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Antioxidant capacities of flavones and benefits in oxidative-stress related diseases

Catarino, Marcelo D.; Alves-Silva, Jorge M.; Pereira, Olívia R.; Cardoso, Susana M.
Fonte: Bentham Science Publishers Publicador: Bentham Science Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.04%
Flavonoids, a group of secondary metabolites widely distributed in the plant kingdom, have been acknowledged for their interesting medicinal properties. Among them, natural flavones, as well as some of their synthetic derivatives, have been shown to exhibit several biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anti-allergic, neuroprotective, cardioprotective and antimicrobial. The antioxidant properties of flavones allow them to demonstrate potential application as preventive and attenuating agents in oxidative stress, i.e., a biological condition that is closely associated to aging process and several diseases. Some flavones interfere in distinct oxidative-stress related events by directly reducing the levels of intracellular free radicals (hydroxyl, superoxide and nitric oxide) and/or of reactive species (e.g. hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite and hypochlorous acid) thus preventing their amplification and the consequent damage of other biomolecules such as lipids, proteins and DNA. Flavones can also hinder the activity of central free radical-producing enzymes, such as xanthine oxidase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH-oxidase) or inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and can even modulate the intracellular levels of pro-oxidant and/or antioxidant enzymes. The evaluation of flavones antioxidant ability has been extensively determined in chemical or biological in vitro models...

Distribuição espacial de doenças endêmicas no município de Ribeirão Preto (SP); Spatial distribution of endemic diseases in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State

HINO, Paula; VILLA, Tereza Cristina Scatena; CUNHA, Tarcísio Neves da; SANTOS, Claudia Benedita dos
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Pós-Graduação em Saúde Coletiva Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Pós-Graduação em Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.04%
A percepção de que algumas doenças acontecem em determinados lugares é antiga. A preocupação em estudar as relações entre o homem e o meio resultou em diversos trabalhos de geografia médica, voltados à análise da distribuição espacial das doenças. Este estudo seccional foi desenvolvido no município de Ribeirão Preto (SP) e teve como objetivo ilustrar, por meio de agravos de saúde (dengue, hanseníase e tuberculose), de que forma uma ferramenta de um sistema de informação geográfica permite a identificação de áreas heterogêneas, fornecendo subsídios para a escolha de estratégias e intervenções específicas de acordo com a necessidade dos moradores, bem como a priorização de recursos para grupos mais vulneráveis. A população compreendeu os casos de dengue, hanseníase e tuberculose notificados no ano 2000 em Ribeirão Preto. Os dados foram coletados na Vigilância Epidemiológica da Secretaria Municipal de Saúde do município. Para a obtenção dos mapas temáticos, os dados foram geocodificados com auxílio do software MapInfo 7.8 e Spring 4.3. Os mapas temáticos ilustraram a distribuição da densidade de casos de dengue, hanseníase e tuberculose no município como uma maneira complementar de análise de informações de saúde...

Vacina contra o vírus da influenza e mortalidade por doenças cardiovasculares na cidade de São Paulo; Vaccination against the influenza virus and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases in the city of Sao Paulo; Vacuna contra el virus de la Influenza y mortalidad por enfermedades cardiovasculares en la Ciudad de São Paulo

MANSUR, Antonio de Padua; FAVARATO, Desidério; RAMIRES, José Antonio F.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia - SBC Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia - SBC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.04%
FUNDAMENTO: A influência da vacinação contra o vírus da gripe na mortalidade por doenças cardiovasculares (DCV) é controversa. OBJETIVO: Analisar a mortalidade por DCV antes e depois do início da vacinação contra a gripe na cidade de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Analisou-se a mortalidade por doenças isquêmicas do coração (DIC), doenças cerebrovasculares (DCbV) e por causas externas (CE) na população da região metropolitana de São Paulo com idade > 60 anos, antes e depois do programa de vacinação contra a gripe. As estimativas da população e os dados de mortalidade foram, respectivamente, obtidos do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE; www.ibge.gov.br) e do Ministério da Saúde (www.datasus.gov.br) para o período entre 1980 e 2006. O risco de morte foi ajustado pelo método direto, em que se utilizou a população padrão (mundial) referente a 1960. RESULTADOS: As comparações entre as inclinações das linhas de regressão foram semelhantes para as DCbV (p = 0,931) e CE (p = 0,941), porém, para as DIC (p = 0,022), observou-se significativa redução da linha do período pós-vacina quando comparada com a linha do período pré-vacina. Mudança na tendência da mortalidade após 1996 foi significativa somente para as DIC (p = 0...

Autoimmune diseases in the TH17 era

MESQUITA JR., D.; CRUVINEL, W.M.; CÂMARA, N.O.S.; KÁLLAS, E.G.; ANDRADE, L.E.C.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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A new subtype of CD4+ T lymphocytes characterized by the production of interleukin 17, i.e., TH17 cells, has been recently described. This novel T cell subset is distinct from type 1 and type 2 T helper cells. The major feature of this subpopulation is to generate significant amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines, therefore appearing to be critically involved in protection against infection caused by extracellular microorganisms, and in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and allergy. The dynamic balance among subsets of T cells is important for the modulation of several steps of the immune response. Disturbances in this balance may cause a shift from normal immunologic physiology to the development of immune-mediated disorders. In autoimmune diseases, the fine balance between the proportion and degree of activation of the various T lymphocyte subsets can contribute to persistent undesirable inflammatory responses and tissue replacement by fibrosis. This review highlights the importance of TH17 cells in this process by providing an update on the biology of these cells and focusing on their biology and differentiation processes in the context of immune-mediated chronic inflammatory diseases.; FAPESP

Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in rheumatic diseases

PEREIRA, Rosa Maria Rodrigues; CARVALHO, Jozélio Freire de; CANALIS, Ernesto
Fonte: Faculdade de Medicina / USP Publicador: Faculdade de Medicina / USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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The aim of this article is to review rheumatological diseases that are associated with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis or fractures and to perform a critical analysis of the current guidelines and treatment regimens. The electronic database MEDLINE was searched using the date range of July 1986 to June 2009 and the following search terms: osteoporosis, bone mineral density, fractures, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, vasculitis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis and juvenile dermatomyositis. Osteopenia and osteoporosis respectively account for 1.4 to 68.7% and 5.0 to 61.9% of adult rheumatological diseases. Among juvenile rheumatological disorders, the frequency of low bone mass ranges from 38.7 to 70%. In general, fracture rates vary from 0 to 25%. Although glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis has a high rate of prevalence among rheumatic diseases, a relatively low number of patients on continuous glucocorticoid treatment receive adequate diagnostic evaluation or preventive therapy. This deficit in patient care may result from a lack of clear understanding of the attributed risks by the patients and physicians, the high complexity of the treatment guidelines and poor patient compliance.; (CNPq) National Council for Scientific and Technological Development

Uso da Classificação Internacional de Doenças na análise do absenteísmo odontológico; Use of the International Classification of Diseases in the analysis of dental absenteeism; Uso de la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades en el análisis del absentismo odontológico

TOGNA, Gisele dos Reis Della; CROSATO, Edgard; MELANI, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff; MICHEL-CROSATO, Edgard; BIAZEVIC, Maria Gabriela Haye
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
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36.04%
OBJETIVO: Comparar o uso das codificações da classificação de doenças e agravos em solicitações de afastamento do trabalho por motivo odontológico. MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas 240 solicitações emitidas em um serviço público federal entre janeiro de 2008 e dezembro de 2009. O uso da Classificação Estatística Internacional de Doenças e Problemas Relacionados à Saúde - Décima Revisão (CID-10) foi comparado ao sistema de Classificação Internacional de Doenças em Odontologia e Estomatologia (CID-OE). Foi determinada a especificidade da codificação nas solicitações de afastamento, bem como da codificação atribuída por peritos oficiais em inspeções indiretas, perícias e juntas odontológicas. RESULTADOS: Do total de atestados, 22,9% não apresentaram a CID, 7,1% apresentaram a CID-9, 3,3% a CID-OE e 66,7% a CID-10. A maioria das codificações foi concordante (55,1%), com maior especificidade nas codificações atribuídas após avaliação dos cirurgiões-dentistas peritos oficiais. CONCLUSÕES: É necessário aperfeiçoar a utilização da CID-10 entre os profissionais de Odontologia e perícia odontológica no trabalho. Sugere-se a incorporação do uso da CID-OE e da Classificação Internacional de Funcionamento...

Metabolismo, oxidação e implicações biológicas do ácido docosahexaenoico em doenças neurodegenerativas; Metabolism, oxidation and biological implications of docosahexaenoic acid in neurodegenerative diseases

APPOLINÁRIO, Patricia Postilione; DEROGIS, Priscilla Bento Mattos Cruz; YAMAGUTI, Tatiana Harumi; MIYAMOTO, Sayuri
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
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Docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6, n-3, DHA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) present in large concentrations in the brain and, due to the presence of six double bonds in its structure, is highly susceptible to oxidation by enzymes and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. The peroxidation of PUFAs has been implicated in an increasing number of human disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases. Hence, a better understanding of the metabolism pathways of DHA should provide new insights about its role in neurodegenerative diseases. Here we review the main aspects related to DHA metabolism, as well as, the recent findings showing its association with neurodegenerative diseases.; FAPESP; CNPq; Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior (CAPES); INCT

Causas múltiplas de morte relacionadas às doenças cerebrovasculares no Estado do Paraná; Multiple causes of death related to cerebrovascular diseases in the State of Parana, Brazil

FURUKAWA, Tatiane Sano; SANTO, Augusto Hasiak; MATHIAS, Thais Aidar de Freitas
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Pós -Graduação em Saúde Coletiva Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Pós -Graduação em Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
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36.04%
OBJETIVO: Identificar as causas associadas de morte e o número de causas informadas nas declarações de óbito por doenças cerebrovasculares entre residentes no Estado do Paraná. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: O banco de dados de mortalidade do ano de 2004 foi obtido do Sistema de Informação de Mortalidade disponível no endereço eletrônico do Datasus. A população escolhida foi separada pelo programa TabWin e as causas múltiplas foram processadas pelo programa Tabulador de Causas Múltiplas de Morte. RESULTADOS: O número médio de causas informadas foi de 2,92 para as mulheres e 2,97 para os homens. A maioria dos óbitos (74,8%) foi de pessoas com 65 anos ou mais de idade. Entre as causas associadas aos óbitos por doenças cerebrovasculares se destacaram as doenças do aparelho respiratório (37,9%), as doenças hipertensivas (37,5%) e os sintomas, sinais e achados anormais de exames clínicos e de laboratório (32,3%). CONSIDERAÇÕES FINAIS: Foi observada relativa melhora na qualidade dos dados de mortalidade em relação ao número de causas citadas. A hipertensão arterial como uma das principais causas associadas sugere a necessidade do seu controle no combate à mortalidade por doenças cerebrovasculares. Incentivos devem ser promovidos para estudos com causas múltiplas...

Experimental models of autoimmune inflammatory ocular diseases; Modelos experimentais para o estudo de doenças inflamatórias oculares autoimunes

Gasparin, Fabio; Takahashi, Beatriz Sayuri; Scolari, Mariana Ramos; Gasparin, Filipe; Pedral, Lycia Sampaio; Damico, Francisco Max
Fonte: Conselho Brasileiro de Oftalmologia Publicador: Conselho Brasileiro de Oftalmologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Ocular inflammation is one of the leading causes of blindness and loss of vision. Human uveitis is a complex and heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by inflammation of intraocular tissues. The eye may be the only organ involved, or uveitis may be part of a systemic disease. A significant number of cases are of unknown etiology and are labeled idiopathic. Animal models have been developed to the study of the physiopathogenesis of autoimmune uveitis due to the difficulty in obtaining human eye inflamed tissues for experiments. Most of those models are induced by injection of specific photoreceptors proteins (e.g., S-antigen, interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein, rhodopsin, recoverin, phosducin). Non-retinal antigens, including melanin-associated proteins and myelin basic protein, are also good inducers of uveitis in animals. Understanding the basic mechanisms and pathogenesis of autoimmune ocular diseases are essential for the development of new treatment approaches and therapeutic agents. The present review describes the main experimental models of autoimmune ocular inflammatory diseases.

Doenças tropicais negligenciadas: uma nova era de desafios e oportunidades; Neglected tropical diseases: a new era of challenges and opportunities

Dias, Luiz C.; Dessoy, Marco A.; Guido, Rafael Victório Carvalho; Oliva, Glaucius; Andricopulo, Adriano Defini
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Quimica - SBQ; São Paulo Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Quimica - SBQ; São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
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In an article recently published in Química Nova, entitled “Chemistry Without Borders” (“Química Sem Fronteiras”) [Pinto, A. C.; Zucco, C.; Galembeck, F.; Andrade, J. B.; Vieira, P. C. Quim. Nova 2012, 35, 2092], the authors highlighted the important aspects of science and technology with special emphasis on the field of Chemistry and its contributions toward a more prosperous Brazil of future. As a second step in that direction, this article extends the discussion of a key issue for the country in the framework of the chemistry community through the so called position papers in strategic areas. This document is a part of the contribution of the Brazilian Chemical Society to the World Science Forum to be held in Rio de Janeiro in November 2013. In this context, the present paper provides a brief discussion on neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) with emphasis on the current challenges and opportunities towards the development and evolution of the field. NTDs leads to illness, long-term disability or death, and has severe social, economic and psychological consequences for millions of men, women, and children worldwide. In most cases, the available treatments are inadequate and extremely limited in terms of efficacy and safety...

Epidemiology of cattle diseases in the northeast of La Pampa, Argentina

Miranda,A.O.
Fonte: Revista veterinaria Publicador: Revista veterinaria
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 EN
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Abstract A cross-sectional survey was carried out on 350 farms in the north east of La Pampa Province, Argentina. The goal was to record the prevalence of cattle diseases reported by farmers. Farms were stratified into three categories on the basis of adult herd size (300 to 500 cattle, 500 to 900 cattle and greater than 900 cattle) and a random sample selected from each strata. According to the productive system, farms were classified as fattening (F), cow-calf (C) and cow-calf-fattening (CF). Presented data are part of a comprehensive survey on cattle farms performed by INTA and Ministry of roduction staff. The information described on this assay corresponds to principal signs and health problems recorded in different farms. Actinosis (n = 115 farms), bovine respiratory diseases (BRD) (n = 77), neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD) (n = 60), copper deficiency (n = 54), and blackleg, gas gangrene and enterotoxaemia (BGE) (n = 39) were the main diseases. NCD and BGE were geographically distributed on the southern half area, while actinosis, copper deficiency and pneumonia were distributed on the central-west area. BRD also showed a second risk area on the northwest. According to production system, BRD was found to be associated to F, while NCD...

Thyroid autoantibodies in autoimmune diseases

Innocencio,Regina M.; Romaldini,João H.; Ward,Laura S.
Fonte: Medicina (Buenos Aires) Publicador: Medicina (Buenos Aires)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2004 EN
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Abnormalities in the thyroid function and thyroid autoantibodies have been frequently described in patients with autoimmune diseases but seldom in antiphospholipid syndrome patients. In order to determine the prevalence of thyroid function and autoimmune abnormalities, we compared serum thyrotropin (TSH, serum free thyroxine (T4) levels, thyroid antithyroglobulin (TgAb) and antithyroperoxidase (TPOAb) levels of 25 patients with systemic sclerosis, 25 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 13 patients with antiphospholipid syndrome to a control group of 113 healthy individuals. Evaluation included a thorough clinical examination with particular attention to thyroid disease and a serologic immune profile including rheumatoid factor, antinuclear and anticardiolipin antibody measurements. Subclinical hypothyroidism (4.2

Arnfried Antonius, coral diseases, and the AMLC

Richardson,Laurie L.
Fonte: Revista de Biología Tropical Publicador: Revista de Biología Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2012 EN
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The study of coral diseases, coral pathogens, and the effects of diseases on tropical and subtropical coral reefs are all current, high-profile research areas. This interest has grown steadily since the first report of a coral disease in 1973. The author of this report was Arnfried Antonius and the publication was an abstract in the proceedings of a scientific meeting of the Association of Marine Laboratories of the Caribbean, or AMLC (then known as the Association of Island Marine Laboratories of the Caribbean). Since Antonius’ pioneering communication he continued working on coral diseases on reefs throughout the world, often documenting the first observation of a novel pathology in a novel location. Each of the coral diseases Antonius first described, in particular black band disease, is the subject of current and ongoing investigations addressing pathogens, etiology, and their effects on coral reefs. Many of the points and observations he made in his early papers are highly relevant to research today. This paper reviews aspects of Antonius’ early work, highlighting contributions he made that include the first in situ experimental studies aimed at discerning coral epizootiology and the first quantitative assessments of the role of environmental factors in coral disease. Antonius’ early findings are discussed in terms of relevant current controversies in this research area

Selective mass treatment with ivermectin to control intestinal helminthiases and parasitic skin diseases in a severely affected population

Heukelbach,Jörg; Winter,Benedikt; Wilcke,Thomas; Muehlen,Marion; Albrecht,Stephan; Oliveira,Fabíola Araújo Sales de; Kerr-Pontes,Lígia Regina Sansigolo; Liesenfeld,Oliver; Feldmeier,Hermann
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2004 EN
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OBJECTIVE: To assess the short-term and long-term impact of selective mass treatment with ivermectin on the prevalence of intestinal helminthiases and parasitic skin diseases in an economically depressed community in north-east Brazil. METHODS: An intervention was carried out in a traditional fishing village in north-east Brazil where the population of 605 is heavily affected by ectoparasites and enteroparasites. The prevalence of intestinal helminths was determined by serial stool examination and the prevalence of parasitic skin diseases by clinical inspection. A total of 525 people out of a target population of 576 were treated at baseline. The majority of these were treated with ivermectin (200 µg/kg with a second dose given after 10 days). If ivermectin was contraindicated, participants were treated with albendazole or mebendazole for intestinal helminths or with topical deltamethrin for ectoparasites. Follow-up examinations were performed at 1 month and 9 months after treatment. FINDINGS: Prevalence rates of intestinal helminthiases before treatment and at 1 month and 9 months after mass treatment were: hookworm disease 28.5%, 16.4% and 7.7%; ascariasis 17.1%, 0.4% and 7.2%; trichuriasis 16.5%, 3.4% and 9.4%; strongyloidiasis 11.0%...

Chronic respiratory diseases in developing countries: the burden and strategies for prevention and management

Aït-Khaled,Nadia; Enarson,Donald; Bousquet,Jean
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2001 EN
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In developing countries, chronic respiratory diseases represent a challenge to public health because of their frequency, severity, projected trends, and economic impact. Health care planners, for example, are faced with a dramatic increase in tobacco use and must establish priorities for the allocation of limited resources. Nevertheless, smoking prevention and standardized management programmes for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease should be implemented in developing countries whenever possible. International measures will be required to reverse tobacco smoking trends, and international agencies could define essential drugs and equipment and encourage the use of generic drugs, particularly for corticosteroids inhaled at high dosages. For such programmes to be effective, producers of high-quality generics will need to be identified, and the medications added to national lists of essential drugs and included in procurement procedures. Other recommendations for alleviating the burden of chronic respiratory diseases in developing countries are: adapting guidelines to local contexts and ensuring their distribution; upgrading equipment at district level; purchasing high-quality drugs at low prices; routine training and supervision of health services personnel; and regular monitoring of performance. Social mobilization by professional societies...

Climate change and vector-borne diseases: a regional analysis

Githeko,Andrew K.; Lindsay,Steve W.; Confalonieri,Ulisses E.; Patz,Jonathan A.
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2000 EN
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Current evidence suggests that inter-annual and inter-decadal climate variability have a direct influence on the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases. This evidence has been assessed at the continental level in order to determine the possible consequences of the expected future climate change. By 2100 it is estimated that average global temperatures will have risen by 1.0-3.5 °C, increasing the likelihood of many vector-borne diseases in new areas. The greatest effect of climate change on transmission is likely to be observed at the extremes of the range of temperatures at which transmission occurs. For many diseases these lie in the range 14-18 °C at the lower end and about 35-40 °C at the upper end. Malaria and dengue fever are among the most important vector-borne diseases in the tropics and subtropics; Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the USA and Europe. Encephalitis is also becoming a public health concern. Health risks due to climatic changes will differ between countries that have developed health infrastructures and those that do not. Human settlement patterns in the different regions will influence disease trends. While 70% of the population in South America is urbanized, the proportion in sub-Saharan Africa is less than 45%. Climatic anomalies associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation phenomenon and resulting in drought and floods are expected to increase in frequency and intensity. They have been linked to outbreaks of malaria in Africa...

Intimate partner violence after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases

Andrade,Roumayne Fernandes Vieira; Araújo,Maria Alix Leite; Vieira,Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Reis,Cláudia Bastos Silveira; Miranda,Angélica Espinosa
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 EN
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OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases.METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fortaleza, CE, Northeastern Brazil, in 2012 and involved 221 individuals (40.3% male and 59.7% female) attended to at reference health care units for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Data were collected using a questionnaire applied during interviews with each participant. A multivariate analysis with a logistic regression model was conducted using the stepwise technique. Only the variables with a p value < 0.05 were included in the adjusted analysis. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used as the measure of effect.RESULTS A total of 30.3% of the participants reported experiencing some type of violence (27.6%, psychological; 5.9%, physical; and 7.2%, sexual) after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease. In the multivariate analysis adjusted to assess intimate partner violence after the revelation of the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases, the following variables remained statistically significant: extramarital relations (OR = 3.72; 95%CI 1.91;7.26; p = 0.000), alcohol consumption by the partner (OR = 2.16; 95%CI 1.08;4.33; p = 0.026)...

Rare diseases and orphan drugs

Taruscio,Domenica; Capozzoli,Fiorentino; Frank,Claudio
Fonte: Istituto Superiore di Sanità Publicador: Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 EN
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According to the Regulation (EC) N. 141/2000 of the European Parliament and of the Council, rare diseases are life-threatening or chronically debilitating conditions, affecting no more than 5 in 10 000 persons in the European Community. It is estimated that between 6000 to 8000 distinct rare diseases affect up to 6% of the total EU population. Therefore, these conditions can be considered rare if taken individually but they affect a significant proportion of the European population when considered as a single group. Several initiatives have been undertaken at international, European and national level to tackle public health as well as research issues related to the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and surveillance of these diseases. The development of innovative and effective medical products for their diagnosis and treatment is frequently hampered by several factors, including the limited knowledge of their natural history, the difficulties in setting up clinical studies due to the limited numbers of patients affected by a specific disease, the weak interest of sponsors due to the restricted market opportunities. Therefore, incentives and other facilitations have been adopted in many parts of the world, including in the EU, in order to facilitate the development and commercialization of diagnostic tools and treatments devoted to rare diseases. This paper illustrates mainly the European initiatives and will discuss the problematic and controversial aspects surrounding orphan drugs. Finally...

Impediments to global surveillance of infectious diseases: consequences of open reporting in a global economy

Cash,Richard A.; Narasimhan,Vasant
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2000 EN
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Globalization has led to an increase in the spread of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. International efforts are being launched to control their dissemination through global surveillance, a major hindrance to which is the failure of some countries to report outbreaks. Current guidelines and regulations on emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases do not sufficiently take into account the fact that when developing countries report outbreaks they often derive few benefits and suffer disproportionately heavy social and economic consequences. In order to facilitate full participation in global surveillance by developing countries there should be: better and more affordable diagnostic capabilities to allow for timely and accurate information to be delivered in an open and transparent fashion; accurate, less sensationalist news reporting of outbreaks of diseases; adherence by countries to international regulations, including those of the World Trade Organization and the International Health Regulations; financial support for countries that are economically damaged by the diseases in question. The article presents two cases - plague in India and cholera in Peru - that illuminate some of the limitations of current practices. Recommendations are made on measures that could be taken by WHO and the world community to make global surveillance acceptable.

Air pollution and hospital admissions for respiratory diseases in the subequatorial Amazon: a time series approach

Ignotti,Eliane; Hacon,Sandra de Souza; Junger,Washington Leite; Mourão,Dennys; Longo,Karla; Freitas,Saulo; Artaxo,Paulo; Leon,Antônio Carlos Monteiro Ponce de
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2010 EN
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The objective of the study is to evaluate the effect of the daily variation in concentrations of fine particulate matter (diameter less than 2.5µm - PM2.5) resulting from the burning of biomass on the daily number of hospitalizations of children and elderly people for respiratory diseases, in Alta Floresta and Tangará da Serra in the Brazilian Amazon in 2005. This is an ecological time series study that uses data on daily number of hospitalizations of children and the elderly for respiratory diseases, and estimated concentration of PM2.5. In Alta Floresta, the percentage increases in the relative risk (%RR) of hospitalization for respiratory diseases in children were significant for the whole year and for the dry season with 3-4 day lags. In the dry season these measurements reach 6% (95%CI: 1.4-10.8). The associations were sig-nificant for moving averages of 3-5 days. The %RR for the elderly was significant for the current day of the drought, with a 6.8% increase (95%CI: 0.5-13.5) for each additional 10µg/m3 of PM2.5. No as-sociations were verified for Tangara da Serra. The PM2.5 from the burning of biomass increased hospitalizations for respiratory diseases in children and the elderly.