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Intensive Case Management Before and After Prison Release is No More Effective Than Comprehensive Pre-Release Discharge Planning in Linking HIV-Infected Prisoners to Care: A Randomized Trial

Wohl, David A.; Scheyett, Anna; Golin, Carol E.; White, Becky; Matuszewski, Jeanine; Bowling, Michael; Smith, Paula; Duffin, Faye; Rosen, David; Kaplan, Andrew; Earp, JoAnne
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.06%
Imprisonment provides opportunities for the diagnosis and successful treatment of HIV, however, the benefits of antiretroviral therapy are frequently lost following release due to suboptimal access and utilization of health care and services. In response, some have advocated for development of intensive case-management interventions spanning incarceration and release to support treatment adherence and community re-entry for HIV-infected releasees. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of a motivational Strengths Model bridging case management intervention (BCM) beginning approximately 3 months prior to and continuing 6 months after release versus a standard of care prison-administered discharge planning program (SOC) for HIV-infected state prison inmates. The primary outcome variable was self-reported access to post-release medical care. Of the 104 inmates enrolled, 89 had at least 1 post-release study visit. Of these, 65.1% of BCM and 54.4% of SOC assigned participants attended a routine medical appointment within 4 weeks of release (P >0.3). By week 12 post-release, 88.4% of the BCM arm and 78.3% of the SOC arm had at attended at least one medical appointment (P = 0.2), increasing in both arms at week 24–90.7% with BCM and 89.1% with SOC (P >0.5). No participant without a routine medical visit by week 24 attended an appointment from weeks 24 to 48. The mean number of clinic visits during the 48 weeks post release was 5.23 (SD = 3.14) for BCM and 4.07 (SD = 3.20) for SOC (P >0.5). There were no significant differences between arms in social service utilization and re-incarceration rates were also similar. We found that a case management intervention bridging incarceration and release was no more effective than a less intensive pre-release discharge planning program in supporting health and social service utilization for HIV-infected individuals released from prison.

Risk Prison and Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Inmates with History of Drug Injection in Isfahan, Iran

Dana, Daneshmand; Zary, Nokhodian; Peyman, Adibi; Behrooz, Ataei
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/04/2013 EN
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Objectives. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a health problem among injection drug users (IDUs) in prison. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association of factors of incarceration with HBV infection in prisoners with history of drug injection in Isfahan, Iran. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, all IDUs inmates were enrolled. Sociodemographic characteristics and associated risk factors were obtained. Blood samples were collected and serological markers for HBV were analyzed. For data analysis, odds ratio and logistic regression were used. Results. Of the IDUs inmates, 970 subjects participated in the study. History of imprisonment (OR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.28–2.57), multiple incarceration (OR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01–2.02), and total duration of imprisonment (OR: 2.70, 95% CI: 1.94–3.74) were significantly associated with prevalence of HBV among IDUs inmates. Multivariate analysis of associated factors showed that only total duration of incarceration is significantly associated with HBV infection. Conclusion. In conclusion, according to our results, multiple and duration of incarcerations will be considered as important risk factors of HBV infection in IDUs inmates. This fact makes it important to set some screening and prevention programs in prisons to decrease the risk of being infected and prevent the transmission of these diseases.

Forced withdrawal from methadone maintenance therapy in criminal justice settings: A critical treatment barrier in the United States

Fu, Jeannia J.; Zaller, Nickolas D.; Yokell, Michael A.; Bazazi, Alexander R.; Rich, Josiah D.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The World Health Organization classifies methadone as an essential medicine, yet methadone maintenance therapy remains widely unavailable in criminal justice settings throughout the United States. Methadone maintenance therapy is often terminated at the time of incarceration, with inmates forced to withdraw from this evidence-based therapy. We assessed whether these forced withdrawal policies deter opioid-dependent individuals in the community from engaging methadone maintenance therapy in two states that routinely force inmates to withdraw from methadone (N=205). Nearly half of all participants reported that concern regarding forced methadone withdrawal during incarceration deterred them engaging methadone maintenance therapy in the community. Participants in the state where more severe methadone withdrawal procedures are used during incarceration were more likely to report concern regarding forced withdrawal as a treatment deterrent. Methadone withdrawal policies in the criminal justice system may be a broader treatment deterrent for opioid-dependent individuals than previously realized. Redressing this treatment barrier is both a health and human rights imperative.

Mindfulness training improves attentional task performance in incarcerated youth: a group randomized controlled intervention trial

Leonard, Noelle R.; Jha, Amishi P.; Casarjian, Bethany; Goolsarran, Merissa; Garcia, Cristina; Cleland, Charles M.; Gwadz, Marya V.; Massey, Zohar
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/11/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.06%
We investigated the impact of cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness training (CBT/MT) on attentional task performance in incarcerated adolescents. Attention is a cognitive system necessary for managing cognitive demands and regulating emotions. Yet persistent and intensive demands, such as those experienced during high-stress intervals like incarceration and the events leading to incarceration, may deplete attention resulting in cognitive failures, emotional disturbances, and impulsive behavior. We hypothesized that CBT/MT may mitigate these deleterious effects of high stress and protect against degradation in attention over the high-stress interval of incarceration. Using a quasi-experimental, group randomized controlled trial design, we randomly assigned dormitories of incarcerated youth, ages 16–18, to a CBT/MT intervention (youth n = 147) or an active control intervention (youth n = 117). Both arms received approximately 750 min of intervention in a small-group setting over a 3–5 week period. Youth in the CBT/MT arm also logged the amount of out-of-session time spent practicing MT exercises. The Attention Network Test was used to index attentional task performance at baseline and 4 months post-baseline. Overall, task performance degraded over time in all participants. The magnitude of performance degradation was significantly less in the CBT/MT vs. control arm. Further...

Norms, Attitudes, and Sex Behaviors among Women with Incarcerated Main Partners

Davey-Rothwell, Melissa A.; Villarroel, Maria A.; Grieb, Suzanne D.; Latkin, Carl A.
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.06%
Incarceration has been extensively linked with HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). While a great deal of attention has been given to the risk behaviors of people who have been incarcerated, examination of the behaviors of partners of incarcerated individuals is also needed to understand the direct and indirect links between incarceration and HIV and to identify prevention avenues. In the present study, we hypothesize that incarceration is associated with risk behavior through attitudes and norms. The purpose of this paper is: (1) to describe the attitudes and norms about sexual behaviors that women have when a sexual partner is incarcerated; and (2) to examine the association between attitudes and norms with the behavior of having other sex partners while a main partner is incarcerated. In our sample (n = 175), 50 % of women reported having other sex partners while their partner was incarcerated. Our findings show that attitudes, descriptive norms (i.e., norms about what other people do), and injunctive norms (i.e., norms about what others think is appropriate) were associated with having other partners. Interventions designed for couples at pre- and post-release from prison are needed to develop risk reduction plans and encourage HIV/STI testing prior to their reunion.

Ischemia Modified Albumin Can Predict Necrosis at Incarcerated Hernias

Kadioğlu, Hüseyin; Ömür, Dilek; Bozkurt, Süleyman; Ferlengez, Ekrem; Memmı, Naim; Ersoy, Yeliz Emine; Çıpe, Gökhan; Müslümanoğlu, Mahmut
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.06%
Purpose. To evaluate the predictive effect of IMA in incarcerated hernias. Methods. Three groups (n = 7) of rats were operated. Group I aimed to mimic incarceration, group II aimed the strangulation, and group III was the sham group. IMA and LDH measurements were made. Results. IMA levels were significantly higher in strangulation mimicking group and IMA levels were normal at postoperative 6th hour in incarceration mimicking group. LDH levels were significantly higher in both incarceration and strangulation mimicking groups. Conclusion. IMA seems to be an effective marker in incarcerated hernias to predict necrosis. But we need further studies to generalise this hypothesis.

Amyand’s hernia: A review

Ivashchuk, Galyna; Cesmebasi, Alper; Sorenson, Edward P.; Blaak, Christa; Tubbs, Shane R.; Loukas, Marios
Fonte: International Scientific Literature, Inc. Publicador: International Scientific Literature, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/01/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.06%
Amyand’s hernia is defined as when the appendix is trapped within an inguinal hernia. While the incidence of this type of hernia is rare, the appendix may become incarcerated within Amyand’s hernia and lead to further complications such as strangulation and perforation. Incarceration of the appendix most commonly occurs within inguinal and femoral hernias, but may arise to a lesser extent in incisional and umbilical hernias. Incarcerated appendix has been reported in a variety of ventral abdominal and inguinal locations, yet its indistinct clinical presentation represents a diagnostic challenge. This paper reviews the literature on incarceration of the appendix within inguinal hernias and discusses current approaches to diagnosis and treatment of Amyand’s hernia and complications that may arise from incarceration of the appendix within the hernia.

The Feasibility of Implementing the HIV Seek, Test, and Treat Strategy in Jails

Beckwith, Curt; Bazerman, Lauri; Gillani, Fizza; Tran, Liem; Larson, Brita; Rivard, Saul; Flanigan, Timothy; Rich, Josiah
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/04/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.06%
To successfully implement the Seek, Test, and Treat (STT) strategy to curb the HIV epidemic, the criminal justice system must be a key partner. Increasing HIV testing and treatment among incarcerated persons has the potential to decrease HIV transmission in the broader community, but whether it is feasible to consider the implementation of the STT within jail facilities is not known. We conducted a retrospective review of Rhode Island Department of Corrections (RIDOC) medical records to assess whether persons newly diagnosed in the jail were able to start ART and be linked to community HIV care after release. From 2001 to 2007, 64 RIDOC detainees were newly diagnosed with HIV. During their index incarcerations, 64% were informed of positive confirmatory HIV test results, 50% completed baseline evaluations, and 9% began ART. Linkage to community care was confirmed for 58% of subjects. Subjects incarcerated for >14 days were significantly more likely to receive HIV test results and complete baseline evaluation (p<0.001). A similar association was not observed for ART initiation until incarceration length reached 60 days (p<0.001). There was no association between incarceration length and linkage to care. This comprehensive analysis demonstrates that length of incarceration impacts HIV test result delivery...

Do Moral Communities Play a Role in Criminal Sentencing? Evidence From Pennsylvania

Ulmer, Jeffery T.; Bader, Christopher; Gault, Martha
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Religion and social control have been a sociological concern since Durkheim and Weber, and the relationship between religion and punishment has long been the subject of speculation. However, surprisingly little empirical research exists on the role of religion or religious context in criminal justice, and almost no research on the role of religious context on actual sentencing practices. We conceptualize the potential relationships between religious context and sentencing severity by drawing from the focal concerns and court community perspectives in the sentencing literature and moral communities theory developed by Rodney Stark. We suspect that Christian moral communities might shape notions of perceived blameworthiness for court community actors. Such moral communities might also affect notions of community protection – affecting perceptions of dangerousness, or perhaps rehabilitation, and might influence practical constraints/consequences (e.g., local political ramifications of harsh or lenient sentences). We examine these questions using a set of hierarchical models using sentencing data from Pennsylvania county courts and data on the religious composition of Pennsylvania counties from the Associated Religion Data Archives. We find that county Christian religious homogeneity increases the likelihood of incarceration. In addition...

Social support network characteristics of incarcerated women with co-occurring major depressive and substance use disorders

Nargiso, Jessica E.; Kuo, Caroline C.; Zlotnick, Caron; Johnson, Jennifer E.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.06%
The nature of social support available to incarcerated women is not well understood, particularly among women at high risk of negative outcomes, including women dually-diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder and a Substance Use Disorder (MDD-SUD). Descriptive statistics and paired-tests were conducted on 60 incarcerated MDD-SUD women receiving in-prison substance use and depression treatments to characterize the women’s social networks, including the strength of support, network characteristics, and types of support provided as well as to determine what aspects of social support may be amenable to change during incarceration and post-release. Study results showed that on average women perceived they had moderately supportive individuals in their lives, although more than a quarter of the sample could not identify any regular supporters in their network at baseline. During incarceration, women’s social networks significantly increased in general supportiveness, and decreased in network size and percentage of substance users in their networks. Participants maintained positive social support gains post-release in most areas while also significantly increasing the size of their support network post-release. Findings suggest that there are aspects of incarcerated MDD-SUD women’s social networks that are amenable to change during incarceration and post-release and provide insight into treatment targets for this vulnerable population.

Examining Masculine Norms and Peer Support within a Sample of Incarcerated African American Males

Gordon, Derrick M.; Hawes, Samuel W.; Perez-Cabello, M. Arturo; Brabham-Hollis, Tamika; Lanza, A. Stephen; Dyson, William J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.06%
The adherence to masculine norms has been suggested to be influenced by social settings and context. Prisons have been described as a context where survival is dependent on adhering to strict masculine norms that may undermine reintegration back into the larger society. This study attempted to examine the relationship between masculine norms, peer support, and an individual’s length of incarceration on a sample of 139 African American men taking part in a pre-release community re-entry program. Results indicate that peer support was associated with length of incarceration and the interaction between the endorsement of masculine norms and peer support significantly predicted the length of incarceration for African American men in this sample. Implications for incarcerated African American men and future research directions are discussed.

À sombra do encarceramento: o entorno das prisões

Gonzaga, Vanessa Portes Galvão
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia Publicador: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.06%
À sombra do encarceramento é um título sugestivo para esta tese. Sombras perseguem, escondem, ameaçam, dominam, e, por vezes, “assombram”. As sombras são também veículos que transportam magníficas imagens psicológicas: não gozam de boa reputação, são sempre associadas ao que é enganoso, perigoso, ameaçador. Em geral, carregam significações negativas, estranhas, invasivas. Andam sempre envoltas na suspeita e no medo. As sombras são misteriosas e sedutoras, escuras e inquietantes. Não inspiram confiança e não são boas companhias. Pensar na riqueza das metáforas e das histórias inventadas sobre as sombras trouxe-me inspiração para a escrita da tese. Que outra imagem poderia ser tão apropriada para representar (ou irrepresentar) os sentimentos que uma pessoa passa a experienciar a partir do encarceramento de um parente próximo? Ter um familiar na prisão é como estar na companhia ininterrupta de uma sombra: uma sombra maldita e amaldiçoada que persegue e não se afasta. É nesse sentido que esta pesquisa se dedica ao estudo do entorno prisional, desenhado pelas famílias que passam a residir nas proximidades dos presídios para continuarem mantendo o vínculo com o parente preso e, dessa forma, partilharem a prisão. Além disso...

Prisons for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People: meeting physical and mental health needs.

Grant, E.M.
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Conference item
Publicado em //2014 EN
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Aboriginal peoples often fare very poorly in prison environments, large numbers of Aboriginal peoples enter the prison system with chronic illnesses, substance abuse problems, learning and cognitive disabilities and mental illness, the numbers of Aboriginal prisoners dying prison custody continues to be unacceptably high[1] and as a group, Aboriginal prisoners continue to face multiple layers of social disadvantage. As well as these impacts, the experiences of incarceration have profound effects on the wider Aboriginal population. As part of the criminal justice system, incarceration fosters and compounds Indigenous anger, often leading to greater levels of fear and frustration within communities. The significance of the prison environment, its impact on Aboriginal prisoners and the flow on effects to Aboriginal families, communities and the wider community becomes increasingly important when the increasing rate incarceration of Aboriginal peoples in the Australian prison system is considered. It has been suggested that Indigenous imprisonment would be “near or at the top of any world league table”. Between 2000 and 2013, the number of Indigenous prisoners rose by 11 per cent with Indigenous prisoners representing 25 per cent of the total Australian male prisoner population in 2013. Nationally...

More than just 'notorious': critical considerations of gender in the early history of Kingston Penitentiary

MacRae, Leslie Dawn
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 602469 bytes; application/pdf
EN; EN
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For centuries, scholarship in the area of punishment, prisons and corrections has been generated by a number of different disciplines. It is difficult to argue the fact that there has been a bias in this literature toward discussions of the crimes and punishments of men. Given the historically disproportionate representation of men in criminal justice systems worldwide, the male ‘inmate’ has undoubtedly become the taken-for-granted norm in penality studies. However, works on ‘male imprisonment’ versus ‘female imprisonment’ (particularly feminist works) demonstrate a significant disparity in their approach. Despite the extensive nature of scholarship on penality, and the strong focus on gender by feminist scholars in the area, there has been a vast silence on the incarcerated male as a gendered subject, and the male prison as a gendered institution. Although this silence has been briefly noted by feminist scholars in their discussions of female imprisonment (e.g. Hannah-Moffat 2001; Howe 1994; Naffine 1996), few scholars to date have taken up a critical discussion of gender in the context of male incarceration. This oversight is especially characteristic of Canadian penal scholarship and Canadian penal histories in particular. It is the aim of this work to initiate the ‘catch-up...

Essays on the economics of law, crime and discrimination

Abrams, David S
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 150 leaves
ENG
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This dissertation presents work empirically investigating various aspects of the criminal justice system. Chapter one, coauthored with Chris Rohlfs, examines the judicial bail-setting process and the defendant decision to pay bail. Optimal bail-setting rules must balance the tradeoffs between costs to defendants and costs to society. This chapter develops a model of optimal bail that incorporates the cost of jailing the defendant, the private cost to the defendant from being incarcerated, the cost of crime, and the costs that arise when defendants abscond. The model is empirically calibrated using data from a randomized experiment. The randomized experiment allows the use of defendants' bail posting decisions to estimate their subjective values of freedom. Our estimates suggest that high-risk defendants would be willing to pay $300 to $1,000 for 90 days of freedom. We find the socially optimal level of bail to be substantially lower than levels currently set by judges. Aggregating nationally, we find that the total social benefit of reform would be on the order of $10 billion per year. Chapter two, coauthored with Marianne Bertrand and Sendhil Mullainathan, is a study of the impact of defendant race on interjudge sentencing disparity...

Essays in Applied Microeconomics

Spamann, Holger
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
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Chapter 1 develops a model of parallel trading of corporate securities (shares, bonds) and derivatives in which a large trader can sometimes profitably acquire securities and the corporate control rights inherent therein for the sole purpose of reducing the corporation's value and gaining on a net short position in the corporation created through off-setting derivatives. At other times, the large trader profitably takes a net long position in the corporation and exercises its control rights to maximize the corporation's value. This strategy is profitable if and because other market participants cannot observe the large trader's orders and hence cannot predict how the control rights will be exercised. In effect, the large trader is benefitting from trading on private information about payoff uncertainty that the large trader itself creates. This problem is most likely to manifest in transactions that give blocking powers to small minorities, particularly out-of-bankruptcy restructurings and freezeouts, and is bound to become more severe when derivatives trade on an exchange rather than over-the-counter. Chapter 2 investigates in parallel the cross-country determinants of crime and punishment in the largest possible sample of countries with data on homicides...

The case of Scott Ortiz: a clash between criminal justice and public health

Venters, Homer D; Razvi, Asiya M; Tobia, Maria S; Drucker, Ernest
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/07/2006 EN
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17.06%
The criminal justice system creates particular challenges for persons with HIV and Hepatitis C, many of whom have a history of injection drug use. The case of Scott Ortiz, taken from public trial and sentencing transcripts, reveals the manner in which incarceration may delay learning of important health problems such as Hepatitis C infection. In addition, the case of Mr. Ortiz suggests the bias in sentencing that a former injection drug user may face. Collaboration between the Montefiore Medical Center residency in Social Medicine and a Bronx legal services agency, Bronx Defenders, yielded the discovery that a decade after diagnosis with HIV and after long term incarceration, Mr. Ortiz was infected with Hepatitis C. Mr. Ortiz only became aware of his advanced Hepatitis C and liver damage during his trial. The second important aspect of this case centers on the justification for lengthy sentence for a burglary conviction. The presiding Judge in Mr. Ortiz's case acknowledged that because of his advanced illness, Mr. Ortiz posed no threat to society as a burglar (the crime for which he was convicted). But the Judge elected to use his discretion to sentence Mr. Ortiz to a term of 15 years to life (as opposed to a minimum of two to four years) based on the idea that the public health would be served by preventing Mr. Ortiz from returning to the life of a street addict...

Prevalence of Mental Disorders and Recidivism in Young Offenders

Dias,Álvaro Machado; Serafim,Antonio de Pádua; Barros,Daniel Martins de
Fonte: Curso de Pós-Graduação em Psicologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Curso de Pós-Graduação em Psicologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
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17.06%
Several studies report that incarcerated young offenders show a high rate of psychiatric disorders whereas associations between specific psychiatric disorders and recidivism remain unknown. The Brazilian legal system has created a unique opportunity for the study of this issue when consider young offenders not that guilty in spite of the severity of the crime, settling in three years the maximum period of incarceration. This study aims to determine the rate of psychiatric disorders in a cohort of incarcerated young offenders and evaluate the possible psychiatric connections of primary offenders and recidivism. A group of 898 incarcerated young offenders at Fundação Casa answered psychiatric interviews and was diagnosed according to the criteria of ICD-10. Statistic connections were analyzed using the tests of Pearson and Cramer. The cohort was comprised of 619 primaries and 267 recidivists. 'Psychoactive Substance Use' and 'Disorders of Adult Personality and Behavior' categories were related to recidivism, whereas 'Organic Mental Disorders', 'Mood Disorders', and 'Stress-related Disorders' were related to primary offenders. Discriminating disorders were the most likely to represent reactions to primary incarceration. In relation to associations that might represent predictors of crime...

Projecting the Impacts of a Coerced Abstinence Probation Modification Program in North Carolina

Richey, Maureen
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 21/04/2012 EN_US
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY POLICY QUESTION (Page 7) The objective of this paper is to examine whether or not the North Carolina Department of Corrections should adopt a coerced abstinence model of probation modification similar to the Hawaii Opportunity Probation with Enforcement (HOPE) program that was piloted in Honolulu in 2004. HOPE appears to be phenomenally successful at reducing recidivism among drug-involved probationers. Reducing new crimes and probation violations among this sub-set of high-risk probationers in North Carolina could have substantial impacts on public safety and corrections spending. BACKGROUND (Page 7) The probation system in America, widely used as a cheaper and less severe alternative to incarceration for qualifying criminal offenders, is also widely considered to be ineffective at preventing new crimes. Probationers frequently re-offend which fails to meet the goals of probation, as defined by the American Probation and Parole Association: “to protect society and promote law-abiding behavior.” Some characteristics of the probation system may contribute to the high rate of recidivism. Because resources are often strained and probation officers are often over-burdened with caseloads, it becomes virtually impossible to sanction every probation violation. When probationers are sanctioned...

Tuberculosis in a South African prison: a transmission modelling analysis

Johnstone-Robertson,Simon; Lawn,Stephen D; Welte,Alex; Bekker,Linda-Gail; Wood,Robin
Fonte: SAMJ: South African Medical Journal Publicador: SAMJ: South African Medical Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2011 EN
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BACKGROUND: Prisons are recognised internationally as institutions with very high tuberculosis (TB) burdens where transmission is predominantly determined by contact between infectious and susceptible prisoners. A recent South African court case described the conditions under which prisoners awaiting trial were kept. With the use of these data, a mathematical model was developed to explore the interactions between incarceration conditions and TB control measures. METHODS: Cell dimensions, cell occupancy, lock-up time, TB incidence and treatment delays were derived from court evidence and judicial reports. Using the Wells-Riley equation and probability analyses of contact between prisoners, we estimated the current TB transmission probability within prison cells, and estimated transmission probabilities of improved levels of case finding in combination with implementation of national and international minimum standards for incarceration. RESULTS: Levels of overcrowding (230%) in communal cells and poor TB case finding result in annual TB transmission risks of 90% per annum. Implementing current national or international cell occupancy recommendations would reduce TB transmission probabilities by 30% and 50%, respectively. Improved passive case finding...