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Are Irrigation Rehabilitation Projects Good for Poor Farmers in Peru?

Datar, Gayatri; Del Carpio, Ximena V.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.28%
This paper analyzes changes in agricultural production and economic welfare of farmers in rural Peru resulting from a large irrigation infrastructure rehabilitation project. The analysis uses a ten-year district panel and a spatial regression discontinuity approach to measure the causal effect of the intervention. While general impacts are modest, the analysis shows that the project is progressive--poor farmers consistently benefit more than non-poor farmers. Farmers living in districts with a rehabilitated irrigation site experience positive labor dynamics, in terms of income and agricultural jobs. Poor farmers increase their total income by more than $220 per year compared with the control group, while rich farmers do not experience such an income gain. The results also show crop specialization patterns in the economic status of farm households; poorer farm households increase their production of staple crops, such as beans and potatoes, while non-poor beneficiary farmers cultivate more industrial crops. Findings from this evaluation have important implications for pro-poor policy design in the agricultural sector.

Investment in Agricultural Water for Poverty Reduction and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa : Synthesis Report

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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46.31%
The report analyses the contribution to date of agricultural water management to poverty reduction and growth in the in sub-Saharan Africa region, the reasons for its slow expansion and apparently poor track record, as well as the ways in which increased investment in agricultural water management could make a sustainable contribution to further poverty reduction and growth. The first chapter places agricultural water management in the context of the millennium development goals and paths to poverty reduction through agricultural growth. The second to fifth chapters contain a regional diagnostic that looks at the role of agricultural water management in sub-Saharan Africa, examines the contribution that investment projects have made, reviews the changing institutional context, and assesses the potential for further development. The sixth and the final chapter then summarizes the lessons and recommendations for increasing the contribution of agricultural water management to poverty reduction and growth in the region.

Gender and Governance in Agricultural Extension Services : Insights from India, Ghana, and Ethiopia

Madhvani, Sonia; Pehu, Eija
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.31%
The gender and governance in rural services insights from India, Ghana, and Ethiopia report aims to generate policy-relevant knowledge on strategies for improving agricultural service delivery, with a focus on providing more equitable access to these services, especially for women. The project has been implemented in India, Ghana, and Ethiopia. These countries were chosen to capture variation in important macro-factors, especially the level of economic development; various aspects of governance, such as political system and party system; the role of women in society; and strategies adopted to promote gender equity. The project focused on agricultural extension as an example of a critical agricultural service. In India, the main problem is the lack of overall capacity resulting from a past policy of not hiring agricultural extension providers. The study indicates that access to agricultural extension is low in Ghana, despite the fact that an extension agent-to-farmer ratio is comparatively high. Agricultural extension is a high for the Ethiopia government priority...

Priorities for Sustainable Growth : A Strategy for Agriculture Sector Development in Tajikistan, Technical Annex 1. Cotton Sector Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.28%
Agriculture sector growth has made a powerful contribution to post-war economic recovery in Tajikistan, accounting for approximately one third of overall economic growth from 1998 to 2004. Sector output increased by 65 percent in real terms during this period, and has now returned to the level extant at independence in 1990. Total Factor Productivity (TFP) has also increased, by 3 percent per year. Despite this progress, there is legitimate concern that this growth is unsustainable. Evidence suggests that it has been driven largely by the external factors noted above, rather than substantive changes to resources, incentives and the behavior of factor and commodity markets. First, an extensive program of policy reform, particularly in the area of land ownership, has yet to make a substantial impact on the incentive structure for agricultural workers cultivating the majority of arable land. Second, sustainable growth requires positive net investment. Third, commodity markets remain weak, with a limited capacity to translate increased demand into improved production incentives. And fourth...

Rain, Agriculture, and Tariffs

Bastos, Paulo; Straume, Odd Rune; Urrego, Jaime A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.31%
This paper examines whether and how rainfall shocks affect tariff setting in the agricultural sector. In a model of strategic trade policy, the authors show that the impact of a negative rainfall shock on optimal import tariffs is generally ambiguous, depending on the weight placed by the domestic policy maker on tariff revenue, profits and the consumer surplus. The more weight placed on domestic profits, the more likely it is that the policy maker will respond to a rainfall shortage by reducing import tariffs. These findings are robust to alternative assumptions about market structure and the timing of the game. Using detailed panel data on applied tariffs and rainfall for 70 nations, the authors find robust evidence that rainfall shortages generally induce policy makers to set lower tariffs on agricultural imports.

Reforming Agricultural Trade for Developing Countries : Volume 1. Key Issues for a Pro-Development Outcome of the Doha Round

McCalla, Alex F.; Nash, John
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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46.31%
Reforming agricultural trade for developing countries is a two-volume set. The first volume is subtitled Key issues for a pro- development outcome of the Doha Round, and it is focused on specific concerns that are being encountered in the agricultural negotiations, and on strategies for dealing with them to arrive at a final agreement that will significantly spur growth and reduce poverty in developing countries. The companion volume is subtitled Quantifying the impact of multilateral trade reform. It comprises chapters that take different approaches to modeling trade reform and quantifying the resulting benefits and costs to various players in the negotiations. The study explains the differences in results that come out of these different approaches, and compares them to some other recent estimates of the gains from global trade reform.

Innovative Agricultural SME Finance Models

Global Partnership for Financial Inclusion; International Finance Corporation
Fonte: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC Publicador: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
This report is organized into three main sections. Section one sets out the context by describing the particular challenges and opportunities related to financing agriculture, followed by defining the target group of agricultural SME s. Section two describes a set of innovative financing models. Section three then provides a framework for an indicative assessment of these models by gathering and forming observations from the case studies. The model observations are then highlighted in three types of country contexts in which bankers in developing countries may find themselves. Preliminary assessment results are presented. The report concludes with key lessons learned on innovative agricultural financing, relevant case studies, and an outlook on further work in this area. Annexes present methodologies and case studies representing the various models.

Are the "Salad days over and the dog days here" An overview of how Australia can increase agricultural trade with China

White, Joanna
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.28%
This report identifies how Australia can increase its agricultural trade with China in the future global context of food insecurity. Its primary focus is on the free trade agreement negotiations and foreign direct investment in the Australian agricultural sector. The first section argues that the free trade agreement negotiations have broken down for a number of reasons including the differing political and economic systems of Australia and China, as well as sectoral factors, primarily agriculture. The report then analyzes the current trade and investment trends between Australia and China finding that agricultural trade between the two countries is already increasing at a rapid rate. lt also finds that Chinese investment in Australia is increasing but it is not possible to obtained a precise rate or number of investments in Australian agricultural land because of insufficient public record keeping. The third section compares Australia's trade and investment trends to that of New Zealand's, a country which has been successful in finalizing a free trade agreement with China. This section finds that Australia's agricultural trade is increasing at a greater rate than that of New Zealand's, but New Zealand's trade is more secure into the future because of the Free Trade Agreement. This section highlights some of the concessions New Zealand made in the agricultural sector during free trade agreement negotiations and shows how these concessions could be adopted by Australia without detrimental effect. This section also analyses New Zealand's Foreign Investment Review regime...

Agricultural Trade Liberalization in a New Trade Round : Perspectives of Developing Countries and Transition Economies

Ingco, Merlinda; Winters, L. Alan
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.31%
This discussion paper contains seven studies, designed to a) review, and assess the impact of the implementation of the Uruguay Round (UR) Agreement on Agriculture, and, b) to analyze the key issues, interests, and options for developing countries in the new World Trade Organization's (WTO) round of multilateral trade negotiations in agriculture. Six regional case studies are presented: Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, Latin America, Eastern Asia, Central and Eastern Europe, and industrial countries. A quantitative analysis of the dynamics of multilateral liberalization in food, and agricultural trade is also presented. Among some of the key conclusions, it is suggested that much preparatory work was achieved in bringing agriculture fully into the multilateral trading system during the UR, and, a significant achievement was the development of a broad framework for reductions in trade-distorting policies. The UR was also successful in negotiating reduced volumes of subsidized exports, and in providing at least...

Tanzania Public Expenditure Review : National Agricultural Input Voucher Scheme

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.28%
Tanzania is largely an agriculture-based economy. This sector accounts for over three-quarters of national employment, and approximately 25 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). The national agricultural input voucher scheme (NAIVS) is a market smart input subsidy program designed in response to the sharp rise in global grain and fertilizer prices in 2007 and 2008. The main aim of the program is to raise maize and rice production, and thus preserve Tanzania's household and national food security. During the period from 2008 to 2013, approximately United States (U.S.) 300 million dollars has been invested in providing more than 2.5 million smallholder farmers with a 50 percent subsidy on a one acre package of maize or rice seed, and chemical fertilizer. The input subsidy program helped Tanzanian smallholders harvest more than 2.5 million tons of additional maize and rice grain. The NAIVS program also faced multiple logistical challenges. These challenges are being considered in the government's new big results now initiative. This report summarizes the results of an overview of the program...

Niger : Financial Sector Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
Since 1999, the Nigerien authorities have embarked on a program of reform to develop the financial system and ensure its stability in the wake of a regional banking crisis. Despite this progress, much remains to be done to bring the financial sector up to sub-regional standards. The first step is to formulate a financial sector development strategy that will serve as a roadmap for future reforms. Issues of access to financial services are crucial in Niger, in view of indicators that place Niger at the lowest level in the Union (except for Guinea-Bissau). The stability of the financial sector has improved, but still requires vigilance on the part of national and monetary authorities. The country's economic activity is based on agriculture and services, but uranium is Niger's main export. The primary and tertiary sectors account for 42 and 38 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) respectively. Agriculture sustains roughly 80 percent of the population. Industrial activities are extremely limited apart from uranium mining in the north...

Financial Sector Development in Africa : Opportunities and Challenges

Beck, Thorsten; Maimbo, Samuel Munzele
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.28%
Africa's financial systems face challenges across many dimensions, as discussed in the report financing Africa: through the crisis and beyond. The analysis in that report was based partly on several detailed background papers that are included in this volume. The next six chapters are written by experts in their respective areas and provide an in-depth analysis of these challenges and present possible solutions. In this introduction, the authors provide an overview of the different chapters and how they are related to each other and the main volume. The three chapters in first part focus on key challenges concerned with access to financial services, including financial and operational deficiencies in the microfinance market, reaping the benefits from the technological revolution of retail banking, and deepening and broadening agricultural finance across Africa. The three chapters thus each cover different aspects with a different focus, ranging from an institutional approach to a focus on innovation as a driver of financial broadening to an important element of financial infrastructure to a specific sector. The second part includes the fourth chapter...

Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Latin America

Anderson, Kym; Valdés, Alberto
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
This book provides an overview of the evolution of distortions to agricultural incentives caused by price and trade policies in the World Bank-defined region of Latin America and the Caribbean. Following the introduction and summary, it includes commissioned country studies of one Caribbean, one Central American, and six South American economies. The chapters are followed by two appendixes. The first describes the methodology used to measure the nominal and relative rates of assistance to farmers and the taxes and subsidies involved in food consumption; the second provides country and regional summaries, in tables, of annual estimates of these rates of assistance. This study on Latin America is based on a sample of eight countries, comprising the big four economies of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico; Colombia and Ecuador, two of the poorest South American tropical countries; the Dominican Republic, the largest Caribbean economy; and Nicaragua, the poorest country in Central America. Together, in 2000-04...

Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook

World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization; International Fund for Agricultural Development
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.3%
Three out of every four poor people in developing countries live in rural areas, and most of them depend directly or indirectly on agriculture for their livelihoods. In many parts of the world, women are the main farmers or producers, but their roles remain largely unrecognized. The 2008 World development report: agriculture for development highlights the vital role of agriculture in sustainable development and its importance in achieving the millennium development goal of halving by 2015 the share of people suffering from extreme poverty and hunger. Climate change and rising food prices are reminders of the need to focus on food security and agriculture for development; and the material presented in the gender in agriculture sourcebook suggests that accounting for the different roles of women and men and gender equality in access to resources and opportunities is a necessary condition for doing so. This sourcebook is a particularly timely resource. It combines descriptive accounts of national and international experience in investing in agriculture with practical operational guidance on to how to design agriculture for development strategies that capitalize effectively on the unique properties of agricultural growth and rural development involving women and men as a high-impact source of poverty reduction. It looks at gender equality and women's empowerment...

Agricultural Productivity, Hired Labor, Wages and Poverty : Evidence from Bangladesh

Emran, Shahe; Shilpi, Forhad
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.3%
This paper provides evidence on the effects of agricultural productivity on wage rates, labor supply to market oriented activities, and labor allocation between own farming and wage labor in agriculture. To guide the empirical work, this paper develops a general equilibrium model that underscores the role of reallocation of family labor engaged in the production of non-marketed services at home (`home production'). The model predicts positive effects of a favorable agricultural productivity shock on wages and income, but the effect on hired labor is ambiguous; it depends on the strength of reallocation of labor from home to market production by labor surplus and deficit households. Taking rainfall variations as a measure of shock to agricultural productivity, and using subdistrict level panel data from Bangladesh, this paper finds significant positive effects of a favorable rainfall shock on agricultural wages, labor supply to market work, and per capita household expenditure. The share of hired labor in contrast declines substantially in response to a favorable productivity shock...

Pakistan Poverty Trends, Scenarios and Drivers

Lopez-Calix, Jose; Mejia, Carolina; Newhouse, David; Sobrado, Carlos
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.28%
This policy paper examines recent poverty trends in Pakistan. Official statistics continue to indicate strong poverty reduction through 2010-11, thanks in large part to policies and investments that boosted productivity in the non-agricultural sector. Poverty fell a bit more than other countries with similar rates of growth, as growth was slightly pro-poor and also benefited the bottom 40 percent. Alternative indicators such as access to public services have also improved, though at a slower rate since 2008 the year of twin global and domestic crises that hardly hit Pakistan. While increased productivity among non-agricultural workers has been a key factor driving poverty reduction, cash transfers through the Benazir Income Support Program (BISP) and workers' remittances from abroad also made moderate contributions. Simulations suggest that higher growth rates would further accelerate poverty reduction, but would have smaller effects on attaining other Millennium Development Goals. Despite this progress on poverty reductions...

Importancia de los bancos de primer piso en la intermediación, otorgamiento y legalización de créditos de redescuento en Colombia; Importance of banks first floor in the income, and grant of probate of rediscount's credits in Colombia

Muñoz Leal, Adriana; Salazar González, Jair Antonio
Fonte: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ciencias Económicas; Especialización en Finanzas y Administración Pública Publicador: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ciencias Económicas; Especialización en Finanzas y Administración Pública
Tipo: bachelorThesis; Trabajo de grado Formato: pdf; pdf
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.3%
FINAGRO, es un banco de segundo piso respaldado por el Gobierno Nacional cuyo objetivo es el crecimiento y desarrollo del sector agropecuario, donde su principal fuente de recursos aparte de los aportes que realiza el Gobierno y sus accionistas está en Títulos de Desarrollo Agropecuario TDA, que son inversiones en las que están obligados todos los intermediarios financieros a realizar, estas inversiones generan una rentabilidad muy baja debido a que la tasa de interés para estos Títulos es del DTF – 2 o 4 puntos según las clase de los Títulos.; FINAGRO , is a second-tier bank backed by the Government aimed at growth and development of the agricultural sector , where the main source of income apart from the contributions made by the Government and its shareholders are in Titles TDA Agricultural Development , which are investments in which are required all financial intermediaries to perform , these investments generate very low returns because the interest rate for these securities is DTF - 2 or 4 points according to the class of securities .

Cooperativas agrícolas, ¿alternativas competentes para el TLC?; Agricultural cooperatives, competent alternatives for the TLC?

Muñoz Rodríguez, Miguel Angel; Bernal, César
Fonte: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ciencias Económicas; Especialización en Gerencia en Comercio Internacional Publicador: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ciencias Económicas; Especialización en Gerencia en Comercio Internacional
Tipo: bachelorThesis; Trabajo de grado Formato: pdf; pdf
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.31%
La preocupación y la coyuntura que en los últimos años se ha dado alrededor de las posibilidades de éxito y riesgos de la agricultura colombiana frente a los procesos multilaterales de integración y específicamente al tratado de libre comercio con los Estados Unidos, se ha caracterizado por confrontar posiciones opuestas en pro o en contra de las bondades de ese tipo de acuerdos para el sector. Antes que una estrategia gubernamental de desarrollo, se presume de una solución de organización cooperativa que parte de los protagonistas del sector agrícola colombiano, los pequeños y medianos empresarios del sector, deben ser los principales interesados en su organización y en la constitución de cooperativas de beneficio común, sin olvidar que el país y su gobierno debe concentrar sus esfuerzos y recursos en el agro nacional, obviando intereses privados y dándole al interés común, la importancia que se merece, con una clara posibilidad de crecimiento productivo y comercial y que le reportarán hacia el futuro mejores soluciones tanto en términos de valor agregado como de empleo y exportaciones. Se debe aprovechar nuestra riqueza agrícola, pero empezar a desarrollar el agro colombiano con el valor agregado que exige el sistema globalizado actual.; The concern and the situation that in recent years has been given about the chances of success and risks of the Colombian agriculture multilateral processes of integration and specifically to the free trade agreement with the United States...

Information Transfer in the Agricultural Sector in Spain

Munoz-Canavate, Antonio; Hipola, Pedro
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/03/2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.3%
This article examines the structures of information transfer to the agricultural (production) and agro-alimentary (transformation and commercialization of the products) sector within Spain. An historical perspective is provided to better illustrate the reality and complexity of Spain with regard to the systems of agrarian extension, agricultural research, the resources provided by Spain's central administration, and the use of information by related enterprises. The Service of Agrarian Extension appeared in Spain in the 1950s, and new political-administrative structures (agribusiness associations, cooperatives) were founded when Spain became a democratic nation in the late 1970s and with the arrival of electronic information, largely in the 1990s. We describe the research and technological centers supporting innovation in the agro-alimentary sector and the communication media dedicated to the agricultural sector. The article illustrates that the systems of agricultural information in Spain have been largely derived from initiatives of the Public Administration, with few private initiatives.

Improving Public Expenditures in Agriculture; Empirical Evidence of the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Agricultural Public Expenditures in Mongolia

Amponsah, Kofi; Annor-Frempong, Charles
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.31%
The objective of the agricultural sector public expenditure review (AgPER) was to examine the efficiency and effectiveness of agricultural sector expenditures in Mongolia. The AgPER provides policy makers with a better understanding of: (a) trends in the level and composition of public expenditures in agriculture over the past five to ten years; (b) the economic and functional composition of agriculture expenditures; (c) the budget processes and performance in the agriculture sector; (d) issues inhibiting the effectiveness and efficiency of public expenditures in agriculture.