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Maintaining quality of health services after abolition of user fees: A Uganda case study

Nabyonga-Orem, Juliet; Karamagi, Humphrey; Atuyambe, Lynn; Bagenda, Fred; Okuonzi, Sam A; Walker, Oladapo
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/05/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.75%

Community health insurance amidst abolition of user fees in Uganda: the view from policy makers and health service managers

Basaza, Robert K; Criel, Bart; Van der Stuyft, Patrick
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/02/2010 EN
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25.77%

Studies of talent markets

Terviö, Marko
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 113 p.; 572683 bytes; 572385 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
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55.99%
This thesis consists of three studies of labor markets where differences in talent are associated with very large differences in income. The unifying theoretical feature is the view that the analysis of such labor markets should take into account the scarcity of jobs, which is a natural consequence of the combination of finite demand and positive production costs. In Chapter 1 we propose a model where an industry-specific talent can only be revealed on the job and publicly. Individual inability to commit to long-term contracts leaves firms with insufficient incentives to hire novices, inducing them to bid excessively for the pool of revealed talent instead. This causes the market to be plagued with too many mediocre workers, inefficiently low output levels, and excessive rents for the known high talents. We argue that high wages in professions such as entertainment and entrepreneurship may be explained by the nature of the talent revelation process in those markets, and suggest potential natural experiments for estimating the welfare loss and the excessive talent rents predicted by the model. Chapter 2 is an analysis of the labor market of CEOs. We present an assignment model of managers and firms of heterogeneous talent and scale...

Accès aux soins obstétricaux d’urgence au Mali : dépenses catastrophiques et conséquences au sein des ménages

Arsenault, Catherine
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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25.88%
Après des années d’efforts, l’Afrique Sub-saharienne n’a connu qu’une faible amélioration de ses indicateurs de santé maternelle. Assurer l’accès aux soins obstétricaux d’urgence (SOU) pour toutes les femmes est une stratégie efficace pour réduire la mortalité maternelle. Cependant, ces soins sont dispendieux et ces dépenses peuvent être « catastrophiques ». Afin d’en réduire le fardeau, le Mali a instauré la gratuité de la césarienne et un système de référence-évacuation. L’objectif de cette étude est d’examiner la prévalence et les facteurs contribuant aux dépenses catastrophiques liées aux SOU dans la région de Kayes, Mali. Elle vise aussi à étudier les conséquences socioéconomiques de ces dépenses au sein des ménages. L’étude a révélé que les dépenses lors d’urgences obstétricales sont en moyenne de 71535 FCFA (US$ 152). Entre 20.7% et 53.5% des ménages ont encouru des dépenses catastrophiques supérieures à 15% et 5% de leur revenu annuel respectivement. Les ménages de femmes sans éducation, du milieu rural et ayant souffert d’infection post-partum sont les plus à risque d’encourir des dépenses catastrophiques. La césarienne n’est pas associée à une probabilité réduite de dépense catastrophique malgré la gratuité. Faire des dépenses élevées ne garantie pas la survie de la mère puisque entre 19...

Rethinking School Health : A Key Component of Education for All

Bundy, Donald
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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35.73%
Education is one of the most important drivers of the development of individuals and societies. It not only has powerful implications for the creation of human capacity, but also helps people realize their full potential and expand their connections with the world. Economic analyses repeatedly demonstrate that education gives a high economic return within the life - span of an individual and is a key factor underlying the economic growth of nations. Viewed from these perspectives, the decision at the turn of the millennium of governments and development partners to pursue the goal of Education for All (EFA) was not only an important contribution to one sector, but the launch of an endeavor with major implications for the future of humanity. The early perception of the goal of EFA was that all children should have access to education-every child should be able to exercise the right to go to school. This limited goal soon broadened to address the quality of the education that a child received at school and the factors that ensured the child was able to stay in school long enough to learn enough. These additional objectives have expanded the goal of EFA...

Education Reform in Mozambique : Lessons and Challenges

Fox, Louise; Santibañez, Lucrecia; Nguyen, Vy; André, Pierre
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
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45.87%
The report opens with a brief description of the conceptual framework that guided the analysis as well as the data used. The next chapter presents the analysis of changes in household behavior and educational outcomes related to the implementation of the reforms, at both the primary and secondary levels. The descriptive nature of this analysis does not allow for inferences regarding the effects of the reforms on enrollment and demand for education. The following chapter presents the results of an econometric impact analysis of the reforms to quantify the magnitude of the effects on enrollment. In considering priorities for the future, the Government is paying increasing attention to the impact of the investments in education on growth, jobs, and poverty reduction, as measured by increased earnings from employment, and particularly by improving opportunities for the labor force to move to higher productivity activities and livelihoods. The next chapter presents the results on the changing structure of employment in Mozambique between 2003 and 2008...

Strategies for Sustainable Financing of Secondary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa : Appendix 5 - Costs and Financing of Secondary Education in Zambia, A Situational Analysis

Lewin, Keith M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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56.15%
This thematic study discusses strategies for sustainable financing of secondary education in Sub-Saharan Africa. The report provides insight into options for financing the expansion of secondary education and training in Africa. This comes with a hefty price tag and points to the need to undertake fundamental reforms swiftly. This publication messages are clear: secondary education and training in Sub-Saharan Africa faces the challenge of improved efficiency and improved quality simultaneously with a fast growing demand. Sustainable financing will also require more effective public-private partnerships, because governments have many priorities and do not have a lot of room for significant additional public funding of post-primary systems. Educational reforms are needed to expand enrollment in secondary schooling in affordable ways. These reforms will contribute to poverty reduction by increasing the levels of knowledge, skills, and capability; diminishing inequalities in access that limit social mobility and skew income distribution; and contributing to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that relate to education.

Can Free Provision Reduce Demand for Public Services? Evidence from Kenyan Education

Bold, Tessa; Kimenyi, Mwangi; Mwabu, Germano; Sandefur, Justin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.31%
In 2003 Kenya abolished user fees in all government primary schools. Analysis of household survey data shows this policy contributed to a shift in demand away from free schools, where net enrollment stagnated after 2003, toward fee-charging private schools, where both enrollment and fee levels grew rapidly after 2003. These shifts had mixed distributional consequences. Enrollment by poorer households increased, but segregation between socio-economic groups also increased. The shift in demand toward private schooling was driven by more affluent households who (i) paid higher ex ante fees and thus experienced a larger reduction in school funding, and (ii) appear to have exited public schools partially in reaction to increased enrollment by poorer children.

Student unions, shop stewards and sausage rolls

Warhurst, John
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Journal article; Published Version Formato: 10 pages
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35.74%
On 16 March 2005 the Minister for Education, Dr Brendan Nelson, introduced into the House of Representatives the Higher Education Support Amendment (Abolition of Compulsory Up-Front Student Union Fees) Bill 2005. This is a bill to abolish what is commonly known as compulsory student unionism in Australia’s universities, though its supporters prefer the term universal student unionism. Since the election of the Howard government in 1996 several previous attempts by the government to pass such legislation have been unsuccessful. But the success of the Coalition parties in winning control of the Senate, from 1 July 2005, at the October federal election means that the Senate will no longer be able to block this legislation as it has done in the past.

Opinion: a critical appraisal of the new higher education charges for students

Chapman, Bruce
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 272197 bytes; 360 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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46.11%
The legislation concerning the financing of Australian higher education passed the Senate in the last Parliamentary sitting week of 2003. The changes introduced will begin in 2005, and after this time the system will start to move away from its current settings. It is argued in what follows that these reforms have the strong potential to change radically the policy landscape with respect to student charges. A premise of the paper is that the transformation of Australian higher education funding after 2005 is likely to be more profound than was the case with all other financing changes over the last 30 years or so. As background, the discussion offers a brief historic overview of university funding reforms: the abolition of fees by Labor in 1973; the introduction of the Higher Education Administration Charge in 1987; the major extension of user pays through the Higher Education Contribution Scheme which began in 1989; and the considerable changes to HECS implemented in 1997. While some reforms are considered to have been fundamental with respect to the incidence and nature of higher education charges for students, it is argued that the new policy arrangements are very likely to have a much greater impact. To this end, the analysis includes an explanation of the critical role played by the indexation of government grants to Australian universities. While this might seem like a strange place to start given the lack of attention to the issue in public debate...

Local Government Taxation Reform in Tanzania : A Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA), Report on Economic and Sector Work

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Social Analysis; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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36.16%
The 2005 Tanzania poverty and social impact analysis (PSIA) on local government tax reform was designed to examine the intended and unintended consequences on poverty reduction and growth in Tanzania of the tax reforms implemented in June 2003 and 2004. The main elements of the reform were the abolition of the flat rate development levy in 2003 along with nuisance taxes, and the abolition of business license fees for enterprises below a certain size and capping of those fees for larger enterprises in 2004. This PSIA had two principal aims: (a) to assess the distribution of the tax burden across different social and income groups and small businesses before and after the reforms; and (b) to inform other initiatives directed at fiscal policy reform in the context of Tanzania's decentralization.

Yemen : Teachers

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.88%
Yemen is a low-income country with a young and growing secondary education population; female students exhibit lower enrollment rates, and the teaching force is largely male, especially in leadership positions. In 2008, Yemen spent 5.2 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on public education. In the early years of the decade (2001), Yemen was devoting 9.6 percent of GDP for public education provision. In 2008, Yemen spent 16 percent of total government expenditure on education. Yemen's education system consists of basic education from grades 1 to 9 (ages 6-14/15) and secondary education from grades 10 to 12 (ages 14/15-18). Over the past 5 years, noteworthy reforms in basic education have included the abolition of school fees, improvements in annual work planning, contracting of female teachers in remote parts of the country, tying of teacher posts to the school rather than to the individual, reductions in teacher absenteeism, and capacity-building at all levels of education service delivery. The majority of teachers is in the 30-to 39-year-old age bracket and is male...

Abolishing School Fees in Africa : Lessons from Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, and Mozambique

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
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56.42%
This book constitutes one of the main outputs of the School Fee Abolition Initiative (SFAI). The initiative, launched in 2005 by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the World Bank, was designed to support countries in maintaining and accelerating progress toward universal primary education as outlined in the Millennium Development Goals and the Education for All (EFA) goals. Specifically, SFAI strengthens country efforts to eliminate school fees and/or implement targeted exemptions, subsidizations, and incentives to reduce education costs for the poor. The initiative has now grown into a broad partnership through the involvement of other key development partners and constituencies as well as research and academic institutions. SFAI promotes access to quality basic education worldwide through three specific and interlinked goals. The first is to construct a knowledge base on school fee abolition in order to inform sound and sustainable policies, strategies, and interventions. SFAI recognizes that school fee abolition is a complex process that requires both the development of a credible database and the solid analysis that builds on lessons learned from experience. The second goal is to provide guidance and support to countries in planning and implementing school fee abolition policies. Engagement by SFAI partners is taking the form of both technical and financial assistance within the framework of ongoing national planning processes. The third goal is to advance the global policy dialogue on the financial barriers to education access and to build on existing EFA partnerships. The result will ensure a good understanding of the complexities involved in school fee abolition...

Jamaica’s Effort in Improving Universal Access within Fiscal Constraints

Chao, Shiyan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
Jamaica's primary health care system was a model for the Caribbean region in the 1990s. Because of it, Jamaicans enjoy relatively better health status than people in other countries of similar income level in the Caribbean region. However, Jamaica's health system is being severely challenged by persistent and reemerging infectious diseases and by the rapid increase in noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and injuries. At the same time, the country has suffered from low economic growth and carries a high debt burden, which leaves limited fiscal space for improving health care. The Government of Jamaica has been trying to sustain the gain in health outcomes and improve access to health care for its population in an environment of constrained resources during the last decade. With the establishment of the Jamaica National Health Fund (NHF) in 2003 and the abolition of user fees at public facilities in 2008, the Government of Jamaica has taken steps toward achieving universal coverage. This study reviews the achievements and challenges in expanding universal access in Jamaica and assesses the impact of the NHF's drug-subsidy programs and the abolition of user fees on universal access, and discusses policy options for achieving universal coverage.

Functional Literacy, Heterogeneity and the Returns to Schooling : Multi-Country Evidence

Fasih, Tazeen; Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Sakellariou, Chris
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.74%
Little is known about which of the skills that make up workers' human capital contribute to higher earnings. Past empirical evidence suggest that most of the return to schooling is generated by effects or correlates unrelated to the skills measured by the available tests. This paper uses the International Adult Literacy and the Adult Literacy and Life Skills surveys to obtain multi-country estimates of the components of the return to schooling. The results reveal considerable heterogeneity and a dichotomy between two groups of countries. For a subgroup of educationally advanced countries, nearly half of the return to schooling can be attributed to labor marker-relevant functional literacy skills associated with schooling, while for a subgroup of less educationally advanced countries, such skills account for just over 20 percent of the return to schooling, while the return to schooling mostly reflects the signaling value of schooling.

Economic and Welfare Effects of the Abolition of Health User Fees: Evidence from Uganda

Deininger, Klaus; Mpuga, Paul
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.29%
The authors use household level data for Uganda for 1999-2000 and 2002-03, before and after the abolition of user fees for public health services, to explore the effect of this policy on different groups' ability to access health services and morbidity outcomes. They find that the policy change improved access and reduced the probability of sickness in a way that was particularly beneficial to the poor. Although the challenge of maintaining service quality remains, aggregate benefits are estimated to be significantly larger than the estimated shortfalls from the abolition of user fees.

From cardiothoracic surgeon to village health advocate

Wendo, Charles
Fonte: Makerere Medical School Publicador: Makerere Medical School
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2004 EN
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25.75%
Uganda's Director General of Health Services, Prof. Francis Omaswa says that abolition of user fees in his country has enabled more people to access health services. “Development partners now agree that it was a mistake to require people to pay for health services … the rest of the world should go that way”

The New American Debtors' Prisons

Hampson, Christopher D
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Paper (for course/seminar/workshop)
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.74%
Debtors’ prisons are back, in the form of imprisonment for nonpayment of criminal fines, fees, and costs. While the new debtors’ prisons are not historically or doctrinally continuous with the old, recent developments in criminal law suggest that some parts of them offend the same functional and moral principles that compelled the abolition of the old debtors’ prisons. Legal actors may therefore plausibly interpret the constitutional and statutory texts that abolished the old debtors’ prisons to constitute checks on the new — or a new abolitionist movement might deploy new constitutional texts. While the criminal law literature is starting to grapple with the question of debtors’ prisons, this piece engages with the metaphor head-on and asks how the old ban on debtors’ prisons should be reinterpreted for a new era of mass incarceration.

Following a successful petition in Bavaria, university tuition fees may soon become a thing of the past in Germany

Huebner, Malte
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/02/2013 EN; EN
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46%
Bavaria is due to hold a referendum on the abolition of university tuition fees, following a successful petition last month. As Malte Huebner writes, Bavaria is one of only two German states to use tuition fees as a funding mechanism, with the other – Lower Saxony – also expected to abolish the practice later this year. He argues that while German universities do face a genuine funding shortage, the rejection of tuition fees throughout the country is likely to leave financial contributions from the federal government as the only alternative.

Trends in perinatal health indices in the Amajuba District, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, 1990 - 2012

Bondi,F S; Runsewe-Abiodun,T I
Fonte: South African Journal of Child Health Publicador: South African Journal of Child Health
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 EN
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BACKGROUND: In order to address the high perinatal mortality rate, South Africa (SA) commenced a number of interventions from 1995. These included the abolition of user fees, basic antenatal care, on-the-spot diagnosis and treatment of syphilis, and the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. However, there is a dearth of information on the long-term effect of these programmes on perinatal indicators in district hospitals, where most births and deaths occur.OBJECTIVE: To determine the levels and trends in maternal and neonatal indicators in Amajuba District, KwaZulu-Natal Province, SA, and to ascertain the dynamics of these indicators vis-a-vis the transformation of healthcare in SA.METHODS: The study location was Madadeni Hospital and its nine feeder maternity clinics. Information pertaining to all deliveries and their outcome from these health facilities from 1990 to 2012 was extracted from the clinical registers. Data were analysed using SPSS version 15.0 (IBM, USA). Quantitative variables were summarised as means, while qualitative data were expressed as proportions and percentages. The trends for each outcome variable for the entire study period (1990 - 2012) were analysed and presented as line graphs and tables.RESULTS: There were 154 821 live births and 4 133 stillbirths from 1990 to 2012. The overall mean values for stillbirth rate...