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Quando descentralizar é concentrar poder: o papel do governo estadual na experiência catarinense; When decentralize is to concentrate power: state government role in the catarinense experience

FILIPPIM, Eliane Salete; ABRUCIO, Fernando Luiz
Fonte: Associação Nacional dos Programas de Pós-graduação em Administração Publicador: Associação Nacional dos Programas de Pós-graduação em Administração
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
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Uma das principais marcas da Constituição do Brasil de 1988 foi a ênfase dada à descentralização, tomada como positiva para a democratização. No entanto há diferentes formas de implementar o processo descentralizador. Este artigo tem como objetivo descrever e analisar a experiência de descentralização pela via do governo estadual em Santa Catarina, iniciada em 2003. Quanto aos procedimentos metodológicos, a pesquisa se insere numa abordagem qualitativa de reconstrução histórico-institucional, por meio de um estudo de caso. Para a coleta de dados foram utilizados multimétodos. Foram realizadas entrevistas abertas com atores diretamente envolvidos no processo de descentralização, aplicando-se questionário dirigido às 36 Secretarias de Desenvolvimento Regionais [SDRs] e aos 24 Fóruns de Desenvolvimento. Foi realizada ainda a análise de documentos e a observação dos pesquisadores em reuniões, tanto de SDRs quanto de Fóruns de Desenvolvimento. O fenômeno estudado neste trabalho revela como a descentralização, ao contrário do esperado, pode ser usada como mecanismo de concentração de poder. Isto porque se, por um lado, a atuação do governo catarinense é propagada como maneira de se aproximar do cidadão...

Estrutura organizacional para a realização de negócios eletrônicos em empresas tradicionais: um estudo de caso. ; Organizational structure for E-business in traditional companies: a case study.

Ozaki, Adalton Masalu
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/11/2003 PT
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Nesta dissertação foram estudadas as alternativas de estrutura organizacional que podem ser adotadas para a realização de negócios eletrônicos (e-business) em empresas tradicionais, enfocando principalmente a análise sobre centralização ou descentralização desta estrutura. Na pouca literatura existente especificamente sobre estrutura organizacional para negócios eletrônicos, fica claro que existe um leque de opções em termos de alternativas de estrutura, desde criar uma empresa “ponto com” totalmente separada, até descentralizar os negócios eletrônicos pelas várias unidades de negócio. No caso estudado nesta dissertação, inicialmente foram identificadas as iniciativas de negócios eletrônicos praticadas pela empresa, sendo discutido o processo de adoção de tais ferramentas. Depois, foi analisada a evolução da estrutura criada para negócios eletrônicos desde o seu início até o momento em que a pesquisa foi realizada. Foi identificado que as atribuições delineadas inicialmente para os negócios eletrônicos não são rígida e uniformemente desempenhadas pelas várias unidades de negócio. Como a empresa estudada passava justamente por um período de discussão sobre descentralizar o Departamento de eCommerce...

O impacto das alterações na lei das finanças locais no grau de descentralização fiscal em Portugal

Serra, Carlos José Miranda Nunes
Fonte: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão Publicador: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /09/2011 POR
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Mestrado em Finanças; Ao longo das últimas décadas, o federalismo fiscal ganhou uma importância acrescida na literatura científica, tanto através da abordagem de novas correntes como na tentativa de medir a descentralização fiscal dos Estados (Martinez-Vazquez e Timofeev, 2010). Oates (2005) escreve que a teoria do federalismo fiscal pressupõe a existência de uma estrutura vertical de governação onde se combinam, conforme o princípio da descentralização política, competências e instrumentos operados pelo governo central e pelos governos subnacionais. Em Portugal, após 1974, a Constituição da República passou a consagrar os princípios da Administração Local (AL), dando início a um processo de descentralização, o qual veio até aos dias de hoje a sofrer constantes reformas. O objectivo da dissertação é medir o grau de descentralização fiscal portuguesa desde a introdução, em 1979, da primeira lei que consagrou a autonomia financeira da AL Portuguesa - a Lei das Finanças Locais (LFL) - até 2009, através de um conjunto de indicadores quantitativos presentes na literatura. Concluiu-se, com os resultados dos indicadores, que se verifica uma tendência de aumento do grau de descentralização fiscal da AL portuguesa...

Sensitivity of the nictitating membrane of the cat to succinylcholine after decentralization and denervation

Tsai, T. H.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1973 EN
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Seven days after decentralization or denervation, the nictitating membrane of the cat becomes supersensitive to succinylcholine. The supersensitivity to succinylcholine is of a moderate degree (2-3 fold) and there is little difference between the supersensitivity induced by decentralization or denervation. In this respect, it is similar to the decentralization type of supersensitivity observed for other agonists which are not taken up by the adrenergic nerve endings (e.g. acetylcholine and methoxamine). Since succinyloholine causes an apparent contraction of the nictitating membrane through its action on the extraocular muscle and no effect on the nictitating membrane itself, it is concluded that both chronic decentralization and denervation produced a decentralization type supersensitivity in the extraocular muscles. The results suggest that supersensitivity in the extraocular muscles may contribute significantly to the decentralization supersensitivity of the nictitating membrane of the cat, in vivo, especially for those agonists which cause contractions of both the nictitating membrane and the extraocular muscle.

Marked antiinflammatory effects of decentralization of the superior cervical ganglia

Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/12/1990 EN
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Intravenous challenge with parasite antigens in Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-sensitized rats resulted in anaphylactic shock and, in some animals, death. Surviving animals showed significant drop in mean arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, and blood flow to the trachea, bronchioles, and mesentery. After anaphylaxis, changes in the cellular and protein composition in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) were assessed. 8 h after antigen challenge, there was significant influx of inflammatory cells and an increase in the levels of histamine and serum- derived immunoglobulins (IgG and IgM) in BALF. Chemotactic activity for neutrophils was also present in BALF. Once we established this anaphylaxis-induced model of pulmonary inflammation, we sought to determine whether or not the superior cervical ganglia (SCG) modulate this inflammation. We performed bilateral superior cervical ganglionectomy or decentralization of the SCG. Our results show that decentralization significantly reduced mortality (by 68%) after anaphylaxis. Furthermore, the increases in levels of serum-derived proteins, histamine, and influx of cells (especially neutrophils) observed in BALF after anaphylaxis were attenuated by both decentralization and ganglionectomy. By contrast...

Decentralization and equity of resource allocation: evidence from Colombia and Chile.

Bossert, Thomas J.; Larrañaga, Osvaldo; Giedion, Ursula; Arbelaez, José Jesus; Bowser, Diana M.
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between decentralization and equity of resource allocation in Colombia and Chile. METHODS: The "decision space" approach and analysis of expenditures and utilization rates were used to provide a comparative analysis of decentralization of the health systems of Colombia and Chile. FINDINGS: Evidence from Colombia and Chile suggests that decentralization, under certain conditions and with some specific policy mechanisms, can improve equity of resource allocation. In these countries, equitable levels of per capita financial allocations at the municipal level were achieved through different forms of decentralization--the use of allocation formulae, adequate local funding choices and horizontal equity funds. Findings on equity of utilization of services were less consistent, but they did show that increased levels of funding were associated with increased utilization. This suggests that improved equity of funding over time might reduce inequities of service utilization. CONCLUSION: Decentralization can contribute to, or at least maintain, equitable allocation of health resources among municipalities of different incomes.

Activity and Neuromodulatory Input Contribute to the Recovery of Rhythmic Output After Decentralization in a Central Pattern Generator

Zhang, Yili; Khorkova, Olga; Rodriguez, Rosa; Golowaschi, Jorge
Fonte: American Physiological Society Publicador: American Physiological Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Central pattern generators (CPGs) are neuronal networks that control vitally important rhythmic behaviors including breathing, heartbeat, and digestion. Understanding how CPGs recover activity after their rhythmic activity is disrupted has important theoretical and practical implications. Previous experimental and modeling studies indicated that rhythm recovery after central neuromodulatory input loss (decentralization) could be based entirely on activity-dependent mechanisms, but recent evidence of long-term conductance regulation by neuromodulators suggest that neuromodulator-dependent mechanisms may also be involved. Here we examined the effects of altering activity and the neuromodulatory environment before decentralization of the pyloric CPG in Cancer borealis on the initial phase of rhythmic activity recovery after decentralization. We found that pretreatments altering the network activity through shifting the ionic balance or the membrane potential of pyloric pacemaker neurons reduced the delay of recovery initiation after decentralization, consistent with the recovery process being triggered already during the pretreatment period through an activity-dependent mechanism. However, we observed that pretreatment with neuromodulators GABA and proctolin...

Explaining Party Positions on Decentralization

Toubeau, Simon; Wagner, Markus
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2015 EN
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Debates about decentralization raise cultural questions of identity and economic questions of redistribution and efficiency. Therefore the preferences of statewide parties regarding decentralization are related to their positions on the economic and cultural ideological dimensions. A statistical analysis using data from thirty-one countries confirms this: parties on the economic right are more supportive of decentralization than parties on the economic left, while culturally liberal parties favour decentralization more than culturally conservative parties. However, country context – specifically the degree of regional self-rule, the extent of regional economic disparity and the ideology of regionalist parties – determines whether and how decentralization is linked to the two dimensions. These findings have implications for our understanding of the politics of decentralization by showing how ideology, rooted in a specific country context, shapes the ‘mindset’ of agents responsible for determining the territorial distribution of power.

Making decentralization work : building local institutions in Cambodia

Pagaran, Lourdes N. (Lourdes Navaro), 1957-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 217 leaves; 16708414 bytes; 16708174 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
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This dissertation examines the dynamics of decentralization in a highly centralized, institutionally constrained, and externally resource-dependent environment. It uses a case study of Seila, a decentralization program in Cambodia, based on extensive fieldwork from 1996 to 1999. Initiated in 1996 by UNDP, the Seila program took a different path from other rural development programs by working through established provincial and local development structures on a pilot basis in five Cambodian provinces. It provided grants to target communes and selected sector along with the introduction of decentralized systems and mechanisms and the provision of capacity building at provincial and local levels. The findings of this study suggest that the Seila program has been able to establish decentralized systems and mechanisms to deliver local services and to influence macro level policy reforms on decentralization in three ways: by a delicate balancing act between process and output, by developing capacity and institutional networking at various levels, and by gaining support of various key institutional actors including provincial and local authorities, central government, donor agencies, and NGOs. The literature on fiscal federalism and on participatory and governance focuses on the primacy of either process or output. Contrary to these views...

Decentralized Systems of Health Care Delivery and the Role of Large Cities : A Comparative Analysis

di Gropello, Emanuela
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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South Africa is going through an important political and administrative reorganization and a series of structural reforms. The responsibility for primary health care, which was mostly provincial, is about to be decentralized to the Local Government level. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the on-going decentralization process in the Gauteng province and determine the role that Great Johannesburg can play within this new decentralized framework. To extract lessons and recommendations for Gauteng and Johannesburg, the paper takes a close look at the case of three middle -income Latin American countries, Chile, Colombia and Brazil, which offer valuable experience in the design and implementation of decentralized systems of health care delivery at the country and city level. It also looks at other international experiences. At the city level, the paper concludes that the case of Bogota in Colombia seems to be particularly relevant to the selection of a decentralized health care model for Johannesburg. It also shows that...

Romania : Local Social Services Delivery Study, Volume 1. Summary Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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The study seeks to identify institutional, and procedural factors which may facilitate, or hamper the effectiveness of social services, and inter-governmental fiscal arrangements. Based on existing research on decentralization, the success of decentralized service delivery depends on factors, that include the quality of intergovernmental institutions, a stable fiscal framework, and a well established civil society, and social structure. The study focuses on public social services, where local governments play the greatest role, and, throughout the report, the greatest emphasis is on social assistance benefits, and services, addressing those cash benefits which are delivered, and financed by local governments, including national programs such as birth grants, emergency assistance, and the main poverty alleviation program. In education, the study focuses on compulsory, and secondary education, though it does not address specialized secondary education, which is under the purview of central ministries. The study comprises two volumes: volume 1 provides an overview of the issues...

Public Expenditures for Decentralized Governance in Honduras : Towards Restoring Fiscal Consolidation

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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Fiscal consolidation remains the central challenge facing Honduras, mainly due to increasing current expenditures. The widening fiscal deficit has been driven by a significant increase in current expenditures. These increased current expenditures, which add rigidity to the budget, have occurred at the expense of investments. The efficiency of spending remains a key constraint. Limited improvements, especially in health and education outcomes despite high allocations to these sectors, suggest the need to improve the efficiency and quality of expenditures. Increased public expenditures have not delivered in terms of growth and improved public services, and whether the country is ready for decentralization remains an open question. Growing fiscal deficits and weak public financial management practices have constrained the ability of the central government to implement and finance the decentralization process. Current decentralization targets would pose significant fiscal challenges to the central government. The deterioration of the fiscal deficit is not a result of fiscal decentralization. However...

Honduras Public Expenditure Review : Towards Restoring Fiscal Consolidation

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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Fiscal consolidation remains the central challenge facing Honduras, mainly due to increasing current expenditures. The widening fiscal deficit has been driven by a significant increase in current expenditures. These increased current expenditures, which add rigidity to the budget, have occurred at the expense of investments. The efficiency of spending remains a key constraint. Limited improvements, especially in health and education outcomes despite high allocations to these sectors, suggest the need to improve the efficiency and quality of expenditures. Increased public expenditures have not delivered in terms of growth and improved public services, and whether the country is ready for decentralization remains an open question. Growing fiscal deficits and weak public financial management practices have constrained the ability of the central government to implement and finance the decentralization process. Current decentralization targets would pose significant fiscal challenges to the central government. The deterioration of the fiscal deficit is not a result of fiscal decentralization. However...

Tunisia Urban Development and Local Governance Program : Technical Assessment Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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In this context, the reform of the LG capital grants and municipal investment planning framework forms the main strategic actions undertaken by the government towards the implementation of its decentralization agenda recently anchored in the new Constitution adopted in January 2014. This grant system, which had operated under an ex ante system of controls, is being restructured through the revision of the Decree 97-1135 governing the LG capital grant system. Through the restructuring, the government intends to improve the efficiency of the state financial support to municipal investment, make the allocation of capital grants more transparent and predictable, strengthen the decision-making power of LGs on the use of their investment funding, and progressively introduce a performance based dimension to their capital grant system. Along with revision of the above decree, the government has also issued a Ministerial Decree to introduce participatory municipal investment planning and budgeting systems, hence promoting citizen engagement in identifying investment needs and priorities. Under the same reform...

Fiscal Determinants of Empowerment

Raich, Uri
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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Empowerment of local governments and citizens is a primary object of decentralization. Using the analytic lens of empowerment, the author explores the nature of decentralized governance and how this type of structure is likely to be more or less empowering. His primary concern is fiscal decentralization, specifically the association between fiscal determinants and the degree of empowerment of both citizens and local governments. The author's main argument is that both the revenue and expenditure characteristics of local public finances have an effect on the degree of empowerment. His hypothesis is that in a context of decentralized local governance, empowerment is most likely to occur when three conditions prevail: low costs of participation, large and flexible budgets, and a high proportion of tax revenues from a local base. But these ingredients for empowerment will not necessarily produce outcomes that are progressive and pro-poor. The author contrasts the intrinsic and the instrumental approaches to empowerment, but he does not assess the impact of empowerment on instrumental outcomes. For this hypothesis to support an instrumentalist perspective on empowerment, further empirical work must be conducted.

Peru - Restoring Fiscal Discipline for Poverty Reduction : A Public Expenditure Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This public expenditure review is produced jointly by the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank, and focuses on social sectors spending and leaves aside infrastructure and other sectors. This report, finalized in June 2002 and discussed with Authorities in mid-August 2002, does not take into account policy developments occurring after this time. The report is organized as follows: Chapter 1 presents a synthesis of Peru's public expenditure reform agenda from the Bank's perspective. It is based on, and distills, the thematic chapters that make up this report. Chapters 2-4 examine the core functions of public expenditure management: macro fiscal aggregates, resource allocations to strategic sectors, and microeconomic efficiency of public spending. Chapters 5-8 explore selected themes, such as the decentralization of public administration and the social sectors; civil service reform; governance and corruption; and and mining fiscal and environmental issues. These chapters are, in turn, supported by fifteen topic-specific background papers...

Inside Decentralization; How Three Central American School-based Management Reforms Affect Student Learning Through Teacher Incentives

Umansky, Ilana; Vegas, Emiliana
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Journal Article; Journal Article
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Inside Decentralization: How Three Central American School-based Management Reforms Affect Student Learning Through Teacher Incentives Ilana Umansky Emiliana Vegas Despite decentralization reforms of education systems worldwide, there is little empirical evidence about the processes through which decentralization can improve student learning. This article contributes to the understanding of how decentralization reforms can improve learning and shows how education reforms, even when not conceptualized as affecting teacher incentives, can generate important changes for teachers that, in turn, affect student learning. The goal is to broaden the conception of how education reforms affect teachers by influencing teacher incentives and to explore how to design and implement these reforms to maximize their beneficial effects on teaching and learning. This article shows that education reform design should consider the potential impact on teaching quality, even when reforms are not specifically intended to alter the incentives that teachers face. She finds that greater teacher autonomy in implementing projects and designing teaching plans is associated with better student outcomes when school decisionmaking power is close to the level of the teacher. After the war ended...

Partial decentralization as a safeguard against favoritism

Cortés Cortés, Darwin Fauricio
Fonte: Facultad de Economía Publicador: Facultad de Economía
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/book; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2010
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In this paper I investigate the optimal level of decentralization of tasks for the provision of a local public good. I enrich the well-known trade-off between internalization of spillovers (that favors centralization) and accountability (that favors decentralization) by considering that public goods are produced through multiple tasks. This adds an additional institutional setting, partial decentralization, to the classical choice between full decentralization and full centralization. The main results are that partial decentralization is optimal when both the variance of exogenous shocks to electorate’s utility is large and the electorate expects high performance from politicians. I also show that the optimal institutional setting depends on the degree of substitutability / complementarity between tasks. In particular, I show that a large degree of substitutability between tasks makes favoritism more likely, which increases the desirability of partial decentralization as a safeguard against favoritism.

Fiscal decentralization and urban public transport

Favero, Giorgia
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 175 leaves
ENG
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Financing public transport through public funds is a common practice that can be justified on different grounds: equity, natural monopoly and, particularly with the increasing motorization rate, externalities produced by private transport (congestion, pollution, road accidents) especially in urban areas. In addition, there is a belief that transport investments support economic growth, in particular transit investments because they help fostering the agglomeration effect. Whether local or national tax sources should be used for subsidizing public transport is a fairly recent question, at least in Europe where, historically, countries used to be very centralized. Several national policy reviews as well as academic papers suggest that the reforms aiming at decentralizing power and responsibility for urban public transport management lead to successful outcomes. Yet, there is no literature on the effects of decentralization of tax raising on public transport provision although an increasing number of subnational governments reports a mismatch between transferred resources and devolved responsibilities and the public finance literature indicates that decentralization of finance authority can improve the results of decentralization reforms .; (cont.) The objective of this thesis...

ANÁLISE DO PROCESSO DE DESCENTRALIZAÇÃO DA GESTÃO ORÇAMENTÁRIA EM UMA EMPRESA ESTATAL: O CASO DA COMPANHIA DE SANEAMENTO BÁSICO DO ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO (SABESP) DOI: 10.5585/rai.v1i1.18; ANALYSIS OF THE BUDGETARY MANAGEMENT DECENTRALIZATION PROCESS AT A STATE ENTERPRISE: COMPANHIA DE SANEAMENTO BÁSICO DO ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO (SABESP) CASE

Stal, Eva; Marinho, Antonio Lopes
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/08/2006 POR
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O presente trabalho analisa o processo de descentralização da gestão orçamentária em uma empresa estatal. O foco de análise é a Unidade de Negócio Leste da Companhia de Saneamento Básico do Estado de São Paulo (Sabesp). Para esta análise foram abordados os seguintes aspectos: processo de descentralização orçamentária; identificação dos elementos facilitadores e inibidores do processo de descentralização; mudança no conteúdo do trabalho dos funcionários envolvidos no processo e a qualidade dos serviços relacionados à prática orçamentária. Foram comparadas as dinâmicas da gestão orçamentária, anterior e posterior à descentralização, envolvendo o sistema de controle orçamentário computacional da unidade analisada. Como procedimento metodológico, foi utilizado o estudo de caso, a partir de dados primários e secundários. A metodologia utilizada no trabalho permite sua adaptação ao estudo de situações similares em outras organizações. As conclusões mostram que o processo de descentralização da gestão orçamentária teve algumas falhas na sua implantação devido à ausência de um melhor planejamento, porém trouxe resultados benéficos para as Unidades Estratégicas de Negócios e para a empresa...