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Drug consumption among medical students in São Paulo, Brazil: influences of gender and academic year; Consumo de drogas entre estudantes de medicina em São Paulo: influências de gênero e ano letivo

OLIVEIRA, Lucio Garcia de; BARROSO, Lucia Pereira; WAGNER, Gabriela Arantes; PONCE, Julio de Carvalho; MALBERGIER, André; STEMPLIUK, Vladimir de Andrade; ANDRADE, Arthur Guerra de
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria - ABP Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria - ABP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.05%
OBJECTIVE: To analyze alcohol, tobacco and other drug use among medical students. METHOD: Over a five-year period (1996-2001), we evaluated 457 students at the Universidade de São Paulo School of Medicine, located in São Paulo, Brazil. The students participated by filling out an anonymous questionnaire on drug use (lifetime, previous 12 months and previous 30 days). The influence that gender and academic year have on drug use was also analyzed. RESULTS: During the study period, there was an increase in the use of illicit drugs, especially inhalants and amphetamines, among the medical students evaluated. Drug use (except that of marijuana and inhalants) was comparable between the genders, and academic year was an important influencing factor. DISCUSSION: Increased inhalant use was observed among the medical students, especially among males and students in the early undergraduate years. This is suggestive of a specific behavioral pattern among medical students. Our findings corroborate those of previous studies. CONCLUSION: Inhalant use is on the rise among medical students at the Universidade de São Paulo School of Medicine. Because of the negative health effects of illicit drug use, further studies are needed in order to deepen the understanding of this phenomenon and to facilitate the development of preventive measures.; OBJETIVO: Analisar o consumo de álcool...

Da leitura poética à prdução do gênero artigo acadêmico-científico: uma proposta para o ensino na educação superior; From poetry reading to the production of article academic-scientific genre: a proposal for teaching Higher Education

Nogueira, Silvia Helena
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/04/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.93%
Esta tese trata do ensino de Língua Portuguesa na Educação Superior, considerando a leitura e a escrita como instrumentos para a ampliação do universo de letramento dos alunos. A estratégia escolhida foi o trabalho com os gêneros do discurso, num percurso que partiu do poema - motivador e desencadeador do processo - para chegar à produção de gêneros acadêmicos, com as características e marcas lingüísticas que lhes são próprias, dentre as quais o emprego da norma culta padrão. O objetivo principal foi o de apresentar uma proposta operacional de ensino de língua que levasse alunos do curso de Administração de Empresas a ler e produzir textos voltados as suas necessidades acadêmicas, de modo competente, no curto prazo de um ano letivo. O referencial teórico contemplou estudos sobre análise do discurso, autoria, enunciação dialógica, heterogeneidade enunciativa, gêneros do discurso, letramento, lingüística textual, variação lingüística, desenvolvidos por vários autores, dentre os quais Bakhtin, Brandão, Bronckart, Dolz & Schneuwly, Fávero, Kleiman, Koch, Jordan, Quadros Leite, Maingueneau, Moraes, Santos, Silva, Soares e Travaglia. Também se consultaram obras de apoio à análise do texto literário...

Academic achievement on first-year Portuguese college students : the role of academic preparation and learning strategies

Soares, Ana Paula; Guisande, M. Adelina; Almeida, Leandro S.; Páramo, M. Fernanda
Fonte: Psychology Press Publicador: Psychology Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
This paper analyses the impact of learning strategies, gender, academic field attended and students’ entrance classification to the university on academic achievement at the end of the first academic year. The study, developed with 445 first-year college students (68.5% female), ages between 17 and 57 years old (M = 18.3; SD = 2.17), from the University of Minho (Portugal), implicated answering a questionnaire on learning strategies, which concerned five dimensions (comprehensive approach, surface approach, personal competency perceptions, intrinsc motivation and organization of study activities). Regression analyses showed that academic achievement was more related to students’ entrance classifications to the university than to their learning strategies, independently of the academic field attended. Despite the significance of the other variables, these results seem to highlight the relationship between students’ academic preparation and their achievement at the end of the first-year.; Cet article analyse le rôle de la préparation académique et des stratégies d’apprentissage dans la prediction des resultats académiques des étudiants collegiens portugais de premiere année, considerant le sexe des étudiants et le champ d’etudes poursuivies. Un échantillon de 445 etudiants collegiens de première annee (68...

Processo de ajustamento de estudantes angolanos ao contexto do ensino superior; Academic adjustment process in angolan college students

Elias, Ana Paula Tuavanje
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em 07/04/2014 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.23%
Tese de doutoramento em Psicologia (ramo de conhecimento em Psicologia Vocacional); O ajustamento dos estudantes ao contexto do ensino superior tem mostrado ser um fenómeno com implicações relevantes no processo de ensino/aprendizagem. Cabe assim à Universidade considerar esta problemática e adotar critérios e desenvolver ações que facilitem a adaptação dos estudantes à nova condição académica. Esta investigação tem por objetivo contribuir para a compreensão dos processos de ajustamento ou adaptação académica dos alunos do ensino superior, a partir de uma perspetiva sociocognitiva da carreira (Lent, 2004; Lent, Taveira, Sheu & Syngley, 2009). Nesse sentido, procurou-se validar uma medida e um modelo estrutural de ajustamento académico no contexto do ensino superior angolano, bem como caraterizar o processo de ajustamento académico de alunos universitários angolanos e analisar diferenças individuais, em função de sexo, etnia, ano escolar, especialidade académica e instituição de ensino superior. A amostra global é constituída por 317 participantes, sendo 165 (49,7%) mulheres e 152 (45,8%) homens, com uma média de 170 (51,2%) residem em Luanda e pertencem maioritariamente à etnia Kimbundo (n = 74...

Drug consumption among medical students in São Paulo, Brazil: influences of gender and academic year

Oliveira,Lucio Garcia de; Barroso,Lucia Pereira; Wagner,Gabriela Arantes; Ponce,Julio de Carvalho; Malbergier,André; Stempliuk,Vladimir de Andrade; Andrade,Arthur Guerra de
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria - ABP Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria - ABP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.05%
OBJECTIVE: To analyze alcohol, tobacco and other drug use among medical students. METHOD: Over a five-year period (1996-2001), we evaluated 457 students at the Universidade de São Paulo School of Medicine, located in São Paulo, Brazil. The students participated by filling out an anonymous questionnaire on drug use (lifetime, previous 12 months and previous 30 days). The influence that gender and academic year have on drug use was also analyzed. RESULTS: During the study period, there was an increase in the use of illicit drugs, especially inhalants and amphetamines, among the medical students evaluated. Drug use (except that of marijuana and inhalants) was comparable between the genders, and academic year was an important influencing factor. DISCUSSION: Increased inhalant use was observed among the medical students, especially among males and students in the early undergraduate years. This is suggestive of a specific behavioral pattern among medical students. Our findings corroborate those of previous studies. CONCLUSION: Inhalant use is on the rise among medical students at the Universidade de São Paulo School of Medicine. Because of the negative health effects of illicit drug use, further studies are needed in order to deepen the understanding of this phenomenon and to facilitate the development of preventive measures.

Rate of undesirable events at beginning of academic year: retrospective cohort study

Haller, Guy; Myles, Paul S; Taffé, Patrick; Perneger, Thomas V; Wu, Christopher L
Fonte: BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. Publicador: BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.89%
Objective To determine whether an increase in the rate of undesirable events occurs after care provided by trainees at the beginning of the academic year.

The Influence of On-Campus, Academic Year Undergraduate Research on STEM PhD Outcomes: Evidence from the Meyerhoff Scholarship Program

Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.11%
The Meyerhoff Scholarship Program, which celebrated its 20th year in 2008, is considered a successful intervention program for increasing the number of underrepresented minorities who earn PhDs or MD/PhDs and pursue research careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). This article examines the relationship between participation in one specific component of the Meyerhoff Scholarship Program—on-campus, academic year research—and the pursuit of a STEM PhD by thirteen cohorts of program participants. The results indicate that participation in on-campus, academic year research is associated with a substantial increase in the probability of pursuing a STEM PhD. They further suggest that the structure and intensity of the on-campus, academic year research experience matter.

Implementation of the interdisciplinary curriculum Teaching and Assessing Communicative Competence in the fourth academic year of medical studies (CoMeD)

Mortsiefer, Achim; Rotthoff, Thomas; Schmelzer, Regine; Immecke, J.; Ortmanns, B.; in der Schmitten, J.; Altiner, A.; Karger, André
Fonte: German Medical Science GMS Publishing House Publicador: German Medical Science GMS Publishing House
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/02/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.89%
Introduction: Implementation of a longitudinal curriculum for training in advanced communications skills represents an unmet need in most German medical faculties, especially in the 4rth and 5th years of medical studies. The CoMeD project (communication in medical education Düsseldorf) attempted to establish an interdisciplinary program to teach and to assess communicative competence in the 4th academic year. In this paper, we describe the development of the project and report results of its evaluation by medical students.

Novice medical students: Individual patterns in the use of learning strategies and how they change during the first academic year

Fabry, Götz; Giesler, Marianne
Fonte: German Medical Science GMS Publishing House Publicador: German Medical Science GMS Publishing House
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/08/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.01%
Background: Adequate use of different learning strategies is one of the most important prerequisites of academic success. The actual use of learning strategies is the result of an interaction between individual and situational variables. Against this background we conducted a longitudinal study with first year medical students to investigate whether individuals show different patterns in their use of learning strategies and whether these patterns change during the first academic year.

Educational and Health Impacts of Two School Feeding Schemes : Evidence from a Randomized Trial in Rural Burkina Faso

Kazianga, Harounan; de Walque, Damien; Alderman, Harold
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.01%
This paper uses a prospective randomized trial to assess the impact of two school feeding schemes on health and education outcomes for children from low-income households in northern rural Burkina Faso. The two school feeding programs under consideration are, on the one hand, school meals where students are provided with lunch each school day, and, on the other hand, take-home rations that provide girls with 10 kg of cereal flour each month, conditional on 90 percent attendance rate. After running for one academic year, both programs increased girls enrollment by 5 to 6 percentage points. While there was no observable significant impact on raw scores in mathematics, the time-adjusted scores in mathematics improved slightly for girls. The interventions caused absenteeism to increase in households that were low in child labor supply while absenteeism decreased for households that had a relatively large child labor supply, consistent with the labor constraints. Finally, for younger siblings of beneficiaries, aged between 12 and 60 months...

Utilising online social networking tools for first and final year design education.

McCarthy, Josh
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2012
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.24%
This thesis investigates the evolving learning needs and expectations of modern day higher education students in Australia, and explores the efficacy of online social networking tools within design and digital media education. This research is concerned with tertiary students at both first and final year levels, and also focuses on the international student experience within Australia. The principle aims of the research are a) to determine the effectiveness of social networking sites for improving the first year learning experience by establishing connections, both academic and social, between students, specifically connections between local and international students; and b) to establish networking opportunities for final year design students with relevant professionals, including recent graduates and industry leaders. The core research is conducted through two case studies, focussing on the use of Facebook as an online learning environment for both first and final year education. The first year case study uses the course Imaging Our World as an academic platform, and is analysed from 2008 to 2011. The final year case study uses the Master of Design with Digital Media program as an academic platform, and is analysed from 2009 to 2011. From 2008 to 2011 first year students engaged with their peers through an online forum in Facebook...

Energy Academic Group Research Overview

Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Relevância na Pesquisa
46%
Energy research at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) is highly diverse, reflecting the diverse interests of our highly capable faculty and students. A wide range of subject areas are covered by NPS energy research, including basic sciences, engineering, operations and analysis, and business. There is also an increasing amount of work that is cross disciplinary, involving faculty and students from multiple subject areas in solving the Navy, Marine Corps and DoD critical energy needs. Although energy research at the NPS is focused on the needs of the US military, much of the on-going research is unclassified and has both military and civilian applications. NPS energy research is funded by both internal and external programs. For the 2011/2012 academic year, the NPS funded over $250,000 worth of energy seed research from internal R&D funds. Total funding for energy research at the NPS in the 2011/2012 academic year has exceeded $2M. External sponsors include the Office of Naval Research, the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Department of Energy, and various Navy warfare centers such as NAWC and NSWC.

It's all about football: The lived academic experiences of undergaraduate African-American football players.

Maxwell, Robert Scott
Fonte: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University Publicador: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University
Tipo: Doctoral Dissertation
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.98%
Thesis (Ph.D.) - Indiana University, School of Education, 2011; Media focus on intercollegiate athletics has reached an all time high. To many, the entire institution is now defined by this tiny part of campus life and the credibility of higher education as a whole can be jeopardized by the actions of a few. Most of the literature published on academic issues in intercollegiate athletics has focused on identity development, graduation rates, and financial issues. This study examines the lived academic experiences of a group of six African-American undergraduate football players at a Division1 university. The participants in the study were all students on the campus for at least one academic year before taking part in this work. The academic performance and motivation of African-American male student-athletes have received considerable attention in the higher education literature over the past two decades. This qualitative, phenomenological study will explore the perceptions and experiences of football players who are struggling academically. The purpose of this study is to attempt to understand the lived experiences of a group of football player student-athletes who are struggling with academic requirements. The study describes how for these participants athletics is the be-all and end-all of their existence. Close relationships with family members and team mates are key to academic success and the role of coaches is pivotal. The positive and negative consequences of interactions with faculty...

Academic Peer Effects with Different Group Assignment Policies : Residential Tracking versus Random Assignment

Garlick, Robert
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
This paper studies the relative academic performance of students tracked or randomly assigned to South African university dormitories. Tracked or streamed assignment creates dormitories where all students obtained similar scores on high school graduation examinations. Random assignment creates dormitories that are approximately representative of the population of students. Tracking lowers students' mean grades in their first year of university and increases the variance or inequality of grades. This result is driven by a large negative effect of tracking on low-scoring students' grades and a near-zero effect on high-scoring students' grades. Low-scoring students are more sensitive to changes in their peer group composition and their grades suffer if they live only with low-scoring peers. In this setting, residential tracking has undesirable efficiency (lower mean) and equity (higher variance) effects. The result isolates a pure peer effect of tracking, whereas classroom tracking studies identify a combination of peer effects and differences in teacher behavior across tracked and untracked classrooms. The negative pure peer effect of residential tracking suggests that classroom tracking may also have negative effects unless teachers are more effective in homogeneous classrooms. Random variation in peer group composition under random dormitory assignment also generates peer effects. Living with higher-scoring peers increases students' grades and the effect is larger for low-scoring students. This is consistent with the aggregate effects of tracking relative to random assignment. However...

Social Audits in Nepal's Community Schools : Measuring Policy Against Practice

Prasad Kafle, Agni; Patel, Darshana; Agarwal, Sanjay
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.96%
Nepal s publicly-funded schools have been managed by community-level stakeholders since 1950 when Nepal first adopted a demo¬cratic system of government. Subsequent changes to legislation and policy have further devolved school management to the com¬munity level, including the provision of financial resources to support decision making by school-level committees. In addition to these reforms, each community school is now required to conduct an annual social audit. Community School National Network (CSNN), a national Nepali NGO with expertise in social accountability approaches, conducted a pilot of 60 schools in three districts (Kaski, Dolakha, and Nawalparasi) to assess gaps in the implementation of social audits by schools as specified in the Guidelines for the Social Auditing of the Schools issued by the Ministry of Education (MoE) of the Government of Nepal. In each of the three districts studied, 70 80 percent of the entire school budget is community-funded. Approximately 83 percent of community schools conducted social audits in the academic year 2008 09. Their implementation varied between the three districts but gaps were usu¬ally due to poor capacity and lack of information about community-level responsibilities. CSNN led a capacity-building initiative at the national...

How Learning Styles, Chemistry Attitudes and Experiences, Confidence, and Demographics Correlate with Academic Success in First and Second Year Chemistry Courses

Ilnicki-Stone, Elizabeth
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
At Brock University, the Faculty of Mathematics and Science currently has one of the highest percentages of students on academic probation, with many students reporting the most difficulty with Introductory Chemistry in first year and Organic Chemistry in second year. To identify strategies to improve students' performance and reduce the number of students on academic probation, a multi-year research project was undertaken involving several chemistry courses. Students were asked to complete three questionnaires, and provide consent to obtain their final Chemistry grade from the Registrar's Office. Research began at the end of the 2007-08 academic year with CHEM IPOO, and in the 2008-09 academic year, students in the larger CHEM IF92 Introductory Chemistry course were invited to participate in this research near the beginning of the academic year. Students who went on to take second year Organic and Analytical Chemistry were asked to complete these questionnaires in each second year course. The three questionnaires included the Kolb Learning Styles Inventory (Kolb, 1984) modified to include specific reference to Chemistry in each question, Dalgety, ColI, and Jones' (2002) Chemistry Attitudes and Experiences Questionnaire (CAEQ)...

Critical thinking in college: differential analysis by academic year and scientific area; Critical thinking in college: diferential analysis according to academic year and scientific area

Franco, Amanda Helena Rodrigues; Almeida, Leandro S.
Fonte: UTAD Publicador: UTAD
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 07/07/2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.06%
Publicado em "Pensamento crítico na educação: desafios atuais". ISBN 978-989-704-207-2; Critical thinking is associated to multiple advantages in academic, personal, or professional life, such as higher quality decisions, a more efficient ability to solve problems, or active citizenship. To analyze the quality of critical thinking of the average college student, we assessed a sample of freshmen students taking a degree course (n=177) or a master's degree (n=155), in the scientific area of social sciences and humanities, or science and technology, with the Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment (Halpern, 2012). Results indicate differences in critical thinking according to academic year and scientific area, with master students taking a course in the area of science and technology scoring higher on this critical thinking assessment test. Higher education may have a positive impact on the quality of students' critical thinking.; UTAD

An academic results analysis of a first year interdisciplinary project approach to industrial and management engineering education

Fernandes, Sandra; Lima, Rui M.; Cardoso, Elisabete P. C.; Leão, Celina Pinto; Flores, Maria Assunção
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.09%
This paper presents an analysis of academic results of first year Industrial Management and Engineering students, achieved either in a PLE (Project-led Education) or in a non PLE teaching and learning approach. Data collected focuses on students’ grades, including continuous and summative assessment results of four different courses, from the academic year 2006/2007 to 2008/2009. The evaluation indicators used are the ratio of students assessed and those enrolled in the course, the ratio of students approved and those enrolled in the course, the ratio of students approved and those assessed in the course, the arithmetic mean and the standard deviation of student grades. Findings suggest that PLE students, in average, have better results than the non PLE students at all courses and for the three academic years analyzed. However, these results need to be understood in a broader perspective which includes other variables such as student background, student engagement of given tasks, etc. which are beyond the scope of this paper.

StatLab Annual Report, 2002-2003 Academic Year

Rejto, Lidia; Ilvento, Thomas W.; Cai, Xiangrong; Nedanov, Pavel; Xu, Yihuan
Fonte: Universidade de Delaware Publicador: Universidade de Delaware
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 882643 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.89%
The purpose of this report is to briefly describe the activities of the StatLab during the 2002/2003 academic year. The StatLab (Statistical Laboratory) was first established at the University of Delaware in 1983. In the Spring of 1997, the lab closed its operation. In 2001, the Statistics Program left the Mathematics Department and moved into the Department of Food and Resource Economics. As part of this move the graduate program in statistics was re-established as was the StatLab.

Psychobiological responses at the beginning and the end of an academic year in teachers

Serrano,Miguel A.; Moya-Albiol,Luís; Salvador,Alicia
Fonte: Anales de Psicología Publicador: Anales de Psicología
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/05/2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.07%
Evidence shows that work stress increases risk of cardiovascular disease. Emotional, cardiovascular and endocrine responses are affected by day-to-day experience. Perceived stress, negative mood, heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) increase in working periods. Cortisol (C) response is not so clear, there being contradictory results. The main purpose is to study stress markers in two working days in teachers. Moreover, we evaluate the role of gender in stress markers in 49 school teachers. Perceived stress, mood, BP, HR, and C were measured at the beginning and at the end of an academic year. Results show that psychological and heart rate responses to a working day were different at the end of the year, increasing, especially in men. BP and C responses descended at the end of the year. In conclusion, an academic year could affect negatively to the emotional state and heart rate of teachers.