainty introduced into such measurements, especially when using undersampled CCD data, is significant. It was also found that the form of the subpixel response is dependent on the wavelength of illuminating light. Therefore, the position of the optical center of weight of a pixel varies with wavelength.; RIT community members may access full-text via RIT Libraries licensed databases: http://library.rit.edu/databases/; The work was supported in part by funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF)...

Influence of nonuniform charge-coupled device pixel response on aperture photometry

Kavaldjiev, Daniel; Ninkov, Zoran
Fonte: The International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE) Publicador: The International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 220469 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
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The extensive use of charge-coupled devices (CCDs) in astronomical imaging and spectroscopic applications has resulted in techniques being developed to correct for sensitivity variations attributable to the focal plane array detector. One normally overlooked effect is that these sensitivity variations also include intrapixel spatial effects that can influence measurements made with CCDs in certain circumstances. We demonstrate the influence of CCD pixel response nonuniformity on photometric measurements. An investigation is presented of how the relation between pixel size and the image size affects the photometric accuracy. Results are presented for a front-illuminated CCD array using an experimentally measured pixel sensitivity functions.; RIT community members may access full-text via RIT Libraries licensed databases: http://library.rit.edu/databases/; We are indebted to Elliott Horch for the useful discussions. This project was made possible with funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF) S/IUCRC program, New York State CAT program and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

A indústria de publicação contra o acesso aberto; La industria de publicación contra el acceso abierto; The publishing industry against open access journals

Camargo Jr, Kenneth Rochel de
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2012 POR
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A publicação em revistas de acesso aberto cresceu expressivamente nos últimos anos. As publicações de acesso fechado, por sua vez, têm custo de acesso cada vez mais elevado, por se beneficiarem de um modelo econômico peculiar: o trabalho relevante e os insumos essenciais são entregues gratuitamente a fornecedores que contam com um mercado cativo, praticamente sem concorrência. O mercado editorial é altamente oligopolizado, característico de indústrias que trabalham com o regime de copyright. Isso contribui para a elevação dos preços de seus produtos. Políticas mandatórias de acesso aberto, como a determinada pela agência National Institutes of Health, constituem-se em ameaça a esse modelo de negócios e são enfrentadas pela indústria em várias frentes, incluindo a passagem de legislação para sabotar tais iniciativas. O objetivo deste comentário foi apresentar alguns aspectos principais desse enfrentamento e sugerir possíveis estratégias de incremento da publicação de acesso aberto em nosso meio.; La publicación en revistas de acceso abierto creció expresivamente en los últimos años. Las publicaciones de acceso cerrado, por su parte, tienen costo de acceso cada vez más elevado, por beneficiarse de un modelo económico peculiar: el trabajo relevante y los insumos esenciales son entregados gratuitamente a los proveedores que cuentan con un mercado cautivo...