The stomach, a hallmark of gnathostome evolution, represents a unique anatomical innovation characterized by the presence of acid- and pepsin-secreting glands. However, the occurrence of these glands in gnathostome species is not universal; in the nineteenth century the French zoologist Cuvier first noted that some teleosts lacked a stomach. Strikingly, Holocephali (chimaeras), dipnoids (lungfish) and monotremes (egg-laying mammals) also lack acid secretion and a gastric cellular phenotype. Here, we test the hypothesis that loss of the gastric phenotype is correlated with the loss of key gastric genes. We investigated species from all the main gnathostome lineages and show the specific contribution of gene loss to the widespread distribution of the agastric condition. We establish that the stomach loss correlates with the persistent and complete absence of the gastric function gene kit—H+/K+-ATPase (Atp4A and Atp4B) and pepsinogens (Pga, Pgc, Cym)—in the analysed species. We also find that in gastric species the pepsinogen gene complement varies significantly (e.g. two to four in teleosts and tens in some mammals) with multiple events of pseudogenization identified in various lineages. We propose that relaxation of purifying selection in pepsinogen genes and possibly proton pump genes in response to dietary changes led to the numerous independent events of stomach loss in gnathostome history. Significantly...
We present optimal linear time algorithms for computing the Shapley values and 'heightened evolutionary distinctiveness' (HED) scores for the set of taxa in a phylogenetic tree. We demonstrate the efficiency of these new algorithms by applying them to a set of 10,000 reasonable 5139-species mammal trees. This is the first time these indices have been computed on such a large taxon and we contrast our finding with an ad-hoc index for mammals, fair proportion (FP), used by the Zoological Society of London's EDGE programme. Our empirical results follow expectations. In particular, the Shapley values are very strongly correlated with the FP scores, but provide a higher weight to the few monotremes that comprise the sister to all other mammals. We also find that the HED score, which measures a species' unique contribution to future subsets as function of the probability that close relatives will go extinct, is very sensitive to the estimated probabilities. When they are low, HED scores are less than FP scores, and approach the simple measure of a species' age. Deviations (like the Solendon genus of the West Indies) occur when sister species are both at high risk of extinction and their clade roots deep in the tree. Conversely, when endangered species have higher probabilities of being lost...
Background: Proteins of the mammalian PYHIN (IFI200/HIN-200) family are involved in defence against infection through recognition of foreign DNA. The family member absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) binds cytosolic DNA via its HIN domain and initiates inflammasome formation via its pyrin domain. AIM2 lies within a cluster of related genes, many of which are uncharacterised in mouse. To better understand the evolution, orthology and function of these genes, we have documented the range of PYHIN genes present in representative mammalian species, and undertaken phylogenetic and expression analyses. Results: No PYHIN genes are evident in non-mammals or monotremes, with a single member found in each of three marsupial genomes. Placental mammals show variable family expansions, from one gene in cow to four in human and 14 in mouse. A single HIN domain appears to have evolved in the common ancestor of marsupials and placental mammals, and duplicated to give rise to three distinct forms (HIN-A, -B and -C) in the placental mammal ancestor. Phylogenetic analyses showed that AIM2 HIN-C and pyrin domains clearly diverge from the rest of the family, and it is the only PYHIN protein with orthology across many species. Interestingly, although AIM2 is important in defence against some bacteria and viruses in mice...
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences (USA)Publicador: National Academy of Sciences (USA)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The semiaquatic platypus and terrestrial echidnas (spiny anteaters) are the only living egg-laying mammals (monotremes). The fossil record has provided few clues as to their origins and the evolution of their ecological specializations; however, recent re
Extant mammals are divided into sub- and infraclasses that are distinguished by their mode of reproduction. The monotremes lay eggs, the marsupials give birth to altricial young that typically develop in a pouch, and the eutherians have prolonged in utero
Genomic imprinting first evolved in mammals around the time that humans last shared a common ancestor with marsupials and monotremes (180-210 million years ago). Recent comparisons of large imprinted domains in these divergent mammalian groups have shown
Fonte: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.Publicador: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
Tipo: Parte de Livro
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For many years it was thought that the X chromosome in all three major lineages of mammals (monotremes, marsupials and eutherians) had a shared evolutionary history. However, monotreme and marsupial genome projects and the employment of molecular cytogene
All therian mammals (eutherians and marsupials) have an XX female/XY male sex chromosome system or some variant of it. The X and Y evolved from a homologous pair of autosomes over the 166 million years since therian mammals diverged from monotremes. Compa
In eutherian ('placental') mammals, sex is determined by the presence or absence of the Y chromosome-borne gene SRY, which triggers testis determination. Marsupials also have a Y-borne SRY gene, implying that this mechanism is ancestral to therians, the S
The genomes of the egg-laying platypus and echidna are of particular interest because monotremes are the most basal mammal group. The chromosomal distribution of an ancient family of short interspersed repeats (SINEs), the core-SINEs, was investigated to
The duck-billed platypus has five pairs of sex chromosomes, but there is no information about the primary sex-determining switch in this species. As there is no apparent SRY orthologue in platypus, another gene must acquire the function of a key regulator
Marsupial, as well as eutherian, mammals are subject to X chromosome inactivation in the somatic cells of females, although the phenotype and the molecular mechanism differ in important respects. Monotreme mammals appear to subscribe at least to a form of
Parent-of-origin gene expression (genomic imprinting) is widespread among eutherian mammals and also occurs in marsupials. Most imprinted genes are expressed in the placenta, but the brain is also a favored site. Although imprinting evolved in therian mam
The duck-billed platypus is an extraordinary mammal. Its chromosome complement is no less extraordinary, for it includes a system in which ten sex chromosomes form an extensive meiotic chain in males. Such meiotic multiples are unprecedented in vertebrates but occur sporadically in plant and invertebrate species. In this paper, we review the evolution and formation of meiotic multiples in plants and invertebrates to try to gain insights into the origin of the platypus meiotic multiple. We describe the meiotic hurdles that translocated mammalian chromosomes face, which make longer chains disadvantageous in mammals, and we discuss how sex chromosomes and dosage compensation might have affected the evolution of sex-linked meiotic multiples. We conclude that the evolutionary conservation of the chain in monotremes, the structural properties of the translocated chromosomes and the highly accurate segregation at meiosis make the platypus system remarkably different from meiotic multiples in other species. We discuss alternative evolutionary models, which fall broadly into two categories: either the chain is the result of a sequence of translocation events from an ancestral pair of sex chromosomes (Model I) or the entire chain came into being at once by hybridization of two populations with different chromosomal rearrangements sharing monobrachial homology (Model II).
Weird mammals are of two types. Highly divergent mammals, such as the marsupials and monotremes, have informed us of the evolutionary history of the Y chromosome and sex-determining gene, and the recently specialized rodents can help us predict its future. The Y chromosome has had a short but eventful history, and is already heading briskly for oblivion. It originated as a homologous partner of the X when it acquired a sex-determining gene (not necessarily SRY). Most of the genes on the Y, even those with a male-specific function, evolved from genes now on the X. At the mercy of a high rate of variability and the forces of drift and selection, the Y has lost genes at a rate of 3-6 genes/million years, sparing those that acquired critical male-specific functions. Even these genes have disappeared from one mammalian lineage or another as their functions were usurped by genes elsewhere in the genome. The mammalian testis-determining gene, SRY, is a typical Y-borne gene. It arose by truncation of a gene (SOX3) on the X that is expressed in brain development, and it may work by interacting with (inhibiting?) related genes, including SOX9. Variant sex-determining systems in rodents show that the action of SRY can change, as it evidently has in the mouse...