Página 9 dos resultados de 42017 itens digitais encontrados em 0.027 segundos

Gender differences in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a literature review

Mathis, Maria Alice de; Alvarenga, Pedro de; Funaro, Guilherme; Torresan, Ricardo Cezar; Moraes, Ivanil; Torres, Albina Rodrigues; Zilberman, Monica L; Hounie, Ana Gabriela
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria - ABP Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria - ABP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 390-399
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.49%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); INTRODUÇÃO: O transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo (TOC) é um quadro heterogêneo, no qual subtipos têm sido propostos. Estudos anteriores sugerem que gênero desempenha papel relevante na expressão fenotípica. O objetivo foi realizar uma revisão convencional da literatura sobre diferenças de gênero em relação a aspectos clínicos e genéticos ou familiares do TOC. MÉTODO: Realizou-se uma revisão convencional da literatura incluindo todos os artigos que investigaram aspectos sociodemográficos, clínicos e genéticos do TOC, de acordo com o gênero. A pesquisa foi baseada em publicações disponíveis nas bases de dados Medline e PsycInfo nos últimos 20 anos, usando como palavras-chave: obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), e: gender, sex, male, female, demographic characteristics, clinical features, clinical characteristics, genetic, genes, genetics gender OCD, genes OCD, genes OCD males, genes OCD females. RESULTADO: Sessenta e três artigos de fenótipo e genética foram selecionados. Na maioria dos estudos, o sexo masculino associou-se mais que o feminino com: ser solteiro, apresentar início mais precoce dos sintomas, maior prejuízo social, mais sintomas sexuais...

Gender and work identity among Canadian cowboys

Petitt, Andrea
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.49%
L’objectif général de ce mémoire est de comprendre l‘impact du genre sur l’identité de travail des cowboys, dans leur milieu de travail et de vie dans un ranch du Canada. Cette étude vise à contribuer aux études sur le genre en utilisant des théories existantes pour les appliquer à un nouveau champ. Sur la base d’une approche théorique fondée dans le féminisme et les études sur la masculinité, en utilisant aussi l’histoire des cowboys de l’Ouest, cette étude se penche sur la question de l’importance du genre dans la division du travail dans le ranch, celle de l’identité de travail des cowboys et sur la façon dont le genre affecte cette identité. La collecte des données s’est faite par l’observation participante et des entrevues semi-structurées. En utilisant une analyse thématique des données, l’étude conclut que le genre est un principe important dans la division du travail dans le ranch et que l’identité de travail est d’une extrême importance pour les cowboys. En outre, l’étude démontre que le genre jour de différentes façons dans l’identité de travail, l’hétéronormativité et les idéaux du cowboy allant dans le même sens, alors que la féminité s’oppose à cet idéal. Les traditions sont encore importantes pour les cowboys contemporains...

Women Managers and the Gender-Based Gap in Access to Education

Amin, Mohammad; Islam, Asif
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
Several studies explore the differences in men’s and women’s labor market participation rates and wages. Some of these differences have been linked to gender disparities in education attainment and access. The present paper contributes to this literature by analyzing the relationship between the proclivity of a firm to have a female top manager and access to education among women relative to men in the country. The paper combines the literature on women’s careers in management, which has mostly focused on developed countries, with the development literature that has emphasized the importance of access to education. Using firm-level data for 73 developing countries, the analysis finds strong evidence that countries with a higher proportion of female top managers also have higher enrollment rates for women relative to men in primary, secondary, and tertiary education.

How Costly are Labor Gender Gaps?

Cuberes, David; Teignier, Marc
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
In this paper, survey data are used to document the presence of gender gaps in self-employment, employership, and labor force participation in seven Balkan countries and Turkey. The paper examines the quantitative effects of the gender gaps on aggregate productivity and income per capita in these countries. In the model used to carry out this calculation, agents choose between being workers, self-employed, or employers, and women face several restrictions in the labor market. The data display very large gaps in labor force participation and in the percentage of employers and self-employed in the labor force. In almost all cases, these gaps reveal a clear underrepresentation of women. The calculations show that, on average, the loss associated with these gaps is about 17 percent of income per capita. One-third of this loss is due to distortions in the choice of occupations between men and women. The remaining two-thirds corresponds to the costs associated with gaps in labor force participation. The dimensions of these gender gaps and their associated costs vary considerably across age groups...

Can Minimum Wages Close the Gender Wage Gap?

Hallward-Driemeier, Mary; Rijkers, Bob; Waxman, Andrew
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
Using manufacturing plant-level census data, this paper demonstrates that minimum wage increases in Indonesia reduced gender wage gaps among production workers, with heterogeneous impacts by level of education and position of the firm in the wage distribution. Paradoxically, educated women appear to have benefitted the most, particularly in the lower half of the firm average earnings distribution. By contrast, women who did not complete primary education did not benefit on average, and even lost ground in the upper end of the earnings distribution. Minimum wage increases were thus associated with exacerbated gender pay gaps among the least educated, and reduced gender gaps among the best educated production workers. Unconditional quantile regression analysis attests to wage compression and lighthouse effects. Changes in relative employment prospects were limited.

Gender Education Gaps among Indigenous and Nonindigenous Groups in Bolivia

Reimão, Maira Emy; Taş, Emcet O.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.49%
This paper studies gender education gaps among indigenous and nonindigenous groups in Bolivia. Using the National Census of Population and Housing 2012 and an estimation method analogous to difference-in-differences, the paper finds that the intersection of gender and indigenous identity confers cumulative disadvantage for indigenous women in literacy, years of schooling, and primary and secondary school completion. Although gender education gaps have become narrower across generations, there remain significant differences among indigenous groups. The Aymara have the largest gender gap in all outcomes, despite having high overall attainment rates and mostly residing in urban centers, with greater physical access to schools. The Quechua have relatively smaller gender gaps, but these are accompanied by lower attainment levels. The paper discusses the possible sources of these differentials and highlights the importance of taking gender dynamics within each indigenous group into greater consideration.

Filtering the International Gender Paradigm: Perspectives of Gender in Barbados

Ellie Hurley, Astrid
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
My work presents a place-specific analysis of how gender paradigms interact across and within spatial scales: the global, the regional, the national and the personal. It briefly outlines the concepts and measures defining the international gender paradigm, and explores the filtration of this paradigm into assessments and understandings of gender and gender dynamics by and within Barbados. It does this by analyzing the contents of reports of the Barbados government to international bodies assessing the country’s performance in the area of gender equality, and by analyzing gender-comparative content of local print news media over the decade of the 1990s, and the first decade of the 2000s. It contextualizes the discussion within the realm of social and economic development. The work shows how the almost singular focus on “women” in the international gender paradigm may depreciate valid gender concerns of men and thus hinder the overall goal of achieving gender equality, that is, achieving just, inclusive societies.

Filtering the international gender paradigm: Perspectives of gender in Barbados

Ellie Hurley, Astrid Soyini Natasha
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
My work presents a place-specific analysis of how gender paradigms interact across and within spatial scales: the global, the regional, the national and the personal. It briefly outlines the concepts and measures defining the international gender paradigm, and explores the filtration of this paradigm into assessments and understandings of gender and gender dynamics by and within Barbados. It does this by analyzing the contents of reports of the Barbados government to international bodies assessing the country’s performance in the area of gender equality, and by analyzing gender-comparative content of local print news media over the decade of the 1990s, and the first decade of the 2000s. It contextualizes the discussion within the realm of social and economic development. The work shows how the almost singular focus on “women” in the international gender paradigm may depreciate valid gender concerns of men and thus hinder the overall goal of achieving gender equality, that is, achieving just, inclusive societies.^

A Case-Only Genome-wide Association Study of Gender- and Age-specific Risk Markers for Childhood Leukemia

Singh, Sandeep Kumar
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.49%
Males and age group 1 to 5 years show a much higher risk for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We performed a case-only genome-wide association study (GWAS), using the Illumina Infinium HumanCoreExome Chip, to unmask gender- and age-specific risk variants in 240 non-Hispanic white children with ALL recruited at Texas Children’s Cancer Center, Houston, Texas. Besides statistically most significant results, we also considered results that yielded the highest effect sizes. Existing experimental data and bioinformatic predictions were used to complement results, and to examine the biological significance of statistical results. Our study identified novel risk variants for childhood ALL. The SNP, rs4813720 (RASSF2), showed the statistically most significant gender-specific associations (P < 2 x 10-6). Likewise, rs10505918 (SOX5) yielded the lowest P value (P < 1 x 10-5) for age-specific associations, and also showed the statistically most significant association with age-at-onset (P < 1 x 10-4). Two SNPs, rs12722042 and 12722039, from the HLA-DQA1 region yielded the highest effect sizes (odds ratio (OR) = 15.7; P = 0.002) for gender-specific results, and the SNP, rs17109582 (OR = 12.5; P = 0.006), showed the highest effect size for age-specific results. Sex chromosome variants did not appear to be involved in gender-specific associations. The HLA-DQA1 SNPs belong to DQA1*01:07and confirmed previously reported male-specific association with DQA1*01:07. Twenty one of the SNPs identified as risk markers for gender- or age-specific associations were located in the transcription factor binding sites and 56 SNPs were non-synonymous variants...

Sub-Saharan African women in South Australia: work, money and changing gender roles.

Njuki, Patricia Wawira
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
This study provides a gendered perspective on the social and economic consequences of Sub-Saharan African migration to Australia. This mixed methods study draws on a Survey as well as in-depth interviews and participant observation of the Sub-Saharan African women in South Australia, as well as analyses of secondary data from the Department of Immigration Movements and Settlement Database and the Australian Census of Population and Housing 2006. It examines three interconnected thematic areas in the migrant women’s lives. First, African women’s labour force patterns based on visa of entry to Australia, show that African migrant skilled women in Australia are able to compete favourably in the labour market and are able to get jobs commensurate to their skills. However the study shows women who enter Australia on humanitarian visas, many of whom have very low human capital endowments, find themselves completely shut out of the Australian workforce. The second theme provides a gendered perspective on remittance sending practices of Sub-Saharan African women and how these affect settlement outcomes. The study shows that remittance sending does have an impact on settlement of humanitarian migrants with implications for an individual migrants’ poverty and raises interesting arguments for host countries...

Gender differences in depression and anxiety across the adult lifespan

Leach, L. S.
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD)
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
Women are on average twice as likely as men to experience depression and anxiety disorders. Several explanations have been proposed to explain these gender disparities. However, few studies have examined the possibility that the gender difference in depression and anxiety prevalence, and the explanatory factors involved, vary across the life course. This thesis describes the pattern of distribution for gender differences in depression and anxiety levels across the adult lifespan, and evaluates the role of potential psychosocial risk factors at particular life stages. Analyses were undertaken using the first and second waves of the Personality and Total Health (PATH) Through Life study. This study collects data on three narrow-aged cohorts living in the Canberra and Queanbeyan region (Australia) every four years. At Wave 1, participants were aged 20- 24, 40-44 and 60-64. The outcome measures used in this thesis were the Goldberg Depression and Anxiety Scales. Across the three PATH cohorts, women experienced higher levels of depression and anxiety than did men. However differences were most prominent in the youngest age group. Latent variable modelling showed that for each age group, the gender difference in levels of depression and anxiety could not be attributed to gender-biased items. Two pathways to the gender disparity in depression and anxiety levels were explored. First...

Globalization and the Gender Wage Gap

Oostendorp, Remco H.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
There are several theoretical reasons why globalization will have a narrowing as well as widening effect on the gender wage gap, but little is known about the actual impact, except for a number of country studies. The author provides a cross-country study of the impact of globalization on the occupational gender wage gap, based on the rarely used but most far-ranging survey of wages around the world, the International Labour Organization's October Inquiry. This annual survey was started in 1924 and contains a wealth of information on wages and the gender wage gap. For the period 1983-99, there is information on the gender wage gap in 161 narrowly defined occupations in more than 80 countries around the world. The author finds the following: (i) The occupational gender wage gap appears to be narrowing with increases in GDP per capita; (ii) There is a significantly narrowing impact of trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) net inflows on the occupational gender wage gap for low-skill occupations, both in poorer and richer countries...

The Little Data Book on Gender 2011

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: World Development Indicators; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
The little data book on gender 2011 is a quick reference for users interested in gender statistics. It presents gender-disaggregated data for more than 200 countries in a straightforward, country-by-country reference on demography, education, health, labor force, political participation, and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Summary pages that cover regional and income group aggregates are also included. This second issue of book on gender coincides with the launch of the World Development Report 2012, the Bank's annual flagship publication. This year's report looks at the facts and trends surrounding the various dimensions of gender equality in the context of the development process: although many women around the world continue to struggle with gender-based disadvantages, much has changed for the better and at a more rapid pace than ever before. But that progress needs to be expanded, protected, and deepened. While development has closed some gender gaps, other gaps persist, including excess deaths of girls and women...

Gender in Bolivian Production : Reducing Differences in Formality and Productivity of Firms

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
A main goal of this study is to determine the variables responsible for the lower formality of women-owned businesses. The companion study (the World Bank 2007a) shows that Bolivia's informal sector is the largest in Latin America by many definitions and measures. It also provides a rationale for promoting formality given the many negative effects of a high rate of informality. These negative effects include a lower growth potential as informal firms tend to be less productive owing to limited access to physical, financial, and human capital, and a smaller scale of operations; negative fiscal impacts as informal firms "free ride" on services provided with fiscal resources; and negative social externalities, including weaker rule of law and public institutions, increased corruption, and weakened ability to enforce contracts. A second goal of this study is to identify gender-based productivity constraints that hinder the growth of female-owned businesses. First, author's analysis of the impact of formality on profitability shows that the gains of formalization for most female-owned businesses increase as the firms grow. Second...

Addressing the Gender Gap in Europe and Central Asia

Sattar, Sarosh
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
The Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region's relative advantage in gender equality compared to other regions eroded in the 1999-2009 period. As a result, the region now looks more similar to the rest of the world in terms of women's education and labor force participation. Moreover, gender gaps continue to exist in some minority communities and in poor rural areas. Structural changes in the economies of the region have both opened up economic and employment opportunities for women and reduced some avenues of prosperity for men. However, women's gains from such opportunities are limited as occupational segregation and wage gaps persist, despite comparable human capital endowments. The dramatic demographic changes affecting the ECA region, such as aging, have different implications for men and women. In particular, (i) old age poverty will especially affect women, and (ii) the shrinking labor force will make it necessary to stimulate the labor participation rate of women.

Who Is Deprived? Who Feels Deprived? Labor Deprivation, Youth and Gender in Morocco

Serajuddin, Umar; Verme, Paolo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
One of the recurrent explanations of the Arab spring is that governments were disconnected from their populations and that public policies were simply not in line with people's sentiments and expectations. This paper provides a methodology to better understand how objective conditions of deprivation are translated into subjective feelings of deprivation using a strand of the recent literature on relative deprivation. The authors apply this methodology to better understand the question of gender and youth deprivation in the context of the Moroccan labor market. They find that the reference group (the people with whom people compare themselves) plays a pivotal role in understanding how feelings of labor deprivation are generated. This can explain the apparent mismatch between objective conditions and subjective feelings of deprivation related to joblessness among young men and women. The methodology can help us understand why greater discontent may be exhibited by a group of individuals who are in fact less deprived in a material sense. It can also potentially help governments design public policies that address objective conditions of deprivation, such as unemployment, with a better understanding of subjective implications.

The Economics of Gender in Mexico : Work, Family, State, and Market; La economia de genero en Mexico : trabajo, familia, estado ymercado

Katz, Elizabeth G.; Correia, Maria C.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
This report examines gender differences in the Mexican economy, with a focus on the labor market. It examines gender issues over the course of the life cycle, beginning with education and child labor, continuing with adult urban and rural labor force participation, and concluding with the situation of elderly Mexican men and women. While each chapter uses different data sources and analytical methodologies, the volume as a whole is guided by a gender perspective that examines the situations of both men and women as distinct groups and in relationship to one another. Drawing on national labor market statistics, specialized regional household surveys, and firm-level data, the chapters that comprise the volume are rich in detailed quantitative analysis, which is presented in relatively non-technical language. This report has its origins in the commissioning of a series of technical papers by the World Bank, in collaboration with several Mexican government agencies, including the Comision Nacional de la Mujer and the Secretaria de Hacienda y Credito Publico. A number of additional studies resulted from the first national Workshop on Gender Analysis and Public Policies in April 1997.

Gender Needs Assessment in Conflict-Affected Areas in Thailand's Southernmost Provinces

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
The objectives of the gender needs assessment study is to add value to and complement the Post Conflict Fund (PCF) supported conflict; and to add to the body of knowledge regarding women, men and their families affected by the conflict as well as the government's policies in addressing this conflict. The century-long struggle in Thailand's southernmost provinces of Yala, Narathiwas and Pattani broke into open violence in January 2004, and has since escalated, involving over 9,000 individuals in violence, widowing nearly 1,000 women and orphaning over 1,200 children. The conflict historically centered on the relationship between Malayu-speaking Muslims majority in the three provinces, and the largely Buddhist nation. The aim of the gender needs assessment is to deepen the understanding of the conflict situation experienced by men and women in the southern conflict areas; and to help identify appropriate interventions aimed at improving the lives of men and women in conflict situations. This study had been undertaken with the explicit purpose of developing a gendered understanding of dimensions of the conflict and the existing or possible sources of peace and resilience to conflict.

Pensar direitos humanos na perspectiva de gênero: limites e possibilidades na educação profissional em Goiás; Think about human rights from a gender perspective: limits and possibilities in professional educational education in Goiás

Oliveira, Patrícia Fernandes de
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Direitos Humanos (PRPG); Pró-Reitoria de Pós-graduação (PRPG) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Direitos Humanos (PRPG); Pró-Reitoria de Pós-graduação (PRPG)
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
This thesis aims to identify and analyze the knowledge produced in gender Technical Course in Nursing in Goiânia / GO. For the investigation of this study carried out a field study of qualitative approach in seven professional education institutions of the city of Goiânia, which offer the Technical Course in Nursing, two public and five private schools. As an instrument for data collection was used questionnaire with open questions to 71 students, semi-structured with 7 coordinating and analyzing course plan, aiming to expand the discussions and papers on the subject in gender Technical Course in Nursing interview. To interpret the data content analysis was performed, taking advantage of Gender Studies, Cultural Studies and contributions of Feminist Studies through the linked post-structuralist approach theoretical and methodological tools. As regards the analysis of travel plans, it was identified that the curriculum seeks to adapt to the host and living with differences, establishing a channel for discussion of human rights to disseminate ethical values and respect for human dignity human. Since these discussions are present in the current resolution 6/12, which brings as a guiding principle of professional technical high school education...

Percepções de professores/as sobre as diferenças de género na educação em sexualidade em escolas portuguesas; Teachers’ perceptions on gender differences in sexuality education in Portuguese schools; Percepciones de profesores/as sobre las diferencias de género en la educación en sexualidad en escuelas portuguesas

Vilaça, Teresa
Fonte: Departamento de Educação - IB - UNESP/Campus de Rio Claro Publicador: Departamento de Educação - IB - UNESP/Campus de Rio Claro
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
Argumenta-se que de acordo com as percepções dos/as professores/as os/as estudantes usam ativamente o material de educação em sexualidade (ES), bem como os aspetos da vida na escola, como recursos simbólicos para construir a sua identidade de género e as suas relações de poder. Neste sentido, aplicou-se uma entrevista semiestruturada a uma amostra intencional de professores/as, que lecionam entre o 7º e o 12º anos de escolaridade e já desenvolveram projetos ou atividades de ES (N=87), para focar, entre outros aspetos, as suas percepções sobre as características de género que afetam a resposta dos/as estudantes na ES, visando conhecer as suas percepções sobre: i) diferenças de género nas reações aos temas/problemas da ES; ii) natureza das interações de género durante a ES. De acordo com o discurso da maior parte dos/as professores/as, durante a ES os rapazes tentaram demostrar a sua masculinidade mostrando-se diferentes das raparigas e distanciando-se de todos os assuntos relacionados com a sexualidade das mulheres, desvalorizando e afastando-se de tudo o que é feminino o que envolveu, por vezes, depreciar e insultar as raparigas. As alunas reagiram positivamente porque a ES mantém e apoia o seu sentido de identidade de género e o que os códigos de género prescrevem para elas. Estes resultados revelam que é essencial trabalhar na formação de professores/as a relação entre género...