Página 1 dos resultados de 142 itens digitais encontrados em 0.007 segundos

Health and environmental outcomes of traditional and modified practices for abatement of residential lead-based paint.

Farfel, M R; Chisolm, J J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1990 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
We evaluated traditional and modified practices for abating lead-based paint in homes of children with blood-lead concentrations (PbB) greater than 1.4 mumol/L (greater than 29 micrograms/dl). Traditional abatement resulted in acute increases in: 1) lead contaminated house dust (generally 3 to 6-fold over pre-abatement levels, but at abated sites typically 10 to 100-fold); and 2) the PbBs of nearly half of the occupant children. Modified practices represented modest short-term improvement compared to traditional practices but were also inadequate. By six months, it was clear that neither form of abatement resulted in long-term reductions of PbB or house dust lead levels, leaving children at continued risk of excessive exposure to lead and permanent adverse neurobehavioral effects. Windows were found to be high sources of lead contaminated house dust. Recommendations are made for improved abatement practices including more complete abatement of window units and more effective clean-up to remove lead-bearing dust. Thirteen million US children live in lead-painted dwellings. Research is needed to identify abatement strategies that will be practical and well suited to the current understanding of low-level lead toxicity.

Methanogens: Methane Producers of the Rumen and Mitigation Strategies

Hook, Sarah E.; Wright, André-Denis G.; McBride, Brian W.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.4%
Methanogens are the only known microorganisms capable of methane production, making them of interest when investigating methane abatement strategies. A number of experiments have been conducted to study the methanogen population in the rumen of cattle and sheep, as well as the relationship that methanogens have with other microorganisms. The rumen methanogen species differ depending on diet and geographical location of the host, as does methanogenesis, which can be reduced by modifying dietary composition, or by supplementation of monensin, lipids, organic acids, or plant compounds within the diet. Other methane abatement strategies that have been investigated are defaunation and vaccines. These mitigation methods target the methanogen population of the rumen directly or indirectly, resulting in varying degrees of efficacy. This paper describes the methanogens identified in the rumens of cattle and sheep, as well as a number of methane mitigation strategies that have been effective in vivo.

Reduction of Baltic Sea Nutrient Inputs and Allocation of Abatement Costs Within the Baltic Sea Catchment

Wulff, Fredrik; Humborg, Christoph; Andersen, Hans Estrup; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Czajkowski, Mikołaj; Elofsson, Katarina; Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders; Hasler, Berit; Hong, Bongghi; Jansons, Viesturs; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Smart, James C. R.; Smedberg, Er
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.19%
The Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) requires tools to simulate effects and costs of various nutrient abatement strategies. Hierarchically connected databases and models of the entire catchment have been created to allow decision makers to view scenarios via the decision support system NEST. Increased intensity in agriculture in transient countries would result in increased nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea, particularly from Poland, the Baltic States, and Russia. Nutrient retentions are high, which means that the nutrient reduction goals of 135 000 tons N and 15 000 tons P, as formulated in the BSAP from 2007, correspond to a reduction in nutrient loadings to watersheds by 675 000 tons N and 158 000 tons P. A cost-minimization model was used to allocate nutrient reductions to measures and countries where the costs for reducing loads are low. The minimum annual cost to meet BSAP basin targets is estimated to 4.7 billion €.

Modeling Dynamics of Culex pipiens Complex Populations and Assessing Abatement Strategies for West Nile Virus

Pawelek, Kasia A.; Niehaus, Patrick; Salmeron, Cristian; Hager, Elizabeth J.; Hunt, Gregg J.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/09/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.6%
The primary mosquito species associated with underground stormwater systems in the United States are the Culex pipiens complex species. This group represents important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV) throughout regions of the continental U.S. In this study, we designed a mathematical model and compared it with surveillance data for the Cx. pipiens complex collected in Beaufort County, South Carolina. Based on the best fit of the model to the data, we estimated parameters associated with the effectiveness of public health insecticide (adulticide) treatments (primarily pyrethrin products) as well as the birth, maturation, and death rates of immature and adult Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes. We used these estimates for modeling the spread of WNV to obtain more reliable disease outbreak predictions and performed numerical simulations to test various mosquito abatement strategies. We demonstrated that insecticide treatments produced significant reductions in the Cx. pipiens complex populations. However, abatement efforts were effective for approximately one day and the vector mosquitoes rebounded until the next treatment. These results suggest that frequent insecticide applications are necessary to control these mosquitoes. We derived the basic reproductive number (ℜ0) to predict the conditions under which disease outbreaks are likely to occur and to evaluate mosquito abatement strategies. We concluded that enhancing the mosquito death rate results in lower values of ℜ0...

Technology and policy options for reducing industrial air pollutants in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

Vijay, Samudra, 1968-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 261 p.; 14451916 bytes; 14485152 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
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26.5%
Technology plays an important role in dealing with air pollution and other environmental problems faced by developing and developed societies. This research examines if technological solutions alone, such as end-of-pipe and process control technologies, can achieve substantial and sustained emissions reduction from the industrial sector in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Environmental standards for most of the criteria pollutants have frequently been violated in the MCMA. Severe air pollution in the MCMA, and the roles of point and area sources, particularly industrial sector, are the prime motivating factors for this research. Industrial sources of air pollution play a significant role in aggravating the air pollution problem in the MCMA. This research focuses on a 25-year horizon for socio-economic growth of the MCMA, and its implications on industrial energy demand, and pollutant emissions. I develop a simulation model to estimate industrial energy demand and emissions from the MCMA industrial sector. The model incorporates industrial growth rate, changes in the structure of industry and energy intensity, pollution control technologies, fuel-switching, technological progress, etc. I find that the level of industrial activity...

Building Response Strategies to Climate Change in Agricultural Systems in Latin America

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.21%
This report, Building Response Strategies to Climate Change in Agricultural Systems in Latin America, reports the results of action research to identify and prioritize stakeholder driven, locally relevant response options to climate change in Latin American agriculture. The study has three primary objectives. The first is to develop and apply a pilot methodology for assessing agricultural vulnerability to climate change and for formulating adaptation response strategies to inform private and public sector decisions in the Latin America region. The study is principally concerned with adaptation responses to climate change, rather than mitigation. The second objective is to formulate recommendations for investments in each of the selected agro-ecosystems in a range of areas including agricultural technology adaptation, infrastructure investments, public and private sector support activities, and institutional and policy changes. The final objective is to disseminate the study results in the Latin America region and other parts of the world to help increase understanding of the impacts of climate change and alternative adaptation response strategies. This methodology can be used by the Bank to support client countries in defining response strategies...

Environmental Costs of Fossil Fuels : A Rapid Assessment Method with Application to Six Cities

Lvovsky, Kseniya; Hughes, Gordon; Maddison, David; Ostro, Bart; Pearce, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
Among the key external effects of fossil fuel contribution are urban air pollution, and changes in global climate. A study of six cities in developing countries, and transition economies estimates the magnitude of these effects, and, examines how various fuels, and pollution sources contribute to health damages, and other environmental costs. The study develops a simple, but robust method for rapid assessment of these damages. By linking the damage to a particular fuel use, or pollution source, the method makes possible cost-benefit analysis of pollution abatement measures. The findings show very high levels of environmental damage, and reveal large sectoral differences. By far the greatest share of the total damage, is that to human health, from exposure to ambient particulates, caused mainly by small pollution sources, such as vehicles, and household stoves. Large industries, and power plants account for a smaller proportion of health damage, but are the major contributors to carbon dioxide emissions, which have an impact on global climate. The complex relationships between pollution sources...

Long-Term Mitigation Strategies and Marginal Abatement Cost Curves : A Case Study on Brazil

Vogt-Schilb, Adrien; Hallegatte, Stephane; de Gouvello, Christophe
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.61%
Decision makers facing abatement targets need to decide which abatement measures to implement, and in which order. This paper investigates the ability of marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves to inform this decision, reanalysing a MAC curve developed by the World Bank on Brazil. Misinterpreting MAC curves and focusing on short-term targets (e.g., for 2020) would lead to under-invest in expensive, long-to-implement and large-potential options, such as clean transportation infrastructure. Meeting short-term targets with marginal energy-efficiency improvements would lead to carbon-intensive lock-ins that make longer-term targets (e.g., for 2030 and beyond) impossible or too expensive to reach. Improvements to existing MAC curves are proposed, based on (1) enhanced data collection and reporting; (2) a simple optimization tool that accounts for constraints on implementation speeds; and (3) new graphical representations of MAC curves. Designing climate mitigation policies can be done through a pragmatic combination of two approaches. The synergy approach is based on MAC curves to identify the cheapest mitigation options and maximize co-benefits. The urgency approach considers the long-term objective (e.g....

Regional Conference on the Phase-Out of Leaded Gasoline in Sub-Saharan Africa : Proceedings

Bultynck, Patrick; Reliquet, Chantal
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.3%
Leaded gasoline is the greatest single source of human exposure to lead, and as such, the health impacts of lead are serious, affecting, and causing elevated blood pressure, cardiovascular conditions, neurological and kidney disease, among many others. While over eighty percent of the gasoline sold worldwide is now lead-free, Africa remains the exception. The specific objectives of the regional conference on the phase-out of leaded gasoline in Sub-Saharan Africa were to raise awareness about the health impacts of leaded gasoline, and build consensus among stakeholders on the technical, regulatory, institutional, economic issues, and the priorities for implementing lead phase-out programs, in addition to develop action plans to phase-out leaded gasoline, with a timetable, and monitoring indicators. The proceedings include the topics covered at the conference, i.e., air quality monitoring, environmental lead levels in African cities, and air quality guidelines, and monitoring programs. Regarding pricing and regulatory issues...

Marginal Abatement Cost Curves and the Quality of Emission Reductions : A Case Study on Brazil

Vogt-Schilb, Adrien; Hallegatte, Stéphane; de Gouvello, Christophe
Fonte: Taylor and Francis Publicador: Taylor and Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.48%
Decision makers facing emission-reduction targets need to decide which abatement measures to implement, and in which order. This article investigates how marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves can inform such a decision. We re-analyse a MAC curve built for Brazil by 2030, and show that misinterpreting MAC curves as abatement supply curves can lead to suboptimal strategies. It would lead to (1) under-investment in expensive, long-to-implement and large-potential options, such as clean transportation infrastructure, and (2) over-investment in cheap but limited-potential options such as energy-efficiency improvement in refineries. To mitigate this issue, the article proposes a new graphical representation of MAC curves that explicitly renders the time required to implement each measure. Policy relevance: In addition to the cost and potential of available options, designing optimal short-term policies requires information on long-term targets (e.g. halving emissions by 2050) and on the speed at which measures can deliver emission reductions. Mitigation policies are thus best investigated in a dynamic framework, building on sector-scale pathways to long-term targets. Climate policies should seek both quantity and quality of abatement...

Impacts of Multi-gas Strategies for Greenhouse Gas Emission Abatement: Insights From a Partial Equilibrium Model

CRIQUI Patrick; RUSS HANS PETER; DEYBE Daniel
Fonte: INT ASSOC ENERGY ECONOMICS Publicador: INT ASSOC ENERGY ECONOMICS
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
ENG
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26.62%
The Version 5 of the POLES model has been developed for the assessment of multi-gas emission reduction strategies. Abatement options have been introduced for all non-CO2 GHGs in the Kyoto Basket and, for the agricultural sector, Marginal Abatement Cost curves have been derived from the new AGRIPOL model. Combined with an international emission permit scheme that is based on the Soft Landing approach, an emission profile respecting climate targets of 550 ppmv provides a relatively soft constraint case for developing countries. The multi-gas analyses first of all demonstrate the relevance of the approach as changing from a CO2only to a multi-gas strategy either allows to increase total abatement of 25% for the same Marginal Abatement Cost or to decrease the MAC of approximately 30% for the same total abatement. Not surprisingly however, the impacts on world demand and primary fuel mix are less pronounced in the multi-gas case. This is easily understandable as a counterpart for introducing more margins of freedom in the abatement effort.; JRC.J.2-Competitiveness and Sustainability

Air-Quality Prognosis for the Implementation of Abatement Strategies over Large Urban Areas.

BIANCONI Roberto; BELLASIO Roberto
Fonte: Centro Comum de Pesquisa da Comissão Européia Publicador: Centro Comum de Pesquisa da Comissão Européia
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
ENG
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36.31%
For the evaluation of abatement scenarios it is either necessary to embark on extensive monitoring campaigns or to consistently apply numerical models for atmospheric dispersion. The ENVISOR methodology applied here is a mixture of the two approaches. It forecasts pollutant concentrations during real episodes and assesses the impact from the construction of a new highway across a large urban domain of 100x100 qkm. Data from an extensive monitoring network are used to identify real modelling periods and for validating the modelling simulations. The selected periods are aiming to the assessent of "annual mean" or 'episodic' conditions. These periods are short-listed according to the abatement scenario under consideration. This approach yields accurate forecasts for the concentration of pollutants after extensive validation tests extended over the whole domain. It is foreseen that the impact from the highway construction will be minimal for photochemical pollution whereas, higher impact will result for inert pollutants due to additional emissions from the highway.; JRC.(EI)-Environment Institute

Applying Abatement Cost Curve Methodology for Low-Carbon Strategy in Changning District, Shanghai

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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46.65%
The speed and scale of urbanization provide an unprecedented opportunity in the coming years to invest in clean energy technologies to contain carbon emissions from the country's sprawling cities. Therefore, supporting low carbon cities is one of the government's top priorities. Shanghai municipal and changning district governments are firmly committed to the transition to a low-carbon city and requested for the World Bank's support in making changning district and Shanghai leaders in designing novel and efficient ways to achieve carbon-intensity-reduction targets. This report documents the methodology of and key findings from applying abatement cost curves and scenarios to set low-carbon targets and define cost-effective low-carbon investment programs in Changning district, Shanghai. At the request of changning district government, the Bank team supported a Shanghai energy conservation institution, assisted by an international firm, in conducting a comprehensive survey of buildings in Hongqiao area in the changning district...

How Inertia and Limited Potentials Affect the Timing of Sectoral Abatements in Optimal Climate Policy

Vogt-Schilb, Adrien; Meunier, Guy; Hallegatte, Stephane
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.63%
This paper investigates the optimal timing of greenhouse gas abatement efforts in a multi-sectoral model with economic inertia, each sector having a limited abatement potential. It defines economic inertia as the conjunction of technical inertia -- a social planner chooses investment on persistent abating activities, as opposed to choosing abatement at each time period independently -- and increasing marginal investment costs in abating activities. It shows that in the presence of economic inertia, optimal abatement efforts (in dollars per ton) are bell-shaped and trigger a transition toward a low-carbon economy. The authors prove that optimal marginal abatement costs should differ across sectors: they depend on the global carbon price, but also on sector-specific shadow costs of the sectoral abatement potential. The paper discusses the impact of the convexity of abatement investment costs: more rigid sectors are represented with more convex cost functions and should invest more in early abatement. The conclusion is that overlapping mitigation policies should not be discarded based on the argument that they set different marginal costs (`"different carbon prices"') in different sectors.

When Starting with the Most Expensive Option Makes Sense : Use and Misuse of Marginal Abatement Cost Curves

Vogt-Schilb, Adrien; Hallegatte, Stephane
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
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56.75%
This article investigates the use of expert-based Marginal Abatement Cost Curves (MACC) to design abatement strategies. It shows that introducing inertia, in the form of the "cost in time" of available options, changes significantly the message from MACCs. With an abatement objective in cumulative emissions (e.g., emitting less than 200 GtCO2 in the 2000-2050 period), it makes sense to implement some of the more expensive options before the potential of the cheapest ones has been exhausted. With abatement targets expressed in terms of emissions at one point in time (e.g., reducing emissions by 20 percent in 2020), it can even be preferable to start with the implementation of the most expensive options if their potential is high and their inertia significant. Also, the best strategy to reach a short-term target is different depending on whether this target is the ultimate objective or there is a longer-term target. The best way to achieve Europe's goal of 20 percent reduction in emissions by 2020 is different if this objective is the ultimate objective or if it is only a milestone in a trajectory toward a 75 percent reduction in 2050. The cheapest options may be sufficient to reach the 2020 target but could create a carbon-intensive lock-in and preclude deeper emission reductions by 2050. These results show that in a world without perfect foresight and perfect credibility of the long-term carbon-price signal...

Marginal Abatement Cost Curves and the Optimal Timing of Mitigation Measures

Vogt-Schilb, Adrien; Hallegatte, Stéphane
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
Decision makers facing abatement targets need to decide which abatement measures to implement, and in which order. Measure-explicit marginal abatement cost curves depict the cost and abating potential of available mitigation options. Using a simple intertemporal optimization model, we demonstrate why this information is not sufficient to design emission reduction strategies. Because the measures required to achieve ambitious emission reductions cannot be implemented overnight, the optimal strategy to reach a short-term target depends on longer-term targets. For instance, the best strategy to achieve European's −20% by 2020 target may be to implement some expensive, high-potential, and long-to-implement options required to meet the −75% by 2050 target. Using just the cheapest abatement options to reach the 2020 target can create a carbon-intensive lock-in and make the 2050 target too expensive to reach. Designing mitigation policies requires information on the speed at which various measures to curb greenhouse gas emissions can be implemented, in addition to the information on the costs and potential of such measures provided by marginal abatement cost curves.

China : Air Pollution and Acid Rain Control - The Case of Shijiazhuang and the Changsha Triangle Area

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.49%
This study, and the associated technical assistance project, has three main objectives. The first is to help localities in China address several questions related to the planning, and implementation of SO2 emissions, and acid rain control: What are the environmental consequences, specifically for localities of different pollution control strategies, in terms of the impacts on human health, agricultural productivity, and other sectors and activities? What are the relative costs of different sulfur emission reduction plans? Will the proposed strategies enable localities to meet the environmental targets set by the central government? The second objective is to assist with capacity building, and training in China. to enable cities and regions to carry out environmental, and economic analyses of sulfur emission impacts, and control programs. The third objective is to provide a forum for discussion with the central government, primarily the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA), on the results of the case studies...

Modelling air pollution abatement in deep street canyons by means of air scrubbers

De Giovanni, Marina; Curci, Gabriele; Avveduto, Alessandro; Pace, Lorenzo; Salisburgo, Cesare Dari; Giammaria, Franco; Monaco, Alessio; Spanto, Giuseppe; Tripodi, Paolo
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/06/2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.51%
Deep street canyons are characterized by weak ventilation and recirculation of air. In such environment, the exposure to particulate matter and other air pollutants is enhanced, with a consequent worsening of both safety and health. The main solution adopted by the international community is aimed at the reduction of the emissions. In this theoretical study, we test a new solution: the removal of air pollutants close to their sources by a network of Air Pollution Abatement (APA) devices. The APA technology depletes gaseous and particulate air pollutants by a portable and low-consuming scrubbing system, that mimics the processes of wet and dry deposition. We estimate the potential pollutant abatement efficacy of a single absorber by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method. The presence of the scrubber effectively creates an additional sink at the bottom of the canyon, accelerating its cleaning process by up to 70%, when an almost perfect scrubber (90% efficiency) is simulated. The efficacy of absorber is not proportional to its internal abatement efficiency, but it increases rapidly at low efficiencies, then tends to saturate. In the particular configuration of the canyon we choose (aspect ratio of 3) the upwind corner is the most favourable for the absorber application. In the downwind corner the maximum pollutant abatement is -24%...

Policy Implications of Stochastic Learning Using a Modified PAGE2002 Model

Alberth, Stephan; Hope, Chris
Fonte: Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge, UK Publicador: Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge, UK
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 205070 bytes; application/pdf
EN
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36.53%
We consider the importance of Endogenous Technical Change (ETC) on the risk profiles for different abatement strategies using the PAGE2002 model with ETC. Three outcomes from this modelling research have significant impacts on the way we ?optimise? the greenhouse gas abatement path. Firstly, it was found that for most standard abatement paths there would be an initial "learning investment" required that would substantially reduce the unit costs of CO2 abatement as compared to a business as usual scenario. Secondly, optimising an abatement program where ETC has been included can lead to an increased risk profile during the time of widespread CO2 abatements due to the costs associated with learning. Finally, the inclusion of ETC leads to a slightly deferred optimised abatement path followed by a drastic abatement program that itself would seem highly impractical. Together, the results draw attention to the possibilities of uncovering uncertainty through proactive abatements.

The design of efficient air pollution control strategies

McRae, Gregory J.; Cass, Glen R.
Fonte: California Institute of Technology Publicador: California Institute of Technology
Tipo: Report or Paper; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /02/1979
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36.06%
This statement addresses gains in economic efficiency which could be obtained by removing barriers to advances in the technology and procedures commonly used for designing air pollution abatement strategies.