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Abatement Cost of GHG Emissions for Wood-Based Electricity and Ethanol at Production and Consumption Levels

Dwivedi, Puneet; Khanna, Madhu
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/06/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.64%
Woody feedstocks will play a critical role in meeting the demand for biomass-based energy products in the US. We developed an integrated model using comparable system boundaries and common set of assumptions to ascertain unit cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of electricity and ethanol derived from slash pine (Pinus elliottii) at the production and consumption levels by considering existing automobile technologies. We also calculated abatement cost of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with respect to comparable energy products derived from fossil fuels. The production cost of electricity derived using wood chips was at least cheaper by 1 ¢ MJ−1 over electricity derived from wood pellets. The production cost of ethanol without any income from cogenerated electricity was costlier by about 0.7 ¢ MJ−1 than ethanol with income from cogenerated electricity. The production cost of electricity derived from wood chips was cheaper by at least 0.7 ¢ MJ−1 than the energy equivalent cost of ethanol produced in presence of cogenerated electricity. The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km−1 than a comparable electric vehicle. The GHG intensity of per km distance traveled in a flex-fuel vehicle was greater or lower than an electric vehicle running on electricity derived from wood chips depending on presence and absence of GHG credits related with co-generated electricity. A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e−1 and $30 Mg CO2e−1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US...

Should Marginal Abatement Costs Differ Across Sectors? The Effect of Low-Carbon Capital Accumulation

Vogt-Schilb, Adrien; Meunier, Guy; Hallegatte, Stephane
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.96%
The optimal timing, sectoral distribution, and cost of greenhouse gas emission reductions is different when abatement is obtained though abatement expenditures chosen along an abatement cost curve, or through investment in low-carbon capital. In the latter framework, optimal investment costs differ in each sector: they are equal to the value of avoided carbon emissions, minus the value of the forgone option to invest later. It is therefore misleading to assess the cost-efficiency of investments in low-carbon capital by comparing levelized abatement costs, that is, efforts measured as the ratio of investment costs to discounted abatement. The equimarginal principle applies to an accounting value: the Marginal Implicit Rental Cost of the Capital (MIRCC) used to abate. Two apparently opposite views are reconciled. On the one hand, higher efforts are justified in sectors that will take longer to decarbonize, such as urban planning; on the other hand, the MIRCC should be equal to the carbon price at each point in time and in all sectors. Equalizing the MIRCC in each sector to the social cost of carbon is a necessary condition to reach the optimal pathway...

Long-Term Mitigation Strategies and Marginal Abatement Cost Curves : A Case Study on Brazil

Vogt-Schilb, Adrien; Hallegatte, Stephane; de Gouvello, Christophe
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.92%
Decision makers facing abatement targets need to decide which abatement measures to implement, and in which order. This paper investigates the ability of marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves to inform this decision, reanalysing a MAC curve developed by the World Bank on Brazil. Misinterpreting MAC curves and focusing on short-term targets (e.g., for 2020) would lead to under-invest in expensive, long-to-implement and large-potential options, such as clean transportation infrastructure. Meeting short-term targets with marginal energy-efficiency improvements would lead to carbon-intensive lock-ins that make longer-term targets (e.g., for 2030 and beyond) impossible or too expensive to reach. Improvements to existing MAC curves are proposed, based on (1) enhanced data collection and reporting; (2) a simple optimization tool that accounts for constraints on implementation speeds; and (3) new graphical representations of MAC curves. Designing climate mitigation policies can be done through a pragmatic combination of two approaches. The synergy approach is based on MAC curves to identify the cheapest mitigation options and maximize co-benefits. The urgency approach considers the long-term objective (e.g....

The Cost Structure of the Clean Development Mechanism

Rahman, Shaikh M.; Larson, Donald F.; Dinar, Ariel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.94%
This paper examines the cost of producing emission reduction credits under the Clean Development Mechanism. Using project-specific data, cost functions are estimated using alternative functional forms. The results show that, in general, the distribution of projects in the pipeline does not correspond exclusively to the cost of generating anticipated credits. Rather, investment choices appear to be influenced by location and project type considerations in a way that is consistent with variable transaction costs and investor preferences among hosts and classes of projects. This implies that comparative advantage based on the marginal cost of abatement is only one of several factors driving Clean Development Mechanism investments. This is significant since much of the conceptual and applied numerical literature concerning greenhouse gas mitigation policies relies on presumptions about relative abatement costs. The authors also find that Clean Development Mechanism projects generally exhibit constant or increasing returns to scale. In contrast...

Marginal Abatement Cost Curves and the Quality of Emission Reductions : A Case Study on Brazil

Vogt-Schilb, Adrien; Hallegatte, Stéphane; de Gouvello, Christophe
Fonte: Taylor and Francis Publicador: Taylor and Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.73%
Decision makers facing emission-reduction targets need to decide which abatement measures to implement, and in which order. This article investigates how marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves can inform such a decision. We re-analyse a MAC curve built for Brazil by 2030, and show that misinterpreting MAC curves as abatement supply curves can lead to suboptimal strategies. It would lead to (1) under-investment in expensive, long-to-implement and large-potential options, such as clean transportation infrastructure, and (2) over-investment in cheap but limited-potential options such as energy-efficiency improvement in refineries. To mitigate this issue, the article proposes a new graphical representation of MAC curves that explicitly renders the time required to implement each measure. Policy relevance: In addition to the cost and potential of available options, designing optimal short-term policies requires information on long-term targets (e.g. halving emissions by 2050) and on the speed at which measures can deliver emission reductions. Mitigation policies are thus best investigated in a dynamic framework, building on sector-scale pathways to long-term targets. Climate policies should seek both quantity and quality of abatement...

A framework for economic analysis of greenhouse abatement options

Riedy, Chris
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 140381 bytes; 351 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.93%
Economic analysis has been central to the development of greenhouse abatement policy in Australia. Current Australian policy is to remain outside the Kyoto Protocol, while still attempting to meet the emission targets established under the Protocol. Australia’s failure to ratify the Protocol has incurred international criticism; it is therefore appropriate to examine the validity of the economic analysis used to support this policy position. This paper reviews approaches to economic analysis that have been prominent in the greenhouse policy debate in Australia, including computable general equilibrium modelling, bottom-up energy sector modelling and policy specific cost benefit analysis. Alternative approaches that have received less attention in Australia are also reviewed. Flaws in existing economic analyses include a failure to consider the net cost to society of greenhouse abatement measures, a tendency to exclude abatement benefits, inadequate consideration of ethical and moral issues, a lack of accessibility and the assumption that economic systems are in an optimal equilibrium state. In response to these flaws, an alternative approach to economic analysis termed ‘integrated abatement planning’ is developed. Integrated abatement planning draws on the principles of least cost planning and integrated resource planning to identify least cost greenhouse abatement measures. A primary tool is the marginal abatement cost curve...

Substitutability and the cost of climate mitigation policy

Lu, Yingying; Stern, David Ian
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 4 pages
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.19%
We explore how and by how much assumptions about elasticities of substitution affect estimates of the cost of GHG emissions reduction policies in computable general equilibrium (CGE) models using G-Cubed, an intertemporal CGE model, to carry out a sensitivity and factor decomposition analysis. The results suggest that the average abatement cost rises non-linearly as elasticities are reduced. Substitution elasticities between capital, labor, energy and materials in production have a larger impact on mitigation costs than inter-fuel substitution does. There are notable differences in the effect of the elasticities on costs at the regional level due to interactions in international trade and capital flows in such a global model. Although the results in this study are derived from a particular model, the study, in a broader sense, suggests that there is a necessity for sensitivity analysis before making any conclusive policy recommendation using CGE models.

The cost of abating CO2 emissions by renewable energy incentives in Germany

MARCANTONINI, Claudio; ELLERMAN, A. Denny
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.78%
Incentives for the development of renewable energy have increasingly become an instrument of climate policy, that is, as a means to reduce GHG emissions. This research analyzes the German experience in promoting renewable energy over the past decade to identify the ex post cost of reducing CO2 emissions through the promotion of renewable energy, specifically, wind and solar. To this propose, we calculated the annual CO2 abatement cost for the years 2006- 2010 as the ratio of the net cost over the CO2 emission reductions resulting from the use of renewable energy. The net cost is the sum of the costs and cost savings due to the injection of renewable energy into the electric power system. Results show that CO2 abatement cost of wind are relatively low, of the order of tens of Euro per tonne of CO2, while CO2 abatement cost of solar are very high, of the order of hundreds of Euro per tonne of CO2. CO2 abatement cost has changed considerably over the years due to variations of fossil fuels prices, carbon price and the amount of generated renewable energy.

Renewable energy incentives and CO2 abatement in Italy

MARCANTONINI, Claudio; VALERO, Vanessa
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.33%
In order to combat global warming, Italy has committed to clear environmental goals by reducing its CO2 emissions. To this purpose, it has notably encouraged renewable energy development through a variety of support schemes, ranging from green certificates to feed-in and premium tariffs. As a result, during the last years, the production of electricity from renewable energy sources, especially from wind and solar energy, has experienced a considerable surge. In this paper we estimate the cost of reducing CO2 emissions in the power sector by deploying wind and solar energy in Italy from 2008 to 2011. The results show that, for the period analyzed, the average costs for wind are in the order of 150 €/tCO2, while for solar are much higher, above 1000 €/tCO2. This is because solar energy generators receive much higher remunerations per MWh of generated electricity than wind energy generators. These costs are about twice as high as in Germany. This is due to the difference between the incentive schemes and the power system in the two countries.

Applying Abatement Cost Curve Methodology for Low-Carbon Strategy in Changning District, Shanghai

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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67.01%
The speed and scale of urbanization provide an unprecedented opportunity in the coming years to invest in clean energy technologies to contain carbon emissions from the country's sprawling cities. Therefore, supporting low carbon cities is one of the government's top priorities. Shanghai municipal and changning district governments are firmly committed to the transition to a low-carbon city and requested for the World Bank's support in making changning district and Shanghai leaders in designing novel and efficient ways to achieve carbon-intensity-reduction targets. This report documents the methodology of and key findings from applying abatement cost curves and scenarios to set low-carbon targets and define cost-effective low-carbon investment programs in Changning district, Shanghai. At the request of changning district government, the Bank team supported a Shanghai energy conservation institution, assisted by an international firm, in conducting a comprehensive survey of buildings in Hongqiao area in the changning district...

How Inertia and Limited Potentials Affect the Timing of Sectoral Abatements in Optimal Climate Policy

Vogt-Schilb, Adrien; Meunier, Guy; Hallegatte, Stephane
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.96%
This paper investigates the optimal timing of greenhouse gas abatement efforts in a multi-sectoral model with economic inertia, each sector having a limited abatement potential. It defines economic inertia as the conjunction of technical inertia -- a social planner chooses investment on persistent abating activities, as opposed to choosing abatement at each time period independently -- and increasing marginal investment costs in abating activities. It shows that in the presence of economic inertia, optimal abatement efforts (in dollars per ton) are bell-shaped and trigger a transition toward a low-carbon economy. The authors prove that optimal marginal abatement costs should differ across sectors: they depend on the global carbon price, but also on sector-specific shadow costs of the sectoral abatement potential. The paper discusses the impact of the convexity of abatement investment costs: more rigid sectors are represented with more convex cost functions and should invest more in early abatement. The conclusion is that overlapping mitigation policies should not be discarded based on the argument that they set different marginal costs (`"different carbon prices"') in different sectors.

When Starting with the Most Expensive Option Makes Sense : Use and Misuse of Marginal Abatement Cost Curves

Vogt-Schilb, Adrien; Hallegatte, Stephane
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.94%
This article investigates the use of expert-based Marginal Abatement Cost Curves (MACC) to design abatement strategies. It shows that introducing inertia, in the form of the "cost in time" of available options, changes significantly the message from MACCs. With an abatement objective in cumulative emissions (e.g., emitting less than 200 GtCO2 in the 2000-2050 period), it makes sense to implement some of the more expensive options before the potential of the cheapest ones has been exhausted. With abatement targets expressed in terms of emissions at one point in time (e.g., reducing emissions by 20 percent in 2020), it can even be preferable to start with the implementation of the most expensive options if their potential is high and their inertia significant. Also, the best strategy to reach a short-term target is different depending on whether this target is the ultimate objective or there is a longer-term target. The best way to achieve Europe's goal of 20 percent reduction in emissions by 2020 is different if this objective is the ultimate objective or if it is only a milestone in a trajectory toward a 75 percent reduction in 2050. The cheapest options may be sufficient to reach the 2020 target but could create a carbon-intensive lock-in and preclude deeper emission reductions by 2050. These results show that in a world without perfect foresight and perfect credibility of the long-term carbon-price signal...

City Energy Efficiency Assessments

Energy Sector Management Assistance Program
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
For cities that want to take concrete actions on improving energy efficiency, it is essential to understand what, where, and how big the potential energy-saving opportunities are, what measures are needed to capture the savings and at what costs, what the implementation constraints are, and how priorities should be set given local capacity and resources. An energy efficiency assessment can provide the necessary clarity on these issues. Energy efficiency assessments can be done at different depths and with varying scopes, depending on the city's needs, capacity, and resources. The duration and cost of the assessment depends on the quality of existing data and the size and complexity of the sector. This guidance note provides an introduction to the objectives, scope, and outputs, as well as the basic steps and approaches of conducting the three types of energy efficiency assessments.

Marginal Abatement Cost Curves and the Optimal Timing of Mitigation Measures

Vogt-Schilb, Adrien; Hallegatte, Stéphane
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.79%
Decision makers facing abatement targets need to decide which abatement measures to implement, and in which order. Measure-explicit marginal abatement cost curves depict the cost and abating potential of available mitigation options. Using a simple intertemporal optimization model, we demonstrate why this information is not sufficient to design emission reduction strategies. Because the measures required to achieve ambitious emission reductions cannot be implemented overnight, the optimal strategy to reach a short-term target depends on longer-term targets. For instance, the best strategy to achieve European's −20% by 2020 target may be to implement some expensive, high-potential, and long-to-implement options required to meet the −75% by 2050 target. Using just the cheapest abatement options to reach the 2020 target can create a carbon-intensive lock-in and make the 2050 target too expensive to reach. Designing mitigation policies requires information on the speed at which various measures to curb greenhouse gas emissions can be implemented, in addition to the information on the costs and potential of such measures provided by marginal abatement cost curves.

Carbon Sequestration in Agricultural Soils

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.64%
The purpose of this report is to improve the knowledge base for facilitating investments in land management technologies that sequester soil organic carbon. While there are many studies on soil carbon sequestration, there is no single unifying volume that synthesizes knowledge on the impact of different land management practices on soil carbon sequestration rates across the world. A meta-analysis was carried out to provide soil carbon sequestration rates in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. This is one important element in decision-making for sustainable agricultural intensification, agro-ecosystems resilience, and comprehensive assessments of greenhouse mitigation potentials of Sustainable Land Management (SLM) practices. Furthermore, the ecosystem simulation modeling technique was used to predict future carbon storage in global cropland soils. Last, marginal abatement cost curves and trade-off graphs were used to assess the cost-effectiveness of the technologies in carbon sequestration. The remainder of the report is organized as follows. Chapter two provides a brief review of soil organic carbon dynamics and the methods for soil carbon assessment. The chapter concludes with brief information on carbon assessment in The World Bank's sustainable land management projects portfolio. Chapter three reports the increase in soil carbon for selected sustainable land management practices in Africa...

Transition to a Low Carbon Economy in Poland

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.87%
Transition to a low carbon economy in Poland is a study by the World Bank for the Polish Government, supported by the UK Department for International Development and donors to the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP). The study poses the question of how Poland, an European Union (EU) member state, an industrialized 'annex one' country for the purposes of international climate discussions, and an Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member, can successfully transition to a low carbon economy as successfully as it underwent transition to a market economy in the early 1990s. Transition to a low carbon economy in Poland provides a detailed assessment of many aspects of a low carbon growth strategy for Poland, developing insights via a suite of models that should provide ongoing assistance to policymakers. These policymakers may find reassuring the main message that Poland's transition to a low carbon economy, while not free or simple is affordable. However, capturing the full package of technologically feasible and economically sensible abatement measures requires coordinated and early action by the government.

Clean-Development Investments : An Incentive-Compatible CGE Modeling Framework

Böhringer, Christoph; Rutherford, Thomas F.; Springmann, Marco
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.81%
The Clean Development Mechanism established under the Kyoto Protocol allows industrialized Annex I countries to offset part of their domestic emissions by investing in emissions-reduction projects in developing non-Annex I countries. Computable general equilibrium analysis of the Clean Development Mechanism's impacts so far mimics the Clean Development Mechanism as a sector emissions trading scheme, thereby overstating its potential to save climate change mitigation costs. This study develops a novel approach that represents the Clean Development Mechanism more realistically by compensating Clean Development Mechanism implementing sectors for additional abatement cost and by endogenizing Clean Development Mechanism credits as a function of investment. Compared with previous representations, the proposed approach is more consistent in its incentive structure and investment characteristics at the sector level. An empirical application of the new methodology demonstrates that the economy-wide cost savings from the Clean Development Mechanism tend to be lower than suggested by conventional modeling approaches while Clean Development Mechanism implementing sectors do not lose in output.

Pollution Charges, Community Pressure, and Abatement Cost of Industrial Pollution in China

Wang, Hua
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.84%
The author evaluates the strength of the effect that community pressure and pollution charges have on industrial pollution control in China, and estimates the marginal cost of pollution abatement. He examines a well-documented set of plant-level data, combined with community-level data, to assess the impact of pollution charges and community pressure on industrial behavior in China. He constructs and estimates an industrial organic water pollution discharge model for plants that violate standards for pollution discharge, pay pollution charges, and are constantly under community pressure to further abate pollution. He creates a model and estimates implicit prices for pollution discharges from community pressure, which are determined jointly by the explicit price, the pollution levy. He finds that the implicit discharge price is at least as high as the explicit price. In other words, community pressure not only exists, but may be as strong an incentive as the pollution charge is for industrial firms to control pollution in China. The author's modeling approach also provides a way to estimate the marginal cost of pollution abatement. The empirical results show that the current marginal cost of abatement is about twice the effective charge rate in China.

Evaluating the Cost-Effectiveness of Domestic Policy Portfolios for Emissions Abatement in the Electricity Sector

Wanner, Brent
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project Formato: 321019 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.48%
Increased scientific certainty about anthropogenic climate change coupled with the Obama administration taking office has the United States poised to enact legislation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Studies have suggested that a combination of policy instruments will be more economically efficient than any single strategy in order to correct for multiple externalities in the market. This paper employs a theoretical model of the electricity sector developed in Fischer & Newell (2008) to compare the cost-effectiveness of individual and combinations of policy instruments. Despite many of the parameter values changing significantly in the numerical application of the model, this analysis affirms the relative rankings of the policy instruments in terms of economic efficiency found in Fischer & Newell (2008). Beginning with the most cost-effective instrument, the order is as follows: emissions price, tradable emissions performance standard, tax on fossil output, renewables portfolio standard, renewables production subsidy, and R&D subsidy. Several policy portfolios are modeled and costs compared to an emissions price. The results indicate that simultaneous policies for climate mitigation tend to be more cost-effective than any single instrument. While combining an emissions price with a renewables portfolio standard offers cost advantages over an emissions price alone...

Costs and Emissions Reductions from the Competitive Renewable Energy Zones (CREZ) Wind Transmission Project in Texas

Kwok, Gabriel; Greathouse, Tyler
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 29/04/2011 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.67%
Wind power has the potential to significantly reduce air emissions from the electric power sector, but the best wind sites are located far from load centers and will require new transmission lines. Texas currently has the largest installed wind power capacity in the U.S., but a lack of transmission capacity between the western part of the state, where most wind farms are located, and the major load centers in the east has led to frequent wind curtailments. State policymakers have addressed this issue by approving a $5 billion transmission project, the Competitive Renewable Energy Zones (CREZ), which will expand the transmission capacity to 18,456 MW by 2014. In this paper, we examine the impacts of large-scale wind power in ERCOT, the power market that serves 85% of the state’s load, after the completion of the CREZ project. We assess the generation displaced and the resulting emissions reductions. We then examine the public costs of wind to estimate the CO2 abatement cost. We develop an economic dispatch model of ERCOT to quantify the generation displaced by wind power and the emissions reductions in 2014. Since there is uncertainty about the amount of new wind developed between now and 2014, three wind penetration scenarios were assessed that correspond to wind supplying 9%...