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Geographic Structure of Plasmodium vivax: Microsatellite Analysis of Parasite Populations from Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Ethiopia

GUNAWARDENA, Sharmini; KARUNAWEERA, Nadira D.; FERREIRA, Marcelo U.; PHONE-KYAW, Myatt; POLLACK, Richard J.; ALIFRANGIS, Michael; RAJAKARUNA, Rupika S.; KONRADSEN, Flemming; AMERASINGHE, Priyanie H.; SCHOUSBOE, Mette L.; GALAPPATHTHY, Gawrie N. L.; ABEYAS
Fonte: AMER SOC TROP MED & HYGIENE Publicador: AMER SOC TROP MED & HYGIENE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Genetic diversity and population structure of Plasmodium viva-V parasites call predict the origin and Spread of novel Variants Within a population enabling Population specific malaria control measures. We analyzed the genetic diversity and population Structure of 425 P. vivax isolates from Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Ethiopia using 12 trinucleotide and tetranucleotide microsatellite markers. All three parasite populations were highly polymorphic with 3-44 alleles per locus. Approximately 65% were multiple-clone infections. Mean genetic diversity (H(E)) was 0.7517 in Ethiopia, 0.8450 in Myanmar, and 0.8610 in Sri Lanka. Significant linkage disequilibrium Was maintained. Population structure showed two clusters (Asian and African) according to geography and ancestry Strong clustering of outbreak isolates from Sri Lanka and Ethiopia was observed. Predictive power of ancestry using two-thirds of the isolates as a model identified 78.2% of isolates accurately as being African or Asian. Microsatellite analysis is a useful tool for mapping short-term outbreaks of malaria and for predicting ancestry.; National Institutes of Health (NIH)[5R03TW007966-02]; U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH)

Linking Public Health, Housing, and Indoor Environmental Policy: Successes and Challenges at Local and Federal Agencies in the United States

Jacobs, David E.; Kelly, Tom; Sobolewski, John
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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We describe the successes and challenges faced by federal and local government agencies in the United States as they have attempted in recent years to connect public and environmental health, housing, community development, and building design with environmental, housing, and building laws, codes, and policies. These policies can either contribute to or adversely affect human physical and mental health, with important implications for economic viability, research, policy development, and overall social stability and progress. Policy impediments include tension between housing affordability and health investment that causes inefficient cost-shifting, privacy issues, unclear statutory authority, and resulting gaps in responsibility for housing, indoor air, and the built environment. We contrast this with other environmental frameworks such as ambient air and water quality statutes where the concept of “shared commons” and the “polluter pays” is more robust. The U.S. experiences in childhood lead poisoning prevention, indoor air, and mold provide useful policy insights. Local programs can effectively build healthy homes capacity through local laws and housing codes. The experience of coordinating remediation for mold, asthma triggers...

Health Benefits from Large-Scale Ozone Reduction in the United States

Berman, Jesse D.; Fann, Neal; Hollingsworth, John W.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Rom, William N.; Szema, Anthony M.; Breysse, Patrick N.; White, Ronald H.; Curriero, Frank C.
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Background: Exposure to ozone has been associated with adverse health effects, including premature mortality and cardiopulmonary and respiratory morbidity. In 2008, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) lowered the primary (health-based) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone to 75 ppb, expressed as the fourth-highest daily maximum 8-hr average over a 24-hr period. Based on recent monitoring data, U.S. ozone levels still exceed this standard in numerous locations, resulting in avoidable adverse health consequences.

Animal Use and Lessons Learned in the U.S. High Production Volume Chemicals Challenge Program

Bishop, Patricia L.; Manuppello, Joseph R.; Willett, Catherine E.; Sandler, Jessica T.
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Background: Launched by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1998, the High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Program was developed to address the perceived gap in basic hazard information for the 2,800 chemicals produced or imported into the United States in quantities of ≥ 1 million pounds per year. Health and environmental effects data obtained from either existing information or through new vertebrate animal testing were voluntarily submitted by chemical companies (sponsors) to the U.S. EPA. Despite the potential for extensive animal testing, animal welfare guidelines were not provided until after the start of the program.

Use of Complementary/Alternative Medicines and Supplements by Mexican-Origin Patients in a U.S.-Mexico Border HIV Clinic

Shedlin, Michele G.; Anastasi, Joyce K.; Decena, Carlos U.; Rivera, José O.; Beltran, Oscar; Smith, Kaitlyn
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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This article draws from a study investigating the influence of institutional and psychosocial factors on adherence to antiretroviral (ARV) medications by Mexican-origin persons living with HIV (PWLA) on the U.S.-Mexico border and seeking treatment at a clinic in El Paso, Texas. Among 113 participants, many individuals reported using complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) to support general health and their immune systems and to address symptoms of HIV-related diseases and ARV side effects. CAM was seen as complementing ARV treatment; however, its use was often unreported to health care providers out of concerns about disapproval and loss of care privileges. This finding challenges researchers and providers to seriously consider how Hispanic populations, with their CAM use, may exhibit the hybridization of health and healing. Information on CAM use needs to be available to providers to assess the benefits and contraindications of use and to develop realistic and effective care strategies.

Pricing and Reimbursement in U.S. Pharmaceutical Markets

Newhouse, Joseph Paul; Berndt, Ernst R.
Fonte: John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University Publicador: John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University
Tipo: Research Paper or Report
EN_US
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In this survey chapter on pricing and reimbursement in U.S. pharmaceutical markets, we first provide background information on important federal legislation, institutional details regarding distribution channel logistics, definitions of alternative price measures, related historical developments, and reasons why price discrimination is highly prevalent among branded pharmaceuticals. We then present a theoretical framework for the pricing of branded pharmaceuticals, without and then in the presence of prescription drug insurance, noting factors affecting the relative impacts of drug insurance on prices and on utilization. With this as background, we summarize major long-term trends in copayments and coinsurance rates for retail and mail order purchases, average percentage discounts off Average Whole Price paid by third party payers to pharmacy benefit managers as well as average dispensing fees, and generic penetration rates. We conclude with a summary of the evidence regarding the impact of the 2006 implementation of the Medicare Part D benefits on pharmaceutical prices and utilization, and comment on very recent developments concerning the entry of large retailers such as Wal-Mart into domains traditionally dominated by large retail chains and the "commoditization" of generic drugs.

Multivitamins, Individual Vitamin and Mineral Supplements, and Risk of Diabetes Among Older U.S. Adults

Xu, Qun; Park, Yikyung; Hollenbeck, Albert; Schatzkin, Arthur; Chen, Honglei; Song, Yiqing
Fonte: American Diabetes Association Publicador: American Diabetes Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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OBJECTIVE: Understanding the relationship between multivitamin use and diabetes risk is important given the wide use of multivitamin supplements among U.S. adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We prospectively examined supplemental use of multivitamins and individual vitamins and minerals assessed in 1995–1996 in relation to self-reported diabetes diagnosed after 2000 among 232,007 participants in the National Institutes of Health–American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study. Multivitamin use was assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire at baseline. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated by logistic regression models, adjusted for potential confounders. In total, 14,130 cases of diabetes diagnosed after 2000 were included in the analysis. RESULTS: Frequent use of any multivitamins was not associated with risk of diabetes after adjustment for potential confounders and uses of individual supplements. Compared with nonusers of any multivitamins, the multivariate ORs among users were 1.07 (95% CI 0.94–1.21) for taking vitamins less than once per week, 0.97 (0.88–1.06) for one to three times per week, 0.92 (0.84–1.00) for four to six times per week, and 1.02 (0.98–1.06) for seven or more times per week (P for trend = 0.64). Significantly lower risk of diabetes was associated with the use of vitamin C or calcium supplements. The multivariate ORs comparing daily users with nonusers were 0.91 (0.86–0.97) for vitamin C supplements and 0.85 (0.80–0.90) for calcium supplements. Use of vitamin E or other individual vitamin and mineral supplements were not associated with diabetes risk. CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort of U.S. older adults...

Cadmium Exposure and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in U.S. Children

Ciesielski, Timothy; Lanphear, Bruce; Weuve, Jennifer Lynn; Bellinger, David C.; Schwartz, Joel David; Wright, Robert O.
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Background: Low-level environmental cadmium exposure in children may be associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Objective: Our aim was to evaluate associations between urinary cadmium concentration and reported learning disability (LD), special education utilization, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in U.S. children using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. Methods: We analyzed data from a subset of participants in NHANES (1999–2004) who were 6–15 years of age and had spot urine samples analyzed for cadmium. Outcomes were assessed by parent or proxy-respondent report. We fit multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models to estimate associations between urinary cadmium and the outcomes. Results: When we compared children in the highest quartile of urinary cadmium with those in the lowest quartile, odds ratios adjusted for several potential confounders were 3.21 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.43, 7.17] for LD, 3.00 (95% CI: 1.12, 8.01) for special education, and 0.67 (95% CI: 0.28, 1.61) for ADHD. There were no significant interactions with sex, but associations with LD and special education were somewhat stronger in males, and the trend in the ADHD analysis was only evident among those with blood lead levels above the median. Conclusions: These findings suggest that children who have higher urinary cadmium concentrations may have increased risk of both LD and special education. Importantly...

Spatial Distribution of Cosmetic-Procedure Businesses in Two U.S. Cities: A Pilot Mapping and Validation Study

Austin, S. Bryn; Gordon, Allegra R.; Kennedy, Grace A.; Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Blossom, Jeffrey; Blood, Emily A.
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Cosmetic procedures have proliferated rapidly over the past few decades, with over $11 billion spent on cosmetic surgeries and other minimally invasive procedures and another $2.9 billion spent on U.V. indoor tanning in 2012 in the United States alone. While research interest is increasing in tandem with the growth of the industry, methods have yet to be developed to identify and geographically locate the myriad types of businesses purveying cosmetic procedures. Geographic location of cosmetic-procedure businesses is a critical element in understanding the public health impact of this industry; however no studies we are aware of have developed valid and feasible methods for spatial analyses of these types of businesses. The aim of this pilot validation study was to establish the feasibility of identifying businesses offering surgical and minimally invasive cosmetic procedures and to characterize the spatial distribution of these businesses. We developed and tested three methods for creating a geocoded list of cosmetic-procedure businesses in Boston (MA) and Seattle (WA), USA, comparing each method on sensitivity and staff time required per confirmed cosmetic-procedure business. Methods varied substantially. Our findings represent an important step toward enabling rigorous health-linked spatial analyses of the health implications of this little-understood industry.

Predictive Value of Updating Framingham Risk Scores with Novel Risk Markers in the U.S. General Population

Ferket, Bart S.; van Kempen, Bob J. H.; Hunink, M. G. Myriam; Agarwal, Isha; Kavousi, Maryam; Franco, Oscar H.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Max, Wendy; Fleischmann, Kirsten E.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Background: According to population-based cohort studies CT coronary calcium score (CTCS), carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), high-sensitivity C- reactive protein (CRP), and ankle-brachial index (ABI) are promising novel risk markers for improving cardiovascular risk assessment. Their impact in the U.S. general population is however uncertain. Our aim was to estimate the predictive value of four novel cardiovascular risk markers for the U.S. general population. Methods and Findings: Risk profiles, CRP and ABI data of 3,736 asymptomatic subjects aged 40 or older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2004 exam were used along with predicted CTCS and cIMT values. For each subject, we calculated 10-year cardiovascular risks with and without each risk marker. Event rates adjusted for competing risks were obtained by microsimulation. We assessed the impact of updated 10-year risk scores by reclassification and C-statistics. In the study population (mean age 56±11 years, 48% male), 70% (80%) were at low (<10%), 19% (14%) at intermediate (≥10–<20%), and 11% (6%) at high (≥20%) 10-year CVD (CHD) risk. Net reclassification improvement was highest after updating 10-year CVD risk with CTCS: 0.10 (95%CI 0.02–0.19). The C-statistic for 10-year CVD risk increased from 0.82 by 0.02 (95%CI 0.01–0.03) with CTCS. Reclassification occurred most often in those at intermediate risk: with CTCS...

Reducing the duration of untreated psychosis and its impact in the U.S.: the STEP-ED study

Srihari, Vinod H; Tek, Cenk; Pollard, Jessica; Zimmet, Suzannah; Keat, Jane; Cahill, John D; Kucukgoncu, Suat; Walsh, Barbara C; Li, Fangyong; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Levine, Nina; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I; Friedman-Yakoobian, Michelle; Seidman, Larry J;
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Background: Early intervention services for psychotic disorders optimally interlock strategies to deliver: (i) Early Detection (ED) to shorten the time between onset of psychotic symptoms and effective treatment (i.e. Duration of Untreated Psychosis, DUP); and (ii) comprehensive intervention during the subsequent 2 to 5 years. In the latter category, are teams (‘First-episode Services’ or FES) that integrate several empirically supported treatments and adapt their delivery to younger patients and caregivers. There is an urgent need to hasten access to established FES in the U.S. Despite improved outcomes for those in treatment, these FES routinely engage patients a year or more after psychosis onset. The Scandinavian TIPS study was able to effectively reduce DUP in a defined geographic catchment. The guiding questions for this study are: can a U.S. adaptation of the TIPS approach to ED substantially reduce DUP and improve outcomes beyond existing FES? Methods/Design The primary aim is to determine whether ED can reduce DUP in the US, as compared to usual detection. ED will be implemented by one FES (STEP) based in southern Connecticut, and usual detection efforts will continue at a comparable FES (PREPR) serving the greater Boston metropolitan area. The secondary aim is to determine whether DUP reduction can improve presentation...

An?lise higi?nico-sanit?ria de polpas de cupua?u e bacuri comercializadas na cidade de Bel?m, Par?

CAVALCANTE, Rejane Maria Sales
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Pará Publicador: Universidade Federal do Pará
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
POR
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O consumo de polpas de frutas e seus derivados vem sendo notavelmente incrementado, dadas suas propriedades nutricionais, a grande variedade de sabores e aromas, e a demanda cada vez maior por produtos com caracter?sticas sensoriais do alimento ?in natura?. As polpas s?o utilizadas para consumo direto ou como mat?ria-prima na ind?stria de sucos, sorvetes, iogurtes etc. O processo de sua obten??o deve ser realizado em condi??es de higiene adequadas, seguido de acondicionamento e armazenamento tamb?m apropriados, de modo a assegurar a integridade e a qualidade do produto. O objetivo deste estudo foi o de avaliar as condi??es higi?nico-sanit?rias de polpas de cupua?u e bacuri comercializadas no munic?pio de Bel?m, considerando que o seu processamento implica manipula??o direta dos frutos, nem sempre por m?os convenientemente preparadas para este of?cio. Sua realiza??o contou com o indispens?vel apoio da Divis?o de Vigil?ncia Sanit?ria da Secretaria Municipal de Sa?de, do Laborat?rio Central do Estado do Par? (LACEN) e do Laborat?rio de Parasitologia do Centro de Ci?ncias Biol?gicas da Universidade Federal do Par?. O m?todo correspondeu a an?lises microbiol?gicas, microsc?pica e parasitol?gica de 33 amostras coletadas em 11 feiras-livres...

The Mexican Social Protection System in Health

Bonilla-Chacín, M.E.; Aguilera, Nelly
Fonte: World Bank, Washington DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington DC
EN_US
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With a population of 113 million and a per-capita Gross Domestic Product, or GDP of US$10,064 (current U.S. dollars), Mexico is one of the largest and highest-income countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). The country has benefited from sustained economic growth during the last decade, which was temporarily interrupted by the financial and economic crisis. Real GDP is projected to grow 3.8 percent and 3.6 percent in 2012 and 2013, respectively (International Monetary Fund, or IMF 2012). Despite this growth, poverty in the country remains high; with half of the population living below the national poverty line. The country is also highly heterogeneous, with large socioeconomic differences across states and across urban and rural areas. In 2010, while the extreme poverty ratio in the Federal District and the states of Colima and Nuevo Leon was below 3 percent, in Chiapas, Guerrero, and Oaxaca it was 25 percent or higher. These large regional differences are also found in other indicators of well-being, such as years of schooling, housing conditions, and access to social services. This case study assesses key features and achievements of the Social Protection System in Health (Sistema de Proteccion Social en Salud) in Mexico...

US Employers as Quality Drivers in the Health Sector

McNamara, Peggy
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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This review is one in a series of analytic efforts designed to inform the policy debate related to how the purchasing function is being used as an instrument for quality. The author reviews evidence on the extent of quality-based purchasing by U.S. employers, generally viewed as pivotal to the national push for value in health care, and summarizes key employer efforts underway. A typology for categorizing purchaser strategies is provided. The author examines what is known about the impact of employer strategies on care delivery and concludes with a broader discussion of quality approaches.

Knowledge, attitudes, and practices affecting health behaviors in the U.S. Army Special Operations Command population of Rangers

Pagel, Michael J
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Malaria is a threat to United States military personnel operating in endemic areas, from which there have been hundreds of cases reported over the past decade. Each of these cases might have been avoided with proper adherence to malaria chemoprophylaxis medications. Military operations may detract from the strict 100% adherence required of these preventive medications. However, the reasons for non-adherence in military populations are not well understood. This behavior was investigated using a cross sectional study design on a convenience sample of U.S. Army Ranger volunteers (n=150) located at three military instillations. Theoretical support was based on components of the Health Belief Model, the Theory of Reasoned Action/Theory of Planned Behavior, and the Social Cognitive Theory. ^ Data on knowledge, attitudes, and practices, as well as multiple environmental domains was collected using an original yet unvalidated questionnaire. The data was analyzed using bivariate Pearson correlations, binary logistic regression, and moderated logistic regressions employing a 0.05 criterion of statistical significance. Power analyses predicted 96-98% power for this analysis. ^ Multiple significant medium strength Pearson correlation coefficients were identified relative to the two dependent variables Take medications as directed and Intend to take the medications as directed the next time. Binary logistic regression analyses identified multiple variables that may predict behavioral intentions to adhere to these preventive medications...

The Mexican Social Protection System in Health

Bonilla-Chacín, M.E.; Aguilera, Nelly
Fonte: World Bank, Washington DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.79%
With a population of 113 million and a per-capita Gross Domestic Product, or GDP of US$10,064 (current U.S. dollars), Mexico is one of the largest and highest-income countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). The country has benefited from sustained economic growth during the last decade, which was temporarily interrupted by the financial and economic crisis. Real GDP is projected to grow 3.8 percent and 3.6 percent in 2012 and 2013, respectively (International Monetary Fund, or IMF 2012). Despite this growth, poverty in the country remains high; with half of the population living below the national poverty line. The country is also highly heterogeneous, with large socioeconomic differences across states and across urban and rural areas. In 2010, while the extreme poverty ratio in the Federal District and the states of Colima and Nuevo Leon was below 3 percent, in Chiapas, Guerrero, and Oaxaca it was 25 percent or higher. These large regional differences are also found in other indicators of well-being, such as years of schooling, housing conditions, and access to social services. This case study assesses key features and achievements of the Social Protection System in Health (Sistema de Proteccion Social en Salud) in Mexico...

Effects of low-frequency noise and vibration on people

Fonte: Brentwood, U.K. Publicador: Brentwood, U.K.
Tipo: Book (edited)
Publicado em //2007 EN
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http://trove.nla.gov.au/work/32491263; Machine derived contents note: CHAPTER 1: PERCEPTION THRESHOLDS FOR LOW FREQUENCY NOISE 1 ulnpleasantness and acceptable limits of low frequency sound Ki o inukai, Norio Nakamura and Hideto Taya 7 1 1 An investigation of the perception thresholds of band-limited low frequency noises: influence of bandwidth ,jsunao Matsumoto, Yukio Takahashi, Setsuo Maeda, Hiroki Yamaguchi, Kauhiro Yamada and Jishnu K Subedi 15 1.3. Masked perception thresholds of low frequency tones under background noises and their estimation by loudness model Jishnu K. Subedi, Hiroki Yamaguchi, Yasunao Matsumoto 27 1.4. Thresholds and acceptability of low frequency pure tones by sufferers Yukio Inukai, Hideto Taya and Shinji Yamada 45 CHAPTER 2: EFFECT OF LOW FREQUENCY NOISE ON PEOPLE IN TERMS OF ANNOYANCE AND SLEEP DEPRIVATION 2.1. Unpleasantness and acceptable limits of low frequency sound Yukio Inukai, Norio Nakamura and Hideto Taya 7 2.2. Low frequency noise and annoyance in classroom Pir Axelsson, Kjell Holmberg and U/​f Landstr6m 61 2.3. A Structured approach to LFS-complaints in the Rotterdam region of the Netherlands /​ng. Piet Sloven 71 2.4. Annoyance of low frequency noise and traffic noise Frank Rysgaard Qistdorff and Torben Poulsen 87 2.5. Perceptions of the public of low frequency noise D.M. J...

Norm-based comparison of SF -12 physical and mental health scale scores for a sample of employees of Broward County

Poirier, Sandra Lynn
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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35.77%
In the new health paradigm, the connotation of health has extended beyond the measures of morbidity and mortality to include wellness and quality of life. Comprehensive assessments of health go beyond traditional biological indicators to include measures of physical and mental health status, social role-functioning, and general health perceptions. To meet these challenges, tools for assessment and outcome evaluation are being designed to collect information about functioning and well-being from the individual's point of view.^ The purpose of this study was to profile the physical and mental health status of a sample of county government employees against U.S. population norms. A second purpose of the study was to determine if significant relationships existed between respondent characteristics and personal health practices, lifestyle and other health how the tools and methods used in this investigation can be used to guide program development and facilitate monitoring of health promotion initiatives.^ The SF-12 Health Survey (Ware, Kosinski, & Keller, 1995), a validated measure of health status, was administered to a convenience sample of 450 employees attending one of nine health fairs at an urban worksite. The instrument has been utilized nationally which enabled a comparative analysis of findings of this study with national results.^ Results from this study demonstrated that several respondent characteristics and personal health practices were associated with a greater percentage of physical and/or mental scale scores that were significantly "worse" or significantly "better" than the general population. Respondent characteristics that were significantly related to the SF-12 physical and/or mental health scale scores were gender...

Ensuring Healthy Children: The Effect of Health Insurance on Primary Health Care for Children

Sanderson, Anthony
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Publicado em 10/12/2010 EN_US
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Background Past studies have typically focused on the effect of health insurance on primary health care for children, but few have assessed the effect the type of health insurance coverage has on primary care. This research studied the effect of health insurance status—uninsured, private insurance, public coverage, or other insurance—on the accessibility, continuity, and comprehensiveness of primary health care for children. Methods This research analyzed a sample of 39,225 children under 18 years of age from the 2006-2009 National Health Interview Survey, a nationally representative sample of households in the United States. The response rate for children was 75.2 percent. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the effect of health insurance on health status and three aspects of primary care: accessibility (physician visit; usual source of care; time since health professional visit), continuity, (usual source and site of care), and comprehensiveness (physical). Excellent or very good health status was the final dependent variable. Results Compared to children with private health insurance, uninsured children and Medicaid or State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) beneficiaries are 27% (p<0.001) and 89.4% (p<0.01) as likely...

Stronger welfare policies meant that older workers who lost their jobs during the Great Recession were more insulated from mental health issues in Europe than in the U.S.

Riumallo-Herl, Carlos
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/09/2014 EN; EN
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The old cliché states, “Money doesn’t make you happy”, but is this really true? In new research, Carlos Riumallo-Herl finds that wealth had an insulating effect against depression for older workers who lost their jobs during the Great Recession in the U.S. He finds that in comparison to workers in the U.S., those in Europe with low wealth who were made unemployed at the same time did not suffer from depression. He argues that this can be explained by the greater generosity of European unemployment safety nets which mean that people did not have to draw on their own wealth whilst unemployed, and were thus more financially secure.