Página 8 dos resultados de 7066 itens digitais encontrados em 0.047 segundos

Estudo de tendências nas séries temporais de qualidade de água de rios do estado de São Paulo com diferentes graus de intervenção antrópica.; Trend analysis in water quality time series of rivers with different degrees of anthropogenic intervention in São Paulo State.

Groppo, Juliano Daniel
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/06/2005 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.86%
O conhecimento das tendências temporais da qualidade das águas é importante no diagnóstico ambiental de bacias hidrográficas, permitindo avaliar como os corpos d’água vem respondendo ao longo dos anos, em termos qualitativos, à crescente intervenção antrópica. O objetivo deste trabalho é caracterizar a qualidade das águas dos rios das bacias do Piracicaba, Mogi-Guaçu, Turvo Grande, Peixe, Aguapeí, São José dos Dourados e Alto Paranapanema utilizando postos monitorados pela CETESB (Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental), no período entre 1979 e 2001. Os parâmetros biogeoquímicos avaliados quanto a sua tendência temporal e magnitude foram: oxigênio dissolvido (OD), demanda bioquímica de oxigênio (DBO), nitrogênio total, nitrato, fósforo total, cloreto, amônio e coliformes fecais. A análise de tendência temporal exige uma metodologia específica, uma vez que as séries temporais obtidas não seguem uma distribuição normal, as amostragens são realizadas irregularmente, os dados apresentam sazonalidade e são dependentes da vazão dos rios. Essa metodologia é dividida em análise gráfica e aplicação de testes de tendência, onde inicialmente realiza-se uma análise exploratória dos dados, seguida da confirmação através de testes estatísticos. Os resultados mostraram que de uma maneira geral existe uma degradação da qualidade das águas na maior parte das bacias...

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE BRAZPD II COHORT AND DESCRIPTION OF TRENDS IN PERITONEAL DIALYSIS OUTCOME ACROSS TIME PERIODS

Moraes, Thyago Proenca de; Figueiredo, Ana Elizabeth; Campos, Ludimila Guedim de; Olandoski, Marcia; Barretti, Pasqual; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; BRAZPD Investigators
Fonte: Multimed Inc Publicador: Multimed Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 714-723
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.86%
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Observational studies from different regions of the world provide valuable information in patient selection, clinical practice, and their relationship to patient and technique outcome. The present study is the first large cohort providing patient characteristics, clinical practice, patterns and their relationship to outcomes in Latin America. The objective of the present study was to characterize the cohort and to describe the main determinants of patient and technique survival, including trends over time of peritoneal dialysis (PD) initiation and treatment.This was a nationwide cohort study in which all incident adult patients on PD from 122 centers were studied. Patient demographics, socioeconomic and laboratory values were followed from December 2004 to January 2011 and, for comparison purposes, divided into 3 groups according to the year of starting PD: 2005/06, 2007/08 and 2009/10. Patient survival and technique failure (TF) were analyzed using the competing risk model of Fine and Gray. All patients active at the end of follow-up were treated as censored. In contrast, all patients who dropped the study for any reason different from the primary event of interest were treated as competing risk. Significance was set to a p level of 0.05.A total of 9...

Trends in overweight among US adults from 1987 to 1993: a multistate telephone survey.

Galuska, D A; Serdula, M; Pamuk, E; Siegel, P Z; Byers, T
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1996 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.86%
OBJECTIVES: Using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, this study describes trends in the prevalence of overweight between 1987 and 1993. METHODS: Data were examined from 33 states participating in an ongoing telephone survey of health behaviors of adults (n = 387,704). Self-reported weights and heights were used to calculate sex-specific prevalence estimates of overweight for each year from 1987 to 1993. Time trends were evaluated with the use of linear regression. RESULTS: Between 1987 and 1993, the age-adjusted prevalence of overweight increased by 0.9% per year for both sexes (from 21.9% to 26.7% among men and from 20.6% to 25.4% among women). The increasing linear trend was observed in all subgroups of the population but was most notable for Black men (1.5% per year) and men living in the Northeast (1.4% per year). Secular changes in smoking and leisure-time physical activity did not entirely account for the increase in overweight. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of overweight among American adults increased by 5% between 1987 and 1993. Efforts are needed to explore the causes of this adverse trend and to find effective strategies to prevent obesity.

Socioeconomic status and trends in risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in the Danish MONICA population, 1982-1992

Osler, M.; Gerdes, L. U.; Davidsen, M.; Bronnum-Hansen, H.; Madsen, M.; Jorgensen, T.; Schroll, M.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.86%
STUDY OBJECTIVE—The decline in cardiovascular mortality in Denmark during the 1980s has been greatest in the highest socioeconomic groups of the population. This study examines whether the increased social inequality in cardiovascular mortality has been accompanied by a different trend in cardiovascular risk factors in different educational groups.
DESIGN—Data from three cross sectional WHO MONICA surveys conducted in 1982-84, 1987, and 1991-92, were analysed to estimate trends in biological (weight, height, body mass index, blood pressure, and serum lipids) and behavioural (smoking, physical activity during leisure, and eating habits) risk factors in relation to educational status.
SETTING—County of Copenhagen, Denmark.
PARTICIPANTS—6695 Danish men and women of ages 30, 40, 50, and 60 years.
MAIN RESULTS—The prevalence of smoking and heavy smoking decreased during the study but only in the most educated groups. In fact, the prevalence of heavy smoking increased in the least educated women. There was no significant interaction for the remaining biological and behavioural risk factors between time of examination and educational level, indicating that the trend was the same in the different educational groups. However...

Recent trends in incidence of and mortality from breast, ovarian and endometrial cancers in England and Wales and their relation to changing fertility and oral contraceptive use.

dos Santos Silva, I.; Swerdlow, A. J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1995 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.86%
Reproductive-related factors play a major role in the aetiology of cancers of the breast, ovary and endometrium. Pregnancy history influences the risk of each of these cancers, and oral contraceptive use modifies the risks of ovarian and endometrial cancers, although its effect on breast cancer risk is less certain. We analysed recent time trends in the incidence and mortality of these cancers in England and Wales and assessed whether they can be explained by changes in fertility and oral contraceptive use. During 1962-87, there were significant increases in the overall incidence of breast cancer (0.95% increase per annum) and ovarian cancer (0.76% per annum) but little increase in endometrial cancer (0.13% per annum). At young ages incidence of each of the cancers has declined in recent years, whereas at older ages there have been substantial increases. Mortality data show similar time trends. In analyses by birth cohort, incidence of each of the cancers increased steeply for successive cohorts born before the turn of the century, and more slowly for cohorts thereafter, reaching a maximum for those born in the 1920s, and decreased for those born subsequently. The increases in incidence for women born before the turn of the century paralleled marked declines in their fertility. The fall in risk for women born after the 1920s was not accompanied by significant increases in their fertility...

Trends in Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevalence, Risk Behaviors, and Preventive Measures among Seattle Injection Drug Users Aged 18–30 Years, 1994–2004

Burt, Richard D.; Hagan, Holly; Garfein, Richard S.; Sabin, Keith; Weinbaum, Cindy; Thiede, Hanne
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.86%
Injection drug users (IDUs) are at risk for infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Information on time trends in prevalence of these viruses among IDUs and in behaviors influencing their transmission can help define the status of these epidemics and of public health efforts to control them. We conducted a secondary data analysis combining cross-sectional data from IDUs aged 18–30 years enrolled in four Seattle-area studies from 1994 to 2004. Participants in all four studies were tested for antibody to HIV (anti-HIV), hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), and HCV (anti-HCV), and completed behavioral risk assessments. Logistic regression was used to investigate trends in prevalence over time after controlling for sociodemographic, drug use, and sexual behavior variables. Between 1994 and 2004, anti-HBc prevalence declined from 43 to 15% (p < 0.001), anti-HCV prevalence fell from 68 to 32% (p < 0.001) and anti-HIV prevalence remained constant at 2–3%. Declines in anti-HBc and anti-HCV prevalence were observed within the individual studies, although not all these declines were statistically significant. The declines in anti-HBc and anti-HCV prevalence remained significant after control for confounding. Although we did not observe coincident declines in injection equipment sharing practices...

Trends in Myocardial Infarction Rates and Case Fatality by Anatomical Location In Four US Communities, 1987-2008 (From the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities [ARIC] Study)

Newman, Jonathan D.; Shimbo, Daichi; Baggett, Chris; Liu, Xiaoxi; Crow, Richard; Abraham, JoEllyn M.; Loehr, Laura R.; Wruck, Lisa M.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Rosamond, Wayne D.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.86%
Although the incidence of and mortality following ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is decreasing, time-trends in anatomical location of STEMI and associated short-term prognosis have not been examined in a population-based community study. We determined 22-year trends in age- and race-adjusted, gender-specific incidence rates and 28-day case fatality of hospitalized STEMI by anatomic infarct location among a stratified random sample of 35-74 year old residents of four communities in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. STEMI infarct location was assessed by 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECG) from the hospital record, and was coded as anterior, inferior, lateral and multi-location STEMI using the Minnesota Code. Between 1987 and 2008, a total of 4,845 patients had an incident STEMI; 37.2% were inferior STEMI; 32.8% were anterior; 16.8% occurred in multiple infarct locations and 13.2% were lateral STEMI. For inferior, anterior and lateral STEMI in both men and women, significant declines were observed in the age-adjusted annual incidence rate and the associated 28-day case fatality. In contrast, for STEMI in multiple infarct locations, neither the annual incidence rate nor the 28-day case fatality changed over time. The age- and race-adjusted annual incidence rate and associated 28-day case fatality of STEMI in anterior...

Trends and threshold exceedances analysis of airborne pollen concentrations in Metropolitan Santiago Chile

Toro A., Richard; Córdova J., Alicia; Canales, Mauricio; Morales S., Raul G. E.; Mardones P., Pedro; Leiva G., Manuel A.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/05/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.86%
Pollen is one of the primary causes of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in urban centers. In the present study, the concentrations of 39 different pollens in the Santiago de Chile metropolitan area over the period 2009–2013 are characterized. The pollen was monitored daily using Burkard volumetric equipment. The contribution of each type of pollen and the corresponding time trends are evaluated. The concentrations of the pollens are compared with the established threshold levels for the protection of human health. The results show that the total amount of pollen grains originating from trees, grasses, weeds and indeterminate sources throughout the period of the study was 258,496 grains m-3, with an annual average of 51,699 ± 3,906 grains m-3 year-1. The primary source of pollen is Platanus orientalis, which produces 61.8% of the analyzed pollen. Grass pollen is the third primary component of the analyzed pollen, with a contribution of 5.82%. Among the weeds, the presence of Urticacea (3.74%) is remarkable. The pollination pattern of the trees is monophasic, and the grasses have a biphasic pattern. The trends indicate that the total pollen and tree pollen do not present a time trend that is statistically significant throughout the period of the study...

Trends in hospitalization due to cardiovascular conditions sensitive to primary health care

Lentsck,Maicon Henrique; Latorre,Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Mathias,Thais Aidar de Freitas
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.86%
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the trend in hospitalizations for primary care-sensitive cardiovascular conditions for residents of the state of Paraná, Brazil, from 2000 to 2011. METHODS: Ecological, time series study of the rates of hospitalization for cardiovascular diseases in residents aged 35-74 years old by sex, age and main diagnosis for hospitalization. Data from the Hospital Information System of the Unified Health System (SIH-SUS) and polynomial regression models for trend analyses were used. RESULTS: Hospitalization rates for cardiovascular conditions decreased during the period (r2 = 0.96; p < 0.001), with similar decreasing patterns for males and females, in all age ranges, although always higher for males. Although hospitalization trends for hypertension, heart failure and cerebrovascular disease decreased, angina remained stable for males and females. CONCLUSION: A downward trend in hospital admissions due to primary care-sensitive cardiovascular conditions in the state of Paraná between 2000 and 2011 may have resulted from the expansion of the health network of and the access to primary health attention, as well as other factors that influence this set of diseases, such as improved socioeconomic conditions of the population...

Trends and factors associated with dengue mortality and fatality in Brazil

Paixão,Enny Santos; Costa,Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Rodrigues,Laura Cunha; Rasella,Davide; Cardim,Luciana Lobato; Brasileiro,Alcione Cunha; Teixeira,Maria Gloria Lima Cruz
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.86%
AbstractINTRODUCTION:Studies that generate information that may reduce the dengue death risk are essential. This study analyzed time trends and risk factors for dengue mortality and fatality in Brazil from 2001 to 2011.METHODS:Time trends for dengue mortality and fatality rates were analyzed using simple linear regression. Associations between the dengue mortality and the case fatality rates and socioeconomic, demographic, and health care indicators at the municipality level were analyzed using negative binomial regression.RESULTS:The dengue hemorrhagic fever case fatality rate increased in Brazil from 2001 to 2011 (β=0.67; p=0.036), in patients aged 0-14 years (β=0.48; p=0.030) and in those aged ≥15 years (β=1.1; p<0.01). Factors associated with the dengue case fatality rate were the average income per capita (MRR=0.99; p=0.038) and the number of basic health units per population (MRR=0.89; p<0.001). Mortality rates increased from 2001 to 2011 (β=0.350; p=0.002).Factors associated with mortality were inequality (RR=1.02; p=0.001) high income per capita (MRR=0.99; p=0.005), and higher proportions of populations living in urban areas (MRR=1.01; p<0.001).CONCLUSIONS:The increases in the dengue mortality and case fatality rates and the associated socioeconomic and health care factors...

Trends in Alcohol’s Harms to Others (AHTO) and Co-occurrence of Family-Related AHTO: The Four US National Alcohol Surveys, 2000–2015

Greenfield, Thomas K; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Kaplan, Lauren M; Kerr, William C; Wilsnack, Sharon C
Fonte: Libertas Academica Publicador: Libertas Academica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/10/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.86%
Various harms from others’ drinking have been studied individually and at single points in time. We conducted a US population 15-year trend analysis and extend prior research by studying associations of depression with combinations of four harms – family/marriage difficulties, financial troubles, assault, and vandalism – attributed to partners or family members. Data come from four National Alcohol Surveys conducted by telephone in 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015 (analytic sample = 21,184). Weighted logistic regression models estimated time trends adjusting for victim characteristics (gender, age, race/ethnicity, marital status, poverty, employment, family history of alcohol problems, and drinking maximum). The 2015 survey asked the source of the harm; we used similar models to examine characteristics, including anxiety and depression, associated with various combinations of family/marriage, financial, and assault harms due to partner’s/spouse’s/family members’ drinking. A significant upward trend (P <0.001) from 2000 to 2015 was seen for financial troubles but not for other harms due to someone else’s drinking. In 2015, depression and/or anxiety were strongly associated with exposures to harms and combinations of harms identified as stemming from drinking spouse/partner and/or family members. The results shed new light on 15-year trends and associations of harms with personal characteristics. A replicated finding is how the victim’s own heavy drinking pattern is implicated in risks for exposures to harms from someone else’s drinking. Documenting risk factors for and mental health impacts is important for interventions to reduce alcohol’s harm to others.

Prostate cancer mortality trends in Argentina 1986-2006: an age-period-cohort and joinpoint analysis

Niclis,Camila; Pou,Sonia A.; Bengió,Rubén H.; Osella,Alberto R.; Díaz,María del Pilar
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.86%
The aim of this study was to give an overview of the magnitude, variation by age and time trends in the rates of prostate cancer mortality in Córdoba province and in Argentina as a whole from 1986 to 2006. Mortality data were provided by the Córdoba Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization cancer mortality database. Prostate cancer mortality time trends were analyzed using joinpoint analysis and age-period-cohort models. In Argentina prostate cancer age-standardized mortality rates rose by 1% and 3.4% per year from 1986 to 1992 and from 1992 to 1998 respectively. There was a decreasing trend (-1.6%) for Argentina from 1998 and Córdoba (-1.9%) from 1995. Age-period-cohort models for the country and the province showed a strong age effect. In the country there was an increased risk in the 1996-2000 period, whereas there was decreased risk for birth cohorts since 1946, principally in Córdoba. A decreasing trend in prostate cancer mortality was found in Córdoba as well as in Argentina, which might be attributed to the improvement in treatment in this country.

A Long-Term Analysis of the Moose Jaw Climate Station (4015322/4015320): Temporal Trends and Frequency Analyses for Temperatures, Precipitation, and Wind Speed

Sierra Rayne; Kaya Forest
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Poster
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.86%
A long-term analysis of temporal trends and frequency analyses for temperatures (1913-2010), precipitation (1909-2010), and wind speed (1954-1996) was conducted on the Moose Jaw climate station in south-central Saskatchewan, Canada. Average annual and springtime temperatures are increasing over time, as are daily mean temperatures during March. Mean daily maximum temperatures are increasing on an annual basis and during the spring period, whereas mean daily minimum temperatures are increasing during February, March, August, and September, as well as on an annual basis and during spring and summer. There are significant positive time trends for growing degree days base 8C (GDD~8~) and 10C (GDD~10~). Rainfall has been increasing during March as well as during winter, and decreasing during October. Significant declines are occurring in the mean of homogeneous wind speeds during April, May, June, July, September, November, and December, as well as on an annual basis and during spring, summer, and autumn. Frequency distributions of monthly, seasonal, and annual climate variables were generated to facilitate more reliable risk analyses for agricultural activities and hydrologic modeling efforts.

Tendência da mortalidade por homicídios em Belo Horizonte e região metropolitana: 1980-2005; Tendencia de la mortalidad por homicidios en Belo Horizonte y región metropolitana (Brasil): 1980-2005; Homicide mortality trends in Belo Horizonte and metropolitan area: 1980- 2005

Villela, Lenice de Castro Mendes; Moraes, Suzana Alves de; Suzuki, Claudio Shigueki; Freitas, Isabel Cristina Martins de
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2010 POR; ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.86%
OBJETIVO: Analisar a evolução das taxas de mortalidade por homicídio em Belo Horizonte e Região Metropolitana no período de 1980 a 2005. MÉTODOS: Estudo de série temporal, cujos dados sobre óbitos foram obtidos do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade e as estimativas populacionais segundo sexo, idade e anos-calendário, do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Os coeficientes específicos de mortalidade, segundo sexo e faixa etária, foram calculados anualmente para cada região geográfica. A análise de tendência foi realizada por meio da construção de modelos de regressão polinomial para séries históricas, adotando-se nível de significância de 0,05. RESULTADOS: Houve elevada magnitude das taxas de mortalidade por homicídios em Belo Horizonte e Região Metropolitana, principalmente para o sexo masculino, permitindo identificar, em relação à tendência secular, crescimento acelerado dessas taxas em ambos os sexos e em quase todas as faixas etárias, mais expressivamente a partir do início da década de 1990, na Região Metropolitana da capital. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados indicam a necessidade de implementação de políticas públicas conjuntas, direcionadas para o controle da violência. Recomendam-se investimentos em educação e garantia de acesso ao emprego...

Tendência secular das parasitoses intestinais na infância na cidade de São Paulo (1984-1996); Secular trends in child intestinal parasitic diseases in S. Paulo city, Brazil (1984-1996)

Ferreira, Marcelo Urbano; Ferreira, Claudio dos Santos; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2000 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.86%
OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência e a distribuição social das parasitoses intestinais na infância, estabelecer a tendência secular dessas enfermidades e analisar sua determinação, com base em dois inquéritos domiciliares, realizados na cidade de São Paulo, SP, em 1984/85 e 1995/96. MÉTODOS: Os inquéritos estudaram amostras probabilísticas da população residente na cidade com idades entre zero e 59 meses (1.016 em 1984/85 e 1.280 em 1995/96). Amostras de fezes foram coletadas nos dois inquéritos e submetidas a exame parasitológico pela técnica de sedimentação, realizando-se leituras de preparações simples e de preparações coradas com lugol para exame de cistos de protozoários. O estudo da distribuição social das parasitoses levou em conta tercis da renda familiar per capita em cada um dos inquéritos. A estratégia analítica para estudar os determinantes da evolução da prevalência das parasitoses na população empregou modelos hierárquicos de causalidade, análises multivariadas de regressão e procedimentos análogos aos utilizados para calcular riscos atribuíveis populacionais. RESULTADOS/CONCLUSÕES: Houve entre os inquéritos reduções expressivas na prevalência das parasitoses em geral (de 30,9% para 10...

Tendência secular da doença diarréica na infância na cidade de São Paulo (1984-1996); Secular trends in child diarrhea in S. Paulo city, Brazil (1984-1996)

Benicio, Maria Helena D'Aquino; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2000 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.86%
OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência e a distribuição social da doença diarréica na infância, estabelecer a tendência secular dessa enfermidade e analisar sua determinação, através dos dados coletados por dois inquéritos domiciliares realizados na cidade de São Paulo, SP, em 1984/85 e 1995/96. MÉTODOS: Os inquéritos estudaram amostras probabilísticas da população residente na cidade com idades entre zero e 59 meses (1.016 em 1984/85 e 1.280 em 1995/96). Nos dois inquéritos foram estimadas a prevalência instantânea da diarréia (proporção de crianças com três ou mais evacuações líquidas no dia da entrevista domiciliar) e a incidência anual de internações hospitalares pela doença. Esses dois indicadores foram calculados a partir de entrevistas domiciliares feitas por médicos pediatras e respondidas pelas mães das crianças. Nos dois inquéritos, as entrevistas foram distribuídas ao longo de um período de cerca de 12 meses, de modo a garantir uma varredura uniforme das várias áreas da cidade ao longo das quatro estações do ano. O estudo da distribuição social da doença diarréica levou em conta tercis da renda familiar per capita em cada um dos inquéritos. A estratégia analítica para estudar os determinantes da evolução da prevalência da doença na população empregou modelos hierárquicos de causalidade...

Tendência secular da doença respiratória na infância na cidade de São Paulo (1984-1996); Secular trends in child respiratory diseases in S. Paulo City, Brazil (1984-1996)

Benicio, Maria Helena D'Aquino; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves; Gouveia, Nelson da Cruz; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2000 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.86%
OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência e a distribuição social da doença respiratória na infância, estabelecer a tendência secular dessa enfermidade e analisar sua determinação, com base nos dados coletados por dois inquéritos domiciliares realizados na cidade de São Paulo, SP, em 1984/85 e em 1995/96. MÉTODOS: Os inquéritos estudaram amostras probabilísticas da população residente na cidade com idades entre zero e 59 meses (1.016 em 1984/85 e 1.280 em 1995/96). Nos dois inquéritos estimou-se a prevalência instantânea da doença respiratória alta (acima da epiglote) e da doença respiratória baixa com e sem chiado à ausculta pulmonar. A ocorrência da doença respiratória foi aferida por exames clínicos realizados em dias aleatórios, nos próprios domicílios das crianças, por médicos pediatras devidamente treinados e padronizados quanto ao diagnóstico da doença. Os exames clínicos incluíam a anamnese do dia, antecedentes de doença respiratória e o exame físico completo da criança, incluindo inspeção da orofaringe, otoscopia e ausculta pulmonar. Nos dois inquéritos, os exames foram distribuídos ao longo de um período de cerca de 12 meses, de modo a garantir uma varredura uniforme das várias áreas da cidade ao longo das quatro estações. O estudo da distribuição social da doença respiratória levou em conta tercis da renda familiar per capita em cada um dos inquéritos. A estratégia analítica para estudar os determinantes da evolução da prevalência da doença na população empregou modelos hierárquicos de causalidade...

AIDS mortality trends in Mexico, 1988-1997

Hernández-Girón,Carlos; Tovar-Guzmán,Víctor; del Río,Carlos
Fonte: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública Publicador: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.87%
Objective. To assess the geographic distribution and trends of AIDS deaths for the 1988-1997 period in Mexico. Material and Methods. Crude and adjusted mortality rates were estimated for the 1988-1997 period. A trend test was performed using the simple linear regression method. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and years of potential life lost (YPLL) were calculated for each Mexican state. Results. During the study period (1988-1997), there were 26,999 AIDS deaths in Mexico; 86.5% (23,354) of them were among men. The mean age at the time of death was 38.4 years for men and 37.7 years for women (p> 0.05). The crude AIDS mortality rate for the period of study was 3.02 cases (95% CI: 2.94, 3.06) per 100,000 inhabitants. The adjusted rate was 3.13 (95% CI: 3.09, 3.17), with 5.22 (95% CI: 5.16 - 5.29) for men and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.79-0.84) for women. The states with the highest SMR were: Baja California (SMR: 248.69; 95% CI: 234.02-263.36), Mexico City (SMR: 220.74; 95% CI: 215.57-225.91), and Jalisco (SMR: 169.16; 95% CI: 162.88-175.44). Similarly, a Potential Lost Life Years Index (PLLYI) analysis by state showed a greater risk of premature AIDS mortality in the same states [Baja California (PLLYI index: 236.33; 95% CI: 233.97-238.68)...

AIDS mortality trends in Mexico, 1988-1997

Hernández-Girón,Carlos; Tovar-Guzmán,Víctor; del Río,Carlos
Fonte: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública Publicador: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.87%
Objective. To assess the geographic distribution and trends of AIDS deaths for the 1988-1997 period in Mexico. Material and Methods. Crude and adjusted mortality rates were estimated for the 1988-1997 period. A trend test was performed using the simple linear regression method. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and years of potential life lost (YPLL) were calculated for each Mexican state. Results. During the study period (1988-1997), there were 26,999 AIDS deaths in Mexico; 86.5% (23,354) of them were among men. The mean age at the time of death was 38.4 years for men and 37.7 years for women (p> 0.05). The crude AIDS mortality rate for the period of study was 3.02 cases (95% CI: 2.94, 3.06) per 100,000 inhabitants. The adjusted rate was 3.13 (95% CI: 3.09, 3.17), with 5.22 (95% CI: 5.16 - 5.29) for men and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.79-0.84) for women. The states with the highest SMR were: Baja California (SMR: 248.69; 95% CI: 234.02-263.36), Mexico City (SMR: 220.74; 95% CI: 215.57-225.91), and Jalisco (SMR: 169.16; 95% CI: 162.88-175.44). Similarly, a Potential Lost Life Years Index (PLLYI) analysis by state showed a greater risk of premature AIDS mortality in the same states [Baja California (PLLYI index: 236.33; 95% CI: 233.97-238.68)...

Trends in under-5 mortality rates and the HIV/AIDS epidemic

Adetunji,Jacob
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.87%
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among adults and mortality rates among under-5-year-olds have increased or stagnated in many countries. The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is a link between under-5 mortality trends and the prevalence of HIV among adults and, if so, to assess the magnitude of the effect of adult HIV prevalence on under-5 mortality rates. METHOD: Data from Demographic and Health Surveys were used to establish the trends in under-5 mortality rates for 25 countries for which there are data for at least two points in time. Countries were ranked according to the most recent adult HIV prevalence data and grouped in three categories: those with very high HIV prevalence ( > 5%); those with moderately high prevalence (1-4.9%); and those with low prevalence (<1%). A mathematical model was fitted to obtain an estimate of the contribution of HIV/AIDS to the level of under-5 mortality in each country. RESULTS: Under-5 mortality rates showed an increase in most countries with high adult HIV prevalence, but a decrease in almost every country with moderately high or low prevalence. The estimated contribution of adult HIV prevalence to the observed level of under-5 mortality was highest (up to 61%) in Zimbabwe (where HIV prevalence was highest) and tended to decrease with the level of HIV prevalence. DISCUSSION: The contribution of HIV/AIDS to childhood mortality therefore appears to be most noticeable in settings where the epidemic is most severe.