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Impact of cholesterol on ABC and SLC transporters expression and function and its role in disposition variability to lipid-lowering drugs

RODRIGUES, Alice Cristina; HIRATA, Mario Hiroyuki; DOMINGUEZ, Rosario; HIRATA, Crespo
Fonte: FUTURE MEDICINE LTD Publicador: FUTURE MEDICINE LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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56.65%
This report focuses on the effects of cholesterol on the expression and function of the ATP-binding cassette (ABCB1, ABCG2 and ABCC2) and solute-linked carrier (SLCO1B1 and SLCO2B1) drug transporters with a particular focus on the potential impact of cholesterol on lipid-lowering drug disposition. Statins are the most active agents in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. However, considerable interindividual variation exists in the response to statin therapy. Therefore, it would be huge progress if factors were identified that reliably differentiate between responders and nonresponders. Many studies have suggested that plasma lipid concentrations can affect drug disposition of compounds, such as ciclosporin and amphotericin B. Both compounds are able to affect the expression and function of ABC transporters. Although still speculative, these effects might be owing to the regulation of drug transporters by plasma cholesterol levels. Studies with normo- and hyper-cholesterolemic individuals, before and after atorvastatin treatment, have demonstrated that plasma cholesterol levels are correlated with drug transporter expression, as well as being related to atorvastatin`s cholesterol-lowering effect. The mechanism influencing the correlation between cholesterol levels and the expression and function of drug transporters remains unclear. Some studies provide strong evidence that nuclear receptors...

Efeito da atorvastatina sobre a atividade funcional e expressão de transportadores de membrana do tipo ABC e SLC; Effect of atorvastatin on the activity and expression of ABC and SLC membrane transporters.

Rodrigues, Alice Cristina
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/09/2008 PT
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46.85%
Os transportadores de membrana do tipo ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) e solute carriers (SLC) regulam a homeostase intracelular de fármacos, modificando a biodisponibilidade e possivelmente a eficácia terapêutica. A variabilidade na resposta a hipolipemiantes, como as vastatinas, tem sido associada a vários fatores genéticos e ambientais. Com a finalidade de avaliarmos os mecanismos de regulação da expressão dos transportadores pela atorvastatina, a expressão de RNAm de transportadores ABC (ABCB1, ABCG2 e ABCC2) e SLC (SLCO1B1, SLCO2B1 e SLC22A1) foi avaliada por RT-PCRq em células mononucleares do sangue periférico (CMSP) de 18 indivíduos normolipidêmicos (NL) e 22 pacientes hipercolesterolêmicos (HC) tratados com atorvastatina (10mg/dia/4 semanas). A possível associação entre o polimorfismo ABCB1 C3435T e a expressão de RNAm também foi avaliada. Os estudos in vitro foram realizados com as células das linhagens HepG2 e Caco-2. Foram avaliados os efeitos da atorvastatina na ativação de fatores de transcrição (NF-kappaB, NF-Y, c-jun, SP-1 e PXR) por ensaio de mobilidade eletroforética retardada em gel de poliacrilamida (EMSA) e na meia-vida do RNAm do gene ABCB1 por RT-PCRq, e a expressão e atividade funcional da proteína ABCB1 por Western blot...

Participação dos transportadores ABC na destoxificação de acaricidas no carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

Pohl, Paula Cristiane
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
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46.92%
A resistência aos acaricidas é um dos maiores desafios para o controle adequado do carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Entender os mecanismos de resistência aos acaricidas pode ser fundamental para prolongar sua eficiência no controle desse parasita. Transportadores ABC são reconhecidos em um grande número de organismos, pela sua participação na destoxificação de drogas. Eles são proteínas transmembrana, responsáveis por remover da célula compostos tóxicos, endógenos ou exógenos. Desta forma, protegem os organismos e são associados à resistência a drogas em vários nematódeos, artrópodes parasitas e células cancerígenas. No presente trabalho, determinamos a participação de transportadores ABC na destoxificação de compostos tóxicos, com ênfase ao acaricida ivermectina, no carrapato R. microplus. O tratamento com inibidores de transportadores ABC aumentou a toxicidade da ivermectina em larvas e fêmeas adultas de populações de campo resistentes a este acaricida. Inibidores de transportadores ABC também aumentaram a toxicidade de abamectina, moxidectina e clorpirifós, em uma população multirresistente a acaricidas, indicando que estes transportadores são responsáveis pela destoxificação de um grande número de acaricidas estruturalmente não relacionados. Níveis de transcrição significativamente maiores do gene RmABCB10 foram identificados no intestino de fêmeas de populações resistentes à ivermectina e amitraz...

Evaluation of the role of ATP-binding cassette transporters as a defence mechanism against temephos in populations of Aedes aegypti

Lima,Estelita Pereira; Goulart,Marília Oliveira Fonseca; Rolim Neto,Modesto Leite
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2014 EN
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56.62%
The role of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in the efflux of the insecticide, temephos, was assessed in the larvae of Aedes aegypti. Bioassays were conducted using mosquito populations that were either susceptible or resistant to temephos by exposure to insecticide alone or in combination with sublethal doses of the ABC transporter inhibitor, verapamil (30, 35 and 40 μM). The best result in the series was obtained with the addition of verapamil (40 μM), which led to a 2x increase in the toxicity of temephos, suggesting that ABC transporters may be partially involved in conferring resistance to the populations evaluated.

ABC transporters in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma synoviae: insights into evolution and pathogenicity

Nicolás,Marisa Fabiana; Barcellos,Fernando Gomes; Nehab Hess,Pablo; Hungria,Mariangela
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.56%
ABC transporters represent one of the largest superfamilies of active membrane transport proteins (MTPs) with a highly conserved ATPase domain that binds and hydrolyzes ATP, supplying energy for the uptake of a variety of nutrients and for the extrusion of drugs and metabolic wastes. The complete genomes of a non-pathogenic (J) and pathogenic (7448) strain of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, as well as of a pathogenic (53) strain of Mycoplasma synoviae have been recently sequenced. A detailed study revealed a high percentage of CDSs encoding MTPs in M. hyopneumoniae strains J (13.4%), 7448 (13.8%), and in M. synoviae 53 (11.2%), and the ABC systems represented from 85.0 to 88.6% of those CDSs. Uptake systems are mainly involved in cell nutrition and some might be associated with virulence. Exporter systems include both drug and multidrug resistant systems (MDR), which may represent mechanisms of resistance to toxic molecules. No relation was found between the phylogeny of the ATPase domains and the lifestyle or pathogenicity of Mycoplasma, but several proteins, potentially useful as targets for the control of infections, were identified.

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in normal and pathological lung

van der Deen, Margaretha; de Vries, Elisabeth GE; Timens, Wim; Scheper, Rik J; Timmer-Bosscha, Hetty; Postma, Dirkje S
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.85%
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a family of transmembrane proteins that can transport a wide variety of substrates across biological membranes in an energy-dependent manner. Many ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) are highly expressed in bronchial epithelium. This review aims to give new insights in the possible functions of ABC molecules in the lung in view of their expression in different cell types. Furthermore, their role in protection against noxious compounds, e.g. air pollutants and cigarette smoke components, will be discussed as well as the (mal)function in normal and pathological lung. Several pulmonary drugs are substrates for ABC transporters and therefore, the delivery of these drugs to the site of action may be highly dependent on the presence and activity of many ABC transporters in several cell types. Three ABC transporters are known to play an important role in lung functioning. Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene can cause cystic fibrosis, and mutations in ABCA1 and ABCA3 are responsible for respectively Tangier disease and fatal surfactant deficiency. The role of altered function of ABC transporters in highly prevalent pulmonary diseases such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have hardly been investigated so far. We especially focused on polymorphisms...

Sensitive and Specific Fluorescent Probes for Functional Analysis of the Three Major Types of Mammalian ABC Transporters

Lebedeva, Irina V.; Pande, Praveen; Patton, Wayne F.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/07/2011 EN
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46.86%
An underlying mechanism for multi drug resistance (MDR) is up-regulation of the transmembrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins. ABC transporters also determine the general fate and effect of pharmaceutical agents in the body. The three major types of ABC transporters are MDR1 (P-gp, P-glycoprotein, ABCB1), MRP1/2 (ABCC1/2) and BCRP/MXR (ABCG2) proteins. Flow cytometry (FCM) allows determination of the functional expression levels of ABC transporters in live cells, but most dyes used as indicators (rhodamine 123, DiOC2(3), calcein-AM) have limited applicability as they do not detect all three major types of ABC transporters. Dyes with broad coverage (such as doxorubicin, daunorubicin and mitoxantrone) lack sensitivity due to overall dimness and thus may yield a significant percentage of false negative results. We describe two novel fluorescent probes that are substrates for all three common types of ABC transporters and can serve as indicators of MDR in flow cytometry assays using live cells. The probes exhibit fast internalization, favorable uptake/efflux kinetics and high sensitivity of MDR detection, as established by multidrug resistance activity factor (MAF) values and Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical analysis. Used in combination with general or specific inhibitors of ABC transporters...

Conformational Coupling of the Nucleotide-Binding and the Transmembrane Domains in ABC Transporters

Wen, Po-Chao; Tajkhorshid, Emad
Fonte: The Biophysical Society Publicador: The Biophysical Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/08/2011 EN
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56.74%
Basic architecture of ABC transporters includes two transmembrane domains (TMDs) and two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). Although the transport process takes place in the TMDs, which provide the substrate translocation pathway across the cell membrane and control its accessibility between the two sides of the membrane, the energy required for the process is provided by conformational changes induced in the NBDs by binding and hydrolysis of ATP. Nucleotide-dependent conformational changes in the NBDs, therefore, need to be coupled to structural changes in the TMDs. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we have investigated the structural elements involved in the conformational coupling between the NBDs and the TMDs in the Escherichia coli maltose transporter, an ABC importer for which an intact structure is available both in inward-facing and outward-facing conformations. The prevailing model of coupling is primarily based on a single structural motif, known as the coupling helices, as the main structural element for the NBD-TMD coupling. Surprisingly, we find that in the absence of the NBDs the coupling helices can be conformationally decoupled from the rest of the TMDs, despite their covalent connection. That is, the structural integrity of the coupling helices and their tight coupling to the core of the TMDs rely on the contacts provided by the NBDs. Based on the conformational and dynamical analysis of the simulation trajectories...

Coevolution of ABC Transporters and Two-Component Regulatory Systems as Resistance Modules against Antimicrobial Peptides in Firmicutes Bacteria▿†

Dintner, Sebastian; Staroń, Anna; Berchtold, Evi; Petri, Tobias; Mascher, Thorsten; Gebhard, Susanne
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.78%
In Firmicutes bacteria, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters have been recognized as important resistance determinants against antimicrobial peptides. Together with neighboring two-component systems (TCSs), which regulate their expression, they form specific detoxification modules. Both the transport permease and sensor kinase components show unusual domain architecture: the permeases contain a large extracellular domain, while the sensor kinases lack an obvious input domain. One of the best-characterized examples is the bacitracin resistance module BceRS-BceAB of Bacillus subtilis. Strikingly, in this system, the ABC transporter and TCS have an absolute mutual requirement for each other in both sensing of and resistance to bacitracin, suggesting a novel mode of signal transduction in which the transporter constitutes the actual sensor. We identified over 250 such BceAB-like ABC transporters in the current databases. They occurred almost exclusively in Firmicutes bacteria, and 80% of the transporters were associated with a BceRS-like TCS. Phylogenetic analyses of the permease and sensor kinase components revealed a tight evolutionary correlation. Our findings suggest a direct regulatory interaction between the ABC transporters and TCSs...

Transcription factors that mediate epithelial–mesenchymal transition lead to multidrug resistance by upregulating ABC transporters

Saxena, M; Stephens, M A; Pathak, H; Rangarajan, A
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.85%
Development of multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major deterrent in the effective treatment of metastatic cancers by chemotherapy. Even though MDR and cancer invasiveness have been correlated, the molecular basis of this link remains obscure. We show here that treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs increases the expression of several ATP binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) associated with MDR, as well as epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, selectively in invasive breast cancer cells, but not in immortalized or non-invasive cells. Interestingly, the mere induction of an EMT in immortalized and non-invasive cell lines increased their expression of ABC transporters, migration, invasion, and drug resistance. Conversely, reversal of EMT in invasive cells by downregulating EMT-inducing transcription factors reduced their expression of ABC transporters, invasion, and rendered them more chemosensitive. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that the promoters of ABC transporters carry several binding sites for EMT-inducing transcription factors, and overexpression of Twist, Snail, and FOXC2 increases the promoter activity of ABC transporters. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation studies revealed that Twist binds directly to the E-box elements of ABC transporters. Thus...

Defining the blanks – Pharmacochaperoning of SLC6 transporters and ABC transporters?

Chiba, Peter; Freissmuth, Michael; Stockner, Thomas
Fonte: Academic Press Publicador: Academic Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.8%
SLC6 family members and ABC transporters represent two extremes: SLC6 transporters are confined to the membrane proper and only expose small segments to the hydrophilic milieu. In ABC transporters the hydrophobic core is connected to a large intracellular (eponymous) ATP binding domain that is comprised of two discontiguous repeats. Accordingly, their folding problem is fundamentally different. This can be gauged from mutations that impair the folding of the encoded protein and give rise to clinically relevant disease phenotypes: in SLC6 transporters, these cluster at the protein–lipid interface on the membrane exposed surface. Mutations in ABC-transporters map to the interface between nucleotide binding domains and the coupling helices, which provide the connection to the hydrophobic core. Folding of these mutated ABC-transporters can be corrected with ligands/substrates that bind to the hydrophobic core. This highlights a pivotal role of the coupling helices in the folding trajectory. In contrast, insights into pharmacochaperoning of SLC6 transporters are limited to monoamine transporters – in particular the serotonin transporter (SERT) – because of their rich pharmacology. Only ligands that stabilize the inward facing conformation act as effective pharmacochaperones. This indicates that the folding trajectory of SERT proceeds via the inward facing conformation. Mutations that impair folding of SLC6 family members can be transmitted as dominant or recessive alleles. The dominant phenotype of the mutation can be rationalized...

ABC transporters in fish species: a review

Ferreira, Marta; Costa, Joana; Reis-Henriques, Maria A.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/07/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.76%
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins were first recognized for their role in multidrug resistance (MDR) in chemotherapeutic treatments, which is a major impediment for the successful treatment of many forms of malignant tumors in humans. These proteins, highly conserved throughout vertebrate species, were later related to cellular detoxification and accounted as responsible for protecting aquatic organisms from xenobiotic insults in the so-called multixenobiotic resistance mechanism (MXR). In recent years, research on these proteins in aquatic species has highlighted their importance in the detoxification mechanisms in fish thus it is necessary to continue these studies. Several transporters have been pointed out as relevant in the ecotoxicological context associated to the transport of xenobiotics, such as P-glycoproteins (Pgps), multidrug-resistance-associated proteins (MRPs 1-5) and breast cancer resistance associated protein (BCRP). In mammals, several nuclear receptors have been identified as mediators of phase I and II metabolizing enzymes and ABC transporters. In aquatic species, knowledge on co-regulation of the detoxification mechanism is scarce and needs to be addressed. The interaction of emergent contaminants that can act as chemosensitizers...

Inhibition or Knockdown of ABC Transporters Enhances Susceptibility of Adult and Juvenile Schistosomes to Praziquantel

Kasinathan, Ravi S.; Sharma, Lalit Kumar; Cunningham, Charles; Webb, Thomas R.; Greenberg, Robert M.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/10/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.75%
Parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma cause schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease that affects hundreds of millions. Treatment of schistosomiasis depends almost entirely on the drug praziquantel (PZQ). Though essential to treating and controlling schistosomiasis, a major limitation of PZQ is that it is not active against immature mammalian-stage schistosomes. Furthermore, there are reports of field isolates with heritable reductions in PZQ susceptibility, and researchers have selected for PZQ-resistant schistosomes in the laboratory. P-glycoprotein (Pgp; ABCB1) and other ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters remove a wide variety of toxins and xenobiotics from cells, and have been implicated in multidrug resistance (MDR). Changes in ABC transporter structure or expression levels are also associated with reduced drug susceptibility in parasitic helminths, including schistosomes. Here, we show that the activity of PZQ against schistosome adults and juveniles ex vivo is potentiated by co-administration of either the highly potent Pgp inhibitor tariquidar or combinations of inhibitors targeting multiple ABC multidrug transporters. Adult worms exposed to sublethal PZQ concentrations remain active, but co-administration of ABC transporter inhibitors results in complete loss of motility and disruption of the tegument. Notably...

Transcriptome-Based Identification of ABC Transporters in the Western Tarnished Plant Bug Lygus hesperus

Hull, J. Joe; Chaney, Kendrick; Geib, Scott M.; Fabrick, Jeffrey A.; Brent, Colin S.; Walsh, Douglas; Lavine, Laura Corley
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/11/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.8%
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a large superfamily of proteins that mediate diverse physiological functions by coupling ATP hydrolysis with substrate transport across lipid membranes. In insects, these proteins play roles in metabolism, development, eye pigmentation, and xenobiotic clearance. While ABC transporters have been extensively studied in vertebrates, less is known concerning this superfamily in insects, particularly hemipteran pests. We used RNA-Seq transcriptome sequencing to identify 65 putative ABC transporter sequences (including 36 full-length sequences) from the eight ABC subfamilies in the western tarnished plant bug (Lygus hesperus), a polyphagous agricultural pest. Phylogenetic analyses revealed clear orthologous relationships with ABC transporters linked to insecticide/xenobiotic clearance and indicated lineage specific expansion of the L. hesperus ABCG and ABCH subfamilies. The transcriptional profile of 13 LhABCs representative of the ABCA, ABCB, ABCC, ABCG, and ABCH subfamilies was examined across L. hesperus development and within sex-specific adult tissues. All of the transcripts were amplified from both reproductively immature and mature adults and all but LhABCA8 were expressed to some degree in eggs. Expression of LhABCA8 was spatially localized to the testis and temporally timed with male reproductive development...

Structure and mechanism of ABC transporters

Wilkens, Stephan
Fonte: Faculty of 1000 Ltd Publicador: Faculty of 1000 Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/02/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.78%
All living organisms depend on primary and secondary membrane transport for the supply of external nutrients and removal or sequestration of unwanted (toxic) compounds. Due to the chemical diversity of cellular molecules, it comes as no surprise that a significant part of the proteome is dedicated to the active transport of cargo across the plasma membrane or the membranes of subcellular organelles. Transport against a chemical gradient can be driven by, for example, the free energy change associated with ATP hydrolysis (primary transport), or facilitated by the potential energy of the chemical gradient of another molecule (secondary transport). Primary transporters include the rotary motor ATPases (F-, A-, and V-ATPases), P-type ATPases and a large family of integral membrane proteins referred to as “ABC” (ATP binding cassette) transporters. ABC transporters are widespread in all forms of life and are characterized by two nucleotide-binding domains (NBD) and two transmembrane domains (TMDs). ATP hydrolysis on the NBD drives conformational changes in the TMD, resulting in alternating access from inside and outside of the cell for unidirectional transport across the lipid bilayer. Common to all ABC transporters is a signature sequence or motif...

ABC transporters in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma synoviae: insights into evolution and pathogenicity.

NICOLÁS, M. F.; BARCELLOS, F. G.; HESS, P. N.; HUNGRIA, M.
Fonte: Genetics and Molecular Biology, Ribeirão Preto, v. 30, n. 1, p. 202-211, 2007. Suplemento. Publicador: Genetics and Molecular Biology, Ribeirão Preto, v. 30, n. 1, p. 202-211, 2007. Suplemento.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE)
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.47%
ABC transporters represent one of the largest superfamilies of active membrane transport proteins (MTPs) with a highly conserved ATPase domain that binds and hydrolyzes ATP, supplying energy for the uptake of a variety of nutrients and for the extrusion of drugs and metabolic wastes. The complete genomes of a non-pathogenic (J) and pathogenic (7448) strain of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, as well as of a pathogenic (53) strain of Mycoplasma synoviaehave been recently sequenced. A detailed study revealed a high percentage of CDSs encoding MTPs in M. hyopneumoniaestrains J (13.4%), 7448 (13.8%), and in M. synoviae53 (11.2%), and the ABC systems represented from 85.0 to 88.6% of those CDSs. Uptake systems are mainly involved in cell nutrition and some might be associated with virulence. Exporter systems include both drug and multidrug resistant systems (MDR), which may represent mechanisms of resistance to toxic molecules. No relation was found between the phylogeny of the ATPase domains and the lifestyle or pathogenicity of Mycoplasma, but several proteins, potentially useful as targets for the control of infections, were identified.; 2007

Immunization with components of two iron uptake ABC transporters protects mice against systemic Streptococcus pneumoniae infection

Brown, J.; Ogunniyi, A.; Woodrow, M.; Holden, D.; Paton, J.
Fonte: Amer Soc Microbiology Publicador: Amer Soc Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.41%
There has been considerable recent research into protein based Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccines as alternatives to the existing capsular antigen vaccines. PiuA and PiaA (formerly Pit1A and Pit2A) are recently identified lipoprotein components of S. pneumoniae iron uptake ABC transporters which are required for full virulence and are likely to be expressed on the surface of the bacterial cell membrane. We investigated the efficacy of recombinant PiuA and PiaA proteins at eliciting protective immunity in mice against systemic infection with S. pneumoniae. Both recombinant PiuA and PiaA generated antibody responses that cross-reacted with each other but not with pneumolysin and reacted with identical proteins from nine different S. pneumoniae serotypes. Mice immunized with recombinant PiuA and PiaA were protected against systemic challenge to a degree similar to those immunized with an existing protein vaccine candidate, PdB (a genetically modified pneumolysin toxoid). Immunization with a combination of both PiuA and PiaA resulted in additive protection and was highly protective against systemic infection with S. pneumoniae. PiuA and PiaA are therefore promising additional candidates for a novel S. pneumoniae vaccine using protein antigens.; Jeremy S. Brown...

Gene expression profile of ABC transporters and cytotoxic effect of ibuprofen and acetaminophen in an epithelial ovarian cancer cell line in vitro

Lima,Renilton Aires; Cândido,Eduardo Batista; Melo,Flávia Perrim de; Piedade,Josiane Barbosa; Vidigal,Paula Vieira Teixeira; Silva,Luciana Maria; Silva Filho,Agnaldo Lopes da
Fonte: Federação Brasileira das Sociedades de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia Publicador: Federação Brasileira das Sociedades de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.7%
PURPOSES: To determine the basic expression of ABC transporters in an epithelial ovarian cancer cell line, and to investigate whether low concentrations of acetaminophen and ibuprofen inhibited the growth of this cell line in vitro. METHODS: TOV-21 G cells were exposed to different concentrations of acetaminophen (1.5 to 15 μg/mL) and ibuprofen (2.0 to 20 μg/mL) for 24 to 48 hours. The cellular growth was assessed using a cell viability assay. Cellular morphology was determined by fluorescence microscopy. The gene expression profile of ABC transporters was determined by assessing a panel including 42 genes of the ABC transporter superfamily. RESULTS: We observed a significant decrease in TOV-21 G cell growth after exposure to 15 μg/mL of acetaminophen for 24 (p=0.02) and 48 hours (p=0.01), or to 20 μg/mL of ibuprofen for 48 hours (p=0.04). Assessing the morphology of TOV-21 G cells did not reveal evidence of extensive apoptosis. TOV-21 G cells had a reduced expression of the genes ABCA1, ABCC3, ABCC4, ABCD3, ABCD4 and ABCE1 within the ABC transporter superfamily. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides in vitro evidence of inhibitory effects of growth in therapeutic concentrations of acetaminophen and ibuprofen on TOV-21 G cells. Additionally...

A "Trojan horse" strategy to reverse drug-resistance in brain tumors

Pinzón Daza, Martha Leonor
Fonte: Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemáticas Publicador: Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemáticas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/07/2014 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.88%
Los gliomas malignos representan una de las formas más agresivas de los tumores del sistema nervioso central (SNC). De acuerdo con la clasificación de los tumores cerebrales de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), los astrocitomas han sido categorizados en cuatro grados, determinados por la patología subyacente. Es así como los gliomas malignos (o de alto grado) incluyen el glioma anaplásico (grado III) así como el glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, grado IV),estos últimos los más agresivos con el peor pronóstico (1). El manejo terapéutico de los tumores del SNC se basa en la cirugía, la radioterapia y la quimioterapia, dependiendo de las características del tumor, el estadio clínico y la edad (2),(3), sin embargo ninguno de los tratamientos estándar es completamente seguro y compatible con una calidad de vida aceptable (3), (4). En general, la quimioterapia es la primera opción en los tumores diseminados, como el glioblastoma invasivo y el meduloblastoma de alto riesgo o con metástasis múltiple, pero el pronóstico en estos pacientes es muy pobre (2),(3). Solamente nuevas terapias dirigidas (2) como las terapias anti-angiogénicas (4); o terapias génicas muestran un beneficio real en grupos limitados de pacientes con defectos moleculares específicos conocidos (4). De este modo...

Research Progress on the Role of ABC Transporters in the Drug Resistance Mechanism of Intractable Epilepsy

Xiong, Jie; Mao, Ding-an; Liu, Li-qun
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.82%
The pathogenesis of intractable epilepsy is not fully clear. In recent years, both animal and clinical trials have shown that the expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters is increased in patients with intractable epilepsy; additionally, epileptic seizures can lead to an increase in the number of sites that express ABC transporters. These findings suggest that ABC transporters play an important role in the drug resistance mechanism of epilepsy. ABC transporters can perform the funcions of a drug efflux pump, which can reduce the effective drug concentration at epilepsy lesions by reducing the permeability of the blood brain barrier to antiepileptic drugs, thus causing resistance to antiepileptic drugs. Given the important role of ABC transporters in refractory epilepsy drug resistance, antiepileptic drugs that are not substrates of ABC transporters were used to obtain ABC transporter inhibitors with strong specificity, high safety, and few side effects, making them suitable for long-term use; therefore, these drugs can be used for future clinical treatment of intractable epilepsy.