It is a relaxation to turn from the pressing problems of our own community life to study for a while the social life of the honey bee, which is very interesting and quite different from our own. Only a small proportion of the two million different kinds of insects that exist today live in communities, and of these only a few share the honey bee's habit of living in a large and well-organized society.
We know more about the mode of life and the behavior of the honey bee than that of any other social insect, because the economic value of its honey and its wax made it worth while for man to domesticate this insect, with the result that its activities have been kept under close observation for many centuries.
As in aIl other social insects, the family forms the social unit, and there has been no integration above that level; never does one come across a number of families associating together to form a cornmunity in the way that happens in the case of man. Nevertheless a honey-bee colony can reach a considerable size, and it may come to contain as many as 70,000 worker bees, aIl of them the progeny of one fertile female, their queen. The queen lays aIl the eggs, and the workers carry out aIl the other work of the colony. The efficient functioning of this large family is clearly impossible unless its members are able to communicate with each other effectively...
1. The phenomenon of "shaking" in honeybee colonies is described, and is here considered in relation to the queen of the colony.
2. The queen was rarely shaken in the spring but once swarm preparations had commenced the frequency of shaking rose rapidly, reaching a peak at about the time the swarm left. A newlymated young queen was shaken to some extent just after she first commenced laying, but within a few days the frequency had fallen markedly, and finally no shaking was observed. Since the queens were shaken only at times when they were likely to fly out of the hive it is concluded that there is a connection between the two events. Hammann (1957) gives results on unmated queens which also support this assumption, for these queens were shaken with increasing frequency before each mating flight.
3. The ages of the queen's shakers ranged from 3 to 61 days but the greatest numbers occurred in approximately the fourth week of adult life.
Some physiocochemical observations were made on the interaction between actomyosin from honeybee thoracic muscle and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP caused superprecipitation, viscosity drop, and light-scattering drop in insect actomyosin. On the other hand, actomyosin showed a powerful ATP-splitting enzyme action. The extent of these interactions of insect actomyosin with ATP was fairly coniparable with those of rabbit actomyosin. From the viewpoint of comparative biochemistry, these observations, in general, support the current theory that the ATP-actomyosin system is essential for muscular contraction.
Pires, Sância; Flores Serrano, José Manuel; Calero, M.J.; Pereira, José
Fonte: Janez PoklukarPublicador: Janez Poklukar
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Relevância na Pesquisa
comunicação oral; The goal of this study was to research the remova] behaviour of Apis mellifera L. against infested worker
brood cells with Varroa mite. Four experiments were made among June - September of 2001, in 6 hives. Qf
these, three were only infested with freezed killed mites (ACV) and the remaining three using ACV, naturally
dead mites (AMN) and live mites (AIV). The infestation techniques were applied in 2 combs/hive, using
groups of 10 worker brood cells. Different treatments were used: cells artificially infested, cells opened and
closed without introduce mites (Control II) and non-manipulated cells (Control II). The honeybees showed
two different behaviours. ln the first, cleaned completely the cells, removing both brood and mites (behaviour
I). ln the second, bees uncapped and recapped the cells, removing only the mites (behaviour II). They cleaned
larger number of infested cells (behaviour I) with dead mites (p<0,0l) when different techniques were
applied together, relatively to that applied alone. When applied in simultaneous, differences were not
verified (p>0,05) among the techniques relatively to the behaviour I. On the other hand, differences existed
(p<0,01) when we considered the behaviour II. Significant correlation did not exist (p>0...
Honeybee brain extracts were subjected to a procedure of analysis on paper involving electrophoresis at two pH values, bidimensional chromatography and development with various reagents. This led to the identification of 18 aminoacids, a peptide (glutathione), a hydroacid (isethionic acid) and showed the presence of other as yet unidentified compounds : some aminoacids (one of which contained sulphur), some peptides, a guanidinic compound, one or more basic compounds reacting with ninhydrin, and one or more organic bases.
An ion exchange chromatographic analysis substantially confirmed the results obtained on paper, and gave quantitative data on the individual aminoacids before and after hydrolysis. These results are discussed in relation to the data avaible from the literature on the aminoacid content of mammalian and invertebrate nervous tissue.
1. 1. Sterold have been extracted from 3 insects, Calotermes flavicollis, Gryllus domesticus and Apis mellifica, and their characteristics determined by means of mass spectrometer.
2. 2. Cholesterol is the principal sterol of Calotermes and Gryllus.
3. 3. The principal sterol in Apis is 24-methylene cholesterol.
4. 4. The presence of minor sterols is reported.
A study was made of the effect of high temperatures on thermoregulation in a honeybee colony and on the behaviour of the bees. Thermoregulation was limited to the brood-nest. Its temperature did not exceed 37·6°C while the ambient one was 48°C. The activity of forager bees continued in spite of the extremely high temperatures (up to 48°C). During the middle of the day this activity decreased, but it was resumed as a result of transport of liquids when the ambient temperature was still 47·O°C.
The activity of ventilating bees at the hive entrance and the velocity of the air current were influenced by the fluctuation of the temperature of the brood-nest. The activity of water carriers was not affected directly by the ambient temperature but by that of the brood-nest. On the contrary, the activity of sucrose solution carriers depended upon external temperatures. A similar trend of daily activity was found both in ventilating bees and in water carriers, as opposed to the sucrose solution carriers.
Following preceding papers on the isolation of some Actinomycetes strains in the digestive tract of bees affected with a particular type of "Black disease", the AA. have investigated their presence in healthy bees, as this kind of organisms had never been detected before in the digestive tract.
Healthy and sick bees taken from two hives of a same apiary, one normal and the other affected with « Black disease » for 3 years and presenting a considerable and constant mortality, were examined. Actinomycetes were
isolated from the healthy as well as from the sick bees.
The AA. conc1ude that Actinomycetes are not responsible for « Black disease» for the following reasons:
I) Actinomycetes are present in healthy and sick bees in practically the same percentage.
2) Actinomycetes may not be isolated from all the sick bees.
3) The species of Actinomycetes isolated from the sick bees are many and different.
The bacterial flora of the mid-gut of a lot of 100 queen-bees in normal health conditions and taken from different hives was investigated. From 44 queens, 62 isolates of aerobic bacteria were obtained: among them 41 strains were recognized as representatives of the genus Achromobacter while other 18 belong undoutebly to the genus Brevibacterium. The frequency of their incidence in the midguts, the diversity in hosts provenience and the largerly variable conditions of their sampling and expedition are elements sufficient to warrant the conclusion that the bacteria are not harboured incidentally in the mid-gut of these insects but they may multiply although moderately or at least survive in this habitat without any damage fr host organism.
12 planches en lithographie - 12 tables, lithography; Explication des douze planches :
PL. 1 : Les abeilles à l'état d'insectes parfaits.
Pl. 2 : Les têtes des abeilles.
Pl. 3 : Structure particulière de la bouche et de l'antenne de l'ouvrière.
Pl. 4 : Les organes de la vue.
Pl. 5 : Le thorax et ses appendices.
Pl. 6 : Les abdomens, l'appareil sécrétant la cire et les cellules de cire.
Pl. 7 : Système et structure des nerfs.
Pl. 8 : Appareil digestif.
Pl. 9 : Système respiratoire, appareil de la circulation du sang, leur structure et la représentation figurée de la circulation.
Pl. 10 : Appareil génital des abeilles.
Pl. 11 : L'appareil de l'aiguillon et la structure musculaire.
Pl. 12 : L'abeille dans ses périodes de transformations.
1. Les échanges respiratoires
2. La teneur en eau du corps des abeilles pendant les différentes saison
3. L'influence de la température ambiante sur l'élimination de l'eau par le corps des abeilles
4. Influence de la temperature ambiante sur l'élimination de l'eau par les mouches
5. Chaleur produite par les abeilles
6. L'azote dans le corps des abeilles pendant les différentes saisons
7. Le glycogène
8. Discussion des résultats
1. Respiratory exchanges
2. Water content of honeybees body during the four seasons
3. Influence of room temperature on water elimination by honeybees body
4. Influence of room temperature on water elimination by [mouches]
5. honeybees heat production
6. Nitrogen in honeybees body during the four seasons
8. Discussions of results
9. Conclusions; Thèse de doctorat ès Sciences naturelles
Matériel et méthodes de travail.
Localisation de la phérormone.
Mode d'action de la phérormone.
Nature chimique de la phérormone.
Les ouvrières et l'apparition de la phérormone : le cycle de la phérormone.
Les interactions sociales et la phérormone.
Recherches parallèles effectuées chez les termites, les fourmis et les Halictes.
Conclusions générales. /// CONTENTS: History.
Materials and methods.
Pherormone mode of action.
Chemistry of the pherormone.
Workers and pherormone: the pherormone cycle.
Social interactions and pherormone.
Similar researches on termites, ants and Halictes.
General conclusions.; Thèse de doctorat ès Sciences naturelles
Histoire chimique de la cire d'abeilles.
Technique et méthodes.
Origine des mélanges ayant servi à l'extraction des carbures, alcools et acides.
Chemical history of honeybees wax technique and methods.
Origin of mixtures to extract carbures, alcohols and acids.
Bibliography; Thèse de Docteur en Pharmacie