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A tributação da renda por fluxos de caixa realizados

Nakao, Sílvio Hiroshi; Assaf Neto, Alexandre
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.84%
Como os prazos médios de recebimento de vendas das empresas são maiores que os prazos para pagamentos dos tributos, podem ocorrer dificuldades na gestão do capital de giro em função da defasagem entre o momento do reconhecimento da receita, com a conseqüente tributação do lucro, e o seu recebimento. Em média, o caixa necessário para o pagamento do tributo ainda não foi gerado pelo recebimento das vendas. Este artigo procura analisar se os fluxos de caixa têm correspondência com o lucro e a renda e podem ser utilizados como base de tributação. Observou-se que apenas os fluxos que representam acréscimo ao patrimônio do investidor é que têm correspondência com a renda, e são eles que poderiam ser tributados. Como resultado disso, foi elaborado um modelo contábil de apuração dos fluxos de caixa tributáveis, inclusive com o reconhecimento dos efeitos inflacionários. Foi demonstrado que todas as entradas de caixa geradas pelo ativo ou provenientes de sua realização devem ser tributadas e que todas as saídas de caixa necessárias para pagar um ativo adquirido devem ser dedutíveis, assim como os pagamentos de juros gerados pelos passivos. São também tributáveis quaisquer valores que envolvam a diminuição de um ativo não-caixa com contrapartida em uma conta de Patrimônio Líquido...

Avaliação do processo de incorporação dos enxertos osseos particulado e em bloco : estudos em modelo animal; Evaluation on the incorporation process of particulate and block bone grafts : studies in animal model

Henrique Duque de Miranda Chaves Netto
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/02/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.84%
Desde o desenvolvimento da implantodontia, associou-se estética à função nas reabilitações, aumentando a necessidade de enxertos ósseos visando a instalação adequada destes implantes. O processo de incorporação dos enxertos geralmente é acompanhado através de análise clínica e exames de imagem. Deste modo, diversos estudos vêm sendo desenvolvidos. O presente trabalho apresenta 3 pesquisas em modelo animal, descritas nos Capítulos à seguir. CAPITULO I: Comparação histológica das diferenças existentes no processo de reparo ósseo em defeitos criados em calotas cranianas de cães, preenchidos com coágulo e enxerto ósseo autógeno particulado, a fim de se estabelecer uma classificação, defeito crítico ou não crítico, dos defeitos de 8mm de diâmetro. Observou-se, em dois períodos de sacrifício, correspondentes as fases inicial e tardia do processo de reparo ósseo, que os defeitos preenchidos com coágulo sangüíneo apresentaram um processo de reparo inferior ao grupo preenchido por enxerto ósseo autógeno, sendo este o único que apresentou aposição de tecido ósseo nos dois períodos. Deste modo, pode ser concluído que os métodos que auxiliam no processo de reparo ósseo estão indicados em casos de defeitos iguais ou maiores que 8mm...

Effectiveness of Combination Antimicrobial Therapy for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bacteremia

Chamot, Eric; Boffi El Amari, Emmanuelle; Rohner, Peter; Van Delden, Christian
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.84%
It remains controversial whether combination therapy, given empirically or as definitive treatment, for Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia is associated with a better outcome than monotherapy. The aim of the present study was to compare the rates of survival among patients who received either combination therapy or monotherapy for P. aeruginosa bacteremia. We assembled a historical cohort of 115 episodes of P. aeruginosa bacteremia treated with empirical antipseudomonal therapy between 1988 and 1998. On the basis of susceptibility testing of the bacteremic P. aeruginosa isolate, we defined categories of empirical treatment, including adequate combination therapy, adequate monotherapy, and inadequate therapy, as well as corresponding categories of definitive therapy. Neither the adequacy of the empirical treatment nor the use of combination therapy predicted survival until receipt of the antibiogram. However, the risk of death from the date of receipt of the antibiogram to day 30 was higher for both adequate empirical monotherapy (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 3.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0 to 14.1) and inadequate empirical therapy (aHR, 5.0; 95% CI, 1.2 to 20.4) than for adequate empirical combination therapy. Compared to adequate definitive combination therapy...

Inefficiency of Genetic Recombination in Hybrids Between Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhosa

Johnson, E. M.; Easterling, S. B.; Baron, L. S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1971 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.84%
An Escherichia coli Hfr strain in which three negative chromosomal alleles (leu−, arg−, and mtl−) were closely linked to three positive alleles (ara+, rha+, and xyl+, respectively) was employed in matings with a Salmonella typhosa recipient. The detected expression of the negative E. coli alleles in S. typhosa hybrids selected for receipt of an associated positive E. coli marker was used to determine the occurrence of haploid S. typhosa recombinants, as distinguished from stable partial diploid hybrids. At the same time, the inheritance patterns and segregation behavior of the positive alleles provided indicators of the occurrence of partial diploid hybrids. Examination of both positive and negative markers inherited by ara+, rha+, and xyl− selected S. typhosa hybrid classes indicated that relatively short E. coli chromosomal segments (generally about 4 min or less in length) were involved in recombination (haploidy), whereas rather extensive E. coli genetic segments were conserved in the diploid state. S. typhosa hybrids selected for receipt of the ara+ marker showed a 52% incidence of leu− haploidy, which is probably close to being an accurate measure of recombination at the site of the ara+ allele. S. typhosa hybrids selected for receipt of the rha+ or xyl+ markers showed only a 20% incidence of arg− or mtl− haploidy...

The impact of population based screening for carriers of cystic fibrosis.

Bekker, H; Denniss, G; Modell, M; Bobrow, M; Marteau, T
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1994 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.84%
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the short-term effects of population based screening for carriers of cystic fibrosis. The outcome measures included perceptions of health, anxiety, and understanding of test results. Those adults aged between 18 and 45, registered with a general practice in Inner London, who accepted the offer of carrier testing, completed questionnaires before testing, upon receipt of results, and three months later. Full data were obtained from 427 with negative test results and 14 carriers. Receipt of results had no effect upon perceptions of health or perceived risk of having an abnormal baby. Those receiving a positive test result were significantly more anxious upon receipt of this result. By three months, this anxiety had dissipated. While knowledge of the test improved from before to after testing, by three months there was some decay. Although the residual risk among those with a negative result of being a carrier was given as 1:135, at least 17% of those receiving a negative result incorrectly believed that they were at no risk of having a child with cystic fibrosis. Five of the 14 receiving a positive result erroneously believed that their results meant that they probably, but not definitely, carried the gene for cystic fibrosis. In the longer term the greatest problem of population screening would appear to be one of false reassurance rather than anxiety. Longer term studies are needed to determine how well carrier status information is retained...

Do blacks and whites differ in their use of health care for symptoms of coronary heart disease?

Crawford, S L; McGraw, S A; Smith, K W; McKinlay, J B; Pierson, J E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1994 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.84%
OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to identify the role of race in seeking and receipt of care for symptoms of coronary heart disease. METHODS. Data on medical care, sociodemographic characteristics, symptoms, risk factors, income, and insurance were collected in a telephone interview for a random sample of 2030 Black and White adults in inner-city Boston. Rates of care-seeking for symptoms, amounts of delay in seeking care, and rates of receipt of care were compared for Blacks and Whites after adjustment for other characteristics. RESULTS. Before and after adjustment for other factors, Blacks and Whites were equally likely to seek care. Average delay time was shorter for Blacks, particularly Black women. With the exception of a lower rate of referral to cardiologists among Blacks, receipt of care was similar for Blacks and Whites who sought medical attention for symptoms. CONCLUSIONS. In an urban population of Blacks and Whites who were similar in socioeconomic status and access to medical care, there were few racial differences in coronary heart disease-related care patterns.

Examination of Contingency Payments to Dually-Diagnosed Patients in a Multi-faceted Behavioral Treatment

Kinnaman, Joanna Strong; Slade, Eric; Bennett, Melanie E.; Bellack, Alan S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.84%
Contingency management (CM) may be a promising component of treatment to help dually-diagnosed patients reduce their substance use. However, most prior studies examining CM with these patients have not examined the relationships among patient variables and contingency rewards received. This study examined whether characteristics of dually-diagnosed patients were related to CM payments received in a multi-faceted program. Fifty-nine dually-diagnosed patients participated in a multimodal behavioral therapy for illicit substance use involving CM. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were examined as they related to receipt of payments. Demographic characteristics generally were not related to receipt of payments. Several clinical variables, including diagnosis of schizophrenia, current substance dependence, and co-morbid alcohol dependence were related to payment receipt. These results provide an important step toward understanding the characteristics of dually-diagnosed patients that predict their response to CM.

Inequity in colorectal cancer treatment and outcomes: a population-based study

Carsin, A-E; Sharp, L; Cronin-Fenton, D P; Céilleachair, A Ó; Comber, H
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.84%
Several uncertainties surround optimal management of colorectal cancer. We investigated treatment patterns and factors influencing treatment receipt and mortality in routine clinical practice. We included 15 249 individuals, recorded by the National Cancer Registry (Ireland), with primary invasive colon or rectal tumours, diagnosed during 1994–2002. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards were used to determine factors associated with treatment receipt within 1 year of diagnosis and with mortality, respectively. A total of 78% had colorectal resection, 31% chemotherapy, and 13% radiotherapy (4% colon; 28% rectum). Half of stage IV patients underwent resection. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy use increased by at least 10% per annum. There was a notable increase in pre-operative radiotherapy from 2000 onwards. Patient-related factors were significantly associated with treatment receipt. Patients who were male, older, not married, or smokers had significantly higher risks of death. Chemotherapy was significantly associated with lower mortality for stage III, but not stage II, colon cancer. For rectal cancer, pre-operative radiotherapy was associated with reduced mortality. Surgery and chemotherapy were associated with longer survival for stage IV patients. The observed inequities in treatment and outcomes suggest that there is potential for further dissemination of therapies in routine practice. Improving treatment availability overall...

RAPID TRANSPORT AND INFUSION OF HEMATOPOIETIC CELLS IS ASSOCIATED WITH IMPROVED OUTCOME AFTER MYELOABLATIVE THERAPY AND UNRELATED DONOR TRANSPLANT

Lazarus, Hillard M.; Kan, Fangyu; Tarima, Sergey; Champlin, Richard E.; Confer, Dennis L.; Frey, Noelle; Gee, Adrian P.; Wagner, John E.; Horowitz, Mary M.; Eapen, Mary
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.84%
We evaluated effects of graft transport time on outcomes after transplantation of 938 unrelated donor bone marrow (BM) or 507 peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) in patients with acute or chronic leukemia and myelodysplasia. BM grafts were collected at 107 centers and PBPC, 89 centers. Median time from end of collection to infusion was 14 hours for BM and 15 hours for PBPC. Platelet recovery was less likely in BM recipients when the interval from end of collection to receipt at transplant center was ≥ 20 hours (odds ratio 0.47, p=0.010) and when the interval from receipt to infusion was ≥ 6 hours (odds ratio 0.57, p=0.001). Mortality rates were higher in recipients of HLA-matched BM when the interval from end of collection to receipt at transplant center was ≥ 20 hours (relative risk 2.67, p<0.001) after adjustment for other significant prognostic factors. Mortality after HLA-mismatched BM transplants was not associated with transport time. Transport times had no demonstrable effect on outcomes after PBPC transplants. These data support a general review of current transport procedures, especially for BM grafts requiring longer transport time and every effort made to minimize time from collection to infusion.

Pathways to Disability Income among Persons with Severe, Persistent Psychiatric Disorders

Estroff, Sue E. ; Patrick, Donald L. ; Zimmer, Catherine R. ; Lachicotte, William S.
Fonte: Milbank Memorial Fund Publicador: Milbank Memorial Fund
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1997 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.84%
Persons with psychiatric disorders comprise the largest diagnostic group of disabled recipients of Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Social Security Disability Income (SSDI). A 32-month prospective cohort study of pathways to application for and receipt of SSI and SSDI was conducted among 169 people with major psychiatric disorders who were at an early stage of their illness and who had never applied for or received disability income. Of the three pathways that formed the conceptual basis for the investigation—labeling, impairment, and needs/resources—the latter two emerged as significantly associated with receipt. Individuals with more severe symptoms who were African American, and who were psychologically dependent in a primary relationship and financially dependent on their families, were more likely to become recipients. Enabling and disabling aspects of disability income receipt suggest that it may be replacing prolonged hospitalization as the most enduring social role of persons with severe, persistent psychiatric disorders.

Expanding Post-Harvest Finance Through Warehouse Receipts and Related Instruments

Baldwin, Marisa; Bryla, Erin; Langenbucher, Anja
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.99%
Warehouse receipt financing and similar types of collateralized lending provide an alternative to traditional lending requirements of banks and other financiers and could provide opportunities to expand this lending in emerging economies for agricultural trade. The main contents include: what is warehouse receipt financing; what is the value of warehouse receipt financing; other collateral lending mechanisms; tradable receipt financing -- the example of cedula de produto rural in Brazil; and the use of reverse factoring -- the example of nafin in Mexico. The paper concludes that through innovative approaches in different emerging markets both warehouse receipts and innovative collateralized lending mechanisms could provide opportunities to expand the levels of post-harvest financing being provided to producers, traders, processors, and other agribusinesses.

Risk and Finance in the Coffee Sector

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.99%
Millions of coffee farmers and coffee trading enterprises lack sufficient credit. This is partly due to myriad challenges and considerable costs that formal lending institutions face serving rural, often isolated markets. A better understanding of coffee sector risks is needed to respond with strategies, training, and tools that can help farmers and enterprises, mitigate their exposure to risk, and strengthen their resilience against inevitable shocks. This report explores the role that producer associations, governments, non-profit organizations, the private sector, and other intermediaries can play in making risk management and financing tools more accessible and more workable for smallholder coffee growers. It examines the global coffee sector and outlines: (1) major risks and constraints facing the sector; (2) potential opportunities for improving the management of certain risks; and (3) programs launched in various regions aimed at improving access to finance. Through the use of detailed case studies taken from a number of coffee-producing countries...

Innovative Agricultural SME Finance Models

Global Partnership for Financial Inclusion; International Finance Corporation
Fonte: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC Publicador: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.99%
This report is organized into three main sections. Section one sets out the context by describing the particular challenges and opportunities related to financing agriculture, followed by defining the target group of agricultural SME s. Section two describes a set of innovative financing models. Section three then provides a framework for an indicative assessment of these models by gathering and forming observations from the case studies. The model observations are then highlighted in three types of country contexts in which bankers in developing countries may find themselves. Preliminary assessment results are presented. The report concludes with key lessons learned on innovative agricultural financing, relevant case studies, and an outlook on further work in this area. Annexes present methodologies and case studies representing the various models.

Microfinance and Business Development Service Linkages: Synergies for Micro and Small Enterprise Development in Kenya

Musyoki, Nzilu
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.99%
Microfinance, the delivery of microcredit to low income people, is a popular development approach among governments in both the developing and developed world. The approach encourages mainly the poor to pursue self-employment by creating micro and small enterprises. Most microfinance institutions, the main providers of microcredit in developing countries, are seemingly taking a minimalist approach in their operations. Against this background it is feared that provision of business development services (BDS) to owner managers of micro and small enterprises is likely to be reduced or neglected. Previous attempts to evaluate the association of microfinance practices with the performance of poor people's micro and small enterprises have resulted in mixed results with little theoretical underpinning. Within the context of the current poverty reduction discourse, this study investigates the association of microcredit and concurrent provision of business development services with micro and small enterprise performance in a developing country. The key question investigated is whether, given access to microcredit, there is a difference in owner-managers' self-assessed performance of their micro and small enterprises contingent on receipt of business development services. This thesis employs two relational conceptions...

A POPULATION-BASED STUDY OF HEALTHCARE RESOURCE UTILIZATION BY METASTATIC GASTRIC CANCER PATIENTS IN ONTARIO

Mahar, ALYSON
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.99%
Background: Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer in the world. Non-curative, metastatic disease is frequent in low incidence countries; management strategies for relief of symptoms include surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The resource utilization of metastatic gastric cancer patients is unstudied in the Canadian system, and predictors of major cost drivers and end-of-life care unknown. Our purpose was to describe the resource utilization of metastatic gastric cancer patients in Ontario, compare resource utilization among Local Health Integration Networks (LHINs) and examine predictors of inpatient hospital days and receipt of homecare. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study of metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma patients registered in the Ontario Cancer Registry between April 1, 2005 and March 31st, 2008. Chart review and administrative healthcare data were linked to describe non-therapeutic endoscopic, radiologic and surgical investigations and treatment strategies from the healthcare system perspective, using a two-year and two month time horizon. Chi square tests were used to compare proportions of resource utilization, and non-parametric one-way ANOVA compared mean per patient usage. Negative binomial regression was used to model the number of inpatient hospital days. Modified Poisson regression was used to model receipt of homecare. Results: The cohort consisted of 1433 patients with metastatic disease. Less than half of the patients received chemotherapy (43%)...

Custo de oportunidade em processos judiciais eletrônicos para parte autora : um estudo de caso na Procuradoria da União em Goiás

Machado, Michele Rílany Rodrigues
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Dissertação
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.99%
Dissertação (mestrado)—Universidade de Brasília, Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade, Departamento de Ciências Contábeis e Atuariais, 2011.; A presente pesquisa tem como objetivo geral mensurar o custo de oportunidade do dinheiro em processos eletrônicos para parte autora quando da apresentação de cálculos pela Procuradoria da União em Goiás – PU-GO. O custo de oportunidade é o valor da melhor alternativa a ser abandonada na tomada de decisão. Sua aplicação ao direito, bem como outros conceitos econômicos, se deu com a origem da escola Law and economic. Para a consecução do objetivo da pesquisa, foram pesquisados 5.365 processos cadastrados na PU-GO, no período de janeiro de 2007 a dezembro de 2010. Destes, foram utilizados aqueles que tiveram todos os seus trâmites judiciais concluídos e que a União apresentou cálculos, totalizando 654 processos. O custo de oportunidade foi mensurado pela taxa de retorno interna apurada da totalidade de processos em que a União apresentou cálculos, taxa de retorno média, e dos processos em que a parte autora contestou os cálculos da União, taxa de retorno efetiva. A taxa de retorno média, obtida pela diferença entre os prazos médios de recebimento nas duas alternativas do autor...

Risk Factors and Outcomes for Patients with Bloodstream Infection Due to Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus Complex

Chopra, Teena; Marchaim, Dror; Johnson, Paul C.; Awali, Reda A.; Doshi, Hardik; Chalana, Indu; Davis, Naomi; Zhao, Jing J.; Pogue, Jason M.; Parmar, Sapna; Kaye, Keith S.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.99%
Identifying patients at risk for bloodstream infection (BSI) due to Acinetobacter baumannii-Acinetobacter calcoaceticus complex (ABC) and providing early appropriate therapy are critical for improving patient outcomes. A retrospective matched case-control study was conducted to investigate the risk factors for BSI due to ABC in patients admitted to the Detroit Medical Center (DMC) between January 2006 and April 2009. The cases were patients with BSI due to ABC; the controls were patients not infected with ABC. Potential risk factors were collected 30 days prior to the ABC-positive culture date for the cases and 30 days prior to admission for the controls. A total of 245 case patients were matched with 245 control patients. Independent risk factors associated with BSI due to ABC included a Charlson's comorbidity score of ≥3 (odds ratio [OR], 2.34; P = 0.001), a direct admission from another health care facility (OR, 4.63; P < 0.0001), a prior hospitalization (OR, 3.11; P < 0.0001), the presence of an indwelling central venous line (OR, 2.75; P = 0.011), the receipt of total parenteral nutrition (OR, 21.2; P < 0.0001), the prior receipt of β-lactams (OR, 3.58; P < 0.0001), the prior receipt of carbapenems (OR, 3.18; P = 0.006), and the prior receipt of chemotherapy (OR...

A prospective study of the validity of self-reported use of specific types of dental services.

Gilbert, Gregg H.; Rose, John S.; Shelton, Brent J.
Fonte: Association of Schools of Public Health Publicador: Association of Schools of Public Health
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.99%
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to quantify the validity of self-reported receipt of dental services in 10 categories, using information from dental charts as the "gold standard." METHODS: The Florida Dental Care Study was a prospective cohort study of a diverse sample of adults. In-person interviews were conducted at baseline and at 24 and 48 months following baseline, with telephone interviews at six-month intervals in between. Participants reported new dental visits, reason(s) for the visit(s), and specific service(s) received. For the present study, self-reported data were compared with data from patients' dental charts. RESULTS: Percent concordance between self-report and dental charts ranged from 82% to 100%, while Kappa values ranged from 0.33 to 0.91. Bivariate multiple logistic regressions were performed for each of the service categories, with two outcomes: self-reported service receipt and service receipt determined from the dental chart. Parameter estimate intervals overlapped for each of the four hypothesized predictors of service receipt (age group, sex, "race" defined as non-Hispanic African American vs. non-Hispanic white, and annual household income < 20,000 US dollars vs. > or = 20,000 US dollars), although for five of the 10 service categories...

Grade Expectations: An Investigation of Performance Feedback, Classroom Goal Structures, and the Motivational Consequences of their Dynamic Interplay

Koenka, Alison
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.99%

The salience, prevalence, and consequences of feedback students receive on their academic performance have led to widespread interest in assessment outcomes. Despite the frequency and high stakes of performance feedback, a clear picture of how it influences students' academic motivation has failed to emerge. The overarching goal of this dissertation study was to better understand the effect of performance feedback on secondary school students' academic motivation following a high-stakes assessment. In particular, this study had three main aims: (1) begin disentangling the influence of performance feedback from its valence on students' self-efficacy, goal orientations, and intrinsic motivation, (2) explore how the stage of an assessment event and performance feedback interact to influence these motivation constructs, and (3) determine whether the influence of performance feedback on academic motivation depends on the evaluation dimension of the classroom goal structure.

To investigate these topical questions, the current study implemented a cluster-randomized experimental design. One hundred sixty-one seventh through ninth grade students in 13 math or science classes from a single, all-female secondary school were randomly assigned by their class to one of the following four feedback conditions: (1) numeric grades...

Family welfare cultures

Dahl, Gordon B.; Kostol, Andreas Ravndal; Mogstad, Magne
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2014 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.99%
Strong intergenerational correlations in various types of welfare use have fuelled a long- standing debate over whether welfare receipt in one generation causes welfare participation in the next generation. Some claim a causal relationship in welfare receipt across generations has created a culture in which welfare use reinforces itself through the family. Others argue the determinants of poverty or poor health are correlated across generations, so that children’s welfare participation is associated with, but not caused by, parental welfare receipt. However, there is little empirical evidence to sort out these claims. In this paper, we investigate the existence and importance of family welfare cultures in the context of Norway’s disability insurance (DI) system. To overcome the challenge of correlated unobservables across generations, we take advantage of random assignment of judges to DI applicants whose cases are initially denied. Some appeal judges are systematically more lenient, which leads to random variation in the probability a parent will be allowed DI. Using this exogenous variation, we find strong evidence that welfare receipt in one generation causes welfare participation in the next generation: when a parent is allowed DI...