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Recent trends in cesarean section use in California.

Stafford, R. S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1990 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.89%
Cesarean section use in the United States has increased to 24.7% of deliveries in 1988 and is the most common hospital surgical procedure. California cesarean section rates were examined to measure recent trends in obstetric practices and to project future patterns of cesarean section use. Using discharge abstracts from 1983 to 1987 California hospital deliveries, total cesarean section rates were found to increase from nearly 22% in 1983 to 25% in 1987, an increase of 15%. Using a series of least-squares regression models, time trends in the distribution of indications associated with cesarean section among all deliveries and indication-specific cesarean section rates were evaluated. Increases in the number of women with previous cesarean section and fetal distress contributed to rising cesarean section rates. In addition, indication-specific cesarean section rates increased for breech presentation and dystocia. These trends were counterbalanced, in part, by declining rates of repeat cesarean sections. Trends noted for July 1985 through 1987 did not differ substantially from those observed for January 1983 to June 1985, suggesting that recent policy attempts to alter cesarean section use have not had a measurable effect on existing trends. Projections suggest that California cesarean section rates will rise to a level of 34% by the year 2000.

Time trend and age-period-cohort effects on gastric cancer incidence in Zaragoza and Navarre, Spain.

Aragonés, N; Pollán, M; López-Abente, G; Ruiz, M; Vergara, A; Moreno, C; Moreo, P; Ardanaz, E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1997 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe time trends in gastric cancer incidence in Zaragoza and Navarre, and to investigate time period and birth cohort as determinants of such trends. DESIGN: Cases from two registries were grouped into five year intervals and the following were calculated: age specific and sex specific incidence rates, and the male to female ratio. Log linear models including age, period of diagnosis, and birth cohort were fitted. SETTING: The Zaragoza Cancer Registry covers the province of Zaragoza, which has a population of 824,776 (403,755 men and 421,021 women). The Navarre Cancer Registry covers the province of Navarre which has 512,512 inhabitants (254,786 men and 257,726 women). In both cases population figures were based on the late census. PATIENTS: These comprised incident cases of gastric cancer reported to the Zaragoza Cancer Registry in 1963-87 and to the Navarre Cancer Registry in 1973-87. MAIN RESULTS: Navarre registered higher adjusted and cumulative rates than Zaragoza for both sexes. In both provinces, there were relative declines in the rates for men and women of 3% and 4% respectively per year. In Zaragoza, the risk of developing stomach cancer fell in generations born between 1888 and 1933, and rose in subsequent birth cohorts in both sexes...

Recent time trends in uterine cancer.

Persky, V; Davis, F; Barrett, R; Ruby, E; Sailer, C; Levy, P
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1990 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.87%
Recent trends in corpus uterine cancer incidence rates were explored using 1979-86 data from the Surveillance and End Results Program (SEER); recent trends in hospitalizations for corpus uterine cancer were explored using 1979-86 data from National Hospital Discharge Surveys (NHDS); and recent trends in exogenous hormone use were delineated using data from the 1980, 1981, and 1985 National Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys (NAMCS). Uterine cancer incidence rates using SEER data have continued to decline since 1979. An acceleration in the decline since 1983-84 is suggested in all women and in women with intact uteri ages 45-64. Hospitalizations for uterine cancer have also declined since 1979, with a marked acceleration in the decline since 1983-84 for all women and for women ages 40-79 has increased 22 percent and use of unopposed exogenous estrogens in women of similar age has increased 7 percent, while use of exogenous progesterones have shown much more substantial increases of approximately 700 percent. Possible relationships between trends in exogenous hormone use and incidence rates of corpus uterine cancer are discussed.

Age specific trends in asthma mortality in England and Wales, 1983-95: results of an observational study.

Campbell, M. J.; Cogman, G. R.; Holgate, S. T.; Johnston, S. L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/05/1997 EN
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OBJECTIVE: To determine trends in asthma mortality by age group in England and Wales during 1983-95. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: England and Wales. SUBJECTS: All deaths classified as having an underlying cause of asthma registered from 1 January 1983 to 31 December 1995. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Time trends for age specific asthma deaths. RESULTS: Deaths in the age group 5-14 years showed an irregular downward trend during 1983-95; deaths in the age groups 15-44, 45-64, and 65-74 years peaked before 1989 and then showed a downward trend; and deaths in the age group 75-84 years peaked between 1988 and 1993 and subsequently dropped. Trends were: age group 5-14 years, 6% (95% confidence interval 3% to 9%); 15-44 years, 6% (5% to 7%); 45-64 years, 5% (4% to 6%); 65-74 years, 2% (1% to 3%). Deaths in the 75-84 and 85 and over categories plateaued. CONCLUSIONS: There are downward trends in asthma mortality in Britain, which may be due to increased use of prophylactic treatment.

Trends in General and Abdominal Obesity among Korean Adults: Findings from 1998, 2001, 2005, and 2007 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

Khang, Young-Ho; Yun, Sung-Cheol
Fonte: The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences Publicador: The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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We examined trends in obesity among Korean adults, using body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) as reported in national surveys. Data (10,043 men and 12,758 non-pregnant women) were derived from four waves of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 1998, 2001, 2005, and 2007. Between 1998 and 2007, the distribution of BMI and WC showed shifts toward the right among men. Mean values of BMI and WC and the corresponding overweight (includes obesity) and obesity prevalences showed increasing trends in men but not in women. Women aged 60+ showed significant increases in obesity measures, including mean BMI and WC, and the associated prevalences. Among women aged 20-39, the prevalence of underweight increased significantly between 1998 and 2007, and BMI showed a decreasing tendency. These time trends in young women were the reverse of the trends in young men. In conclusion, policy efforts to abate overweight and obesity trends need to be exercised among men and older women. In addition, more national studies regarding potential increases in underweight among young women are warranted.

Three Measures of Longevity: Time Trends and Record Values

CANUDAS-ROMO, VLADIMIR
Fonte: Population Association of America Publicador: Population Association of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.9%
This article examines the trend over time in the measures of “typical” longevity experienced by members of a population: life expectancy at birth, and the median and modal ages at death. The article also analyzes trends in record values observed for all three measures. The record life expectancy at birth increased from a level of 44 years in Sweden in 1840 to 82 years in Japan in 2005. The record median age at death shows increasing patterns similar to those observed in life expectancy at birth. However, the record modal age at death changes very little until the second half of the twentieth century: it moved from a plateau level, around age 80, to having a similar pace of increase as that observed for the mean and the median in most recent years. These findings explain the previously observed uninterrupted increase in the record life expectancy. The cause of this increase has changed over time from a dominance of child mortality reductions to a dominance of adult mortality reductions, which became evident by studying trends in the record modal age at death.

Family Income and Education Were Related with 30-Year Time Trends in Dietary and Meal Behaviors of American Children and Adolescents123

Kant, Ashima K.; Graubard, Barry I.
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Recent survey data reveal the persistence of long-acknowledged socioeconomic status (SES) differentials in the prevalence of obesity in U.S. children and adolescents. We examined 30-y changes in the association of dietary and meal behaviors with family income and education to understand the possible contribution of these trends to SES trends in obesity rates in 2- to 19-y-old Americans. We used dietary and SES data for 2- to 19-y olds from the NHANES 1971–1974 to 2003–2008 (n = 39,822). The secular changes in the independent association of family income and education with 24-h dietary behaviors [energy intake (kcal), amount of foods and beverages (g), percent energy from all beverages and from nutritive beverages, and energy density of foods] and 24-h meal behaviors [number of eating occasions, energy from snack episodes (%), and mention of breakfast] were examined using multivariable regression methods. The secular increase in energy intake and food and beverage amount was significant in the lowest family SES categories. The positive association of family income and education with intakes of energy, food amounts, and beverage energy, noted in 1971–1974 or 1976–1980, was not observed in later surveys. There was an age gradient in changes in most diet and SES associations over time...

Health Inequalities: Trends, Progress, and Policy

Bleich, Sara N.; Jarlenski, Marian P.; Bell, Caryn N.; LaVeist, Thomas A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Health inequalities, which have been well documented for decades, have more recently become policy targets in developed countries. This review describes time trends in health inequalities (by sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status), commitments to reduce health inequalities, and progress made to eliminate health inequalities in the United States, United Kingdom, and other OECD countries. Time-trend data in the United States indicate a narrowing of the gap between the best- and worst-off groups in some health indicators, such as life expectancy, but a widening of the gap in others, such as diabetes prevalence. Similarly, time-trend data in the United Kingdom indicate a narrowing of the gap between the best- and worst-off groups in some indicators, such as hypertension prevalence, whereas the gap between social classes has increased for life expectancy. More research and better methods are needed to measure precisely the relationships between stated policy goals and observed trends in health inequalities.

Detecting Temporal Trends in Species Assemblages with Bootstrapping Procedures and Hierarchical Models

Gotelli, Nicholas; Dorazio, Robert; Ellison, Aaron M.
Fonte: Royal Society Publicador: Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Quantifying patterns of temporal trends in species assemblages is an important analytical challenge in community ecology. We describe methods of analysis that can be applied to a matrix of counts of individuals that is organized by species (rows) and time-ordered sampling periods (columns). We first developed a bootstrapping procedure to test the null hypothesis of random sampling from a stationary species abundance distribution with temporally varying sampling probabilities. This procedure can be modified to account for undetected species. We next developed a hierarchical model to estimate species-specific trends in abundance while accounting for species-specific probabilities of detection. 51 We analyzed two long-term data sets on stream fishes and grassland insects to demonstrate these methods. For both assemblages, the bootstrap test indicated that temporal trends in abundance were more heterogeneous than expected under the null model. We used the hierarchical model to estimate trends in abundance and identified sets of species in each assemblage that were steadily increasing, decreasing, or remaining constant in abundance over more than a decade of standardized annual surveys. Our methods of analysis are broadly applicable to other ecological data sets...

Trends in Malaria Cases, Hospital Admissions and Deaths Following Scale-Up of Anti-Malarial Interventions, 2000–2010, Rwanda

Karema, Corine; Aregawi, Maru W; Rukundo, Alphonse; Kabayiza, Alain; Mulindahabi, Monique; Fall, Ibrahima S; Gausi, Khoti; Williams, Ryan O; Cibulskis, Richard; Fidele, Ngabo; Nyemazi, Jean-Pierre; Ngamije, Daniel; Umulisa, Irenee; Newman, Robert; Lynch,
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Background: To control malaria, the Rwandan government and its partners distributed insecticide-treated nets (ITN) and made artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) widely available from 2005 onwards. The impact of these interventions on malaria cases, admissions and deaths was assessed using data from district hospitals and household surveys. Methods: District records of ITN and ACT distribution were reviewed. Malaria and non-malaria indictors in 30 district hospitals were ascertained from surveillance records. Trends in cases, admissions and deaths for 2000 to 2010 were assessed by segmented log-linear regression, adjusting the effect size for time trends during the pre-intervention period, 2000–2005. Changes were estimated by comparing trends in post-intervention (2006–2010) with that of pre-intervention (2000–2005) period. All-cause deaths in children under-five in household surveys of 2005 and 2010 were also reviewed to corroborate with the trends of deaths observed in hospitals. Results: The proportion of the population potentially protected by ITN increased from nearly zero in 2005 to 38% in 2006, and 76% in 2010; no major health facility stock-outs of ACT were recorded following their introduction in 2006. In district hospitals...

Nationwide trends in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction in Australia, 1993-2010

Wong, C.; Sun, M.; Lau, D.; Brooks, A.; Sullivan, T.; Worthley, M.; Roberts-Thomson, K.; Sanders, P.
Fonte: Excerpta Medica Inc Publicador: Excerpta Medica Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Although most of the additional increases in coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality are estimated to occur outside developed regions such as North America and Europe, few nationwide studies have been published of acute myocardial infarction (MI) epidemiology from other regions. We thus sought to expand the global data regarding MI trends. Nationwide trends of incident MI, ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI), and non-ST-segment MI (non-STEMI) were analyzed during a 17-year period in Australia. We identified 714,262 hospitalizations for MI from 1993 to 2010, representing 331,871,389 person-years. During the study period, the age- and gender-adjusted incidence of all MIs increased from 215 to 251 cases per 100,000 person-years, a relative increase of 76% (p <0.0001 for trend). The adjusted incidence of STEMI decreased from 147 to 70 cases per 100,000 person-years, a relative decrease of 30% (p <0.0001 for trend). In contrast, the adjusted incidence of non-STEMI increased from 67 to 182 cases per 100,000 person-years, a relative increase of 315% (p <0.0001 for trend). Age-specific analyses suggested that statistically significant increases in MI incidence were present in those aged <50 and ≥80 years. In conclusion, although it has previously been suggested that declining trends in MI incidence in North American and European reports might be generalizable given the seemingly consistent observations thus far...

A review of research trends in physiological abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders: immune dysregulation, inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and environmental toxicant exposures

Rossignol, D A; Frye, R E
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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35.89%
Recent studies have implicated physiological and metabolic abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other psychiatric disorders, particularly immune dysregulation or inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and environmental toxicant exposures (‘four major areas'). The aim of this study was to determine trends in the literature on these topics with respect to ASD. A comprehensive literature search from 1971 to 2010 was performed in these four major areas in ASD with three objectives. First, publications were divided by several criteria, including whether or not they implicated an association between the physiological abnormality and ASD. A large percentage of publications implicated an association between ASD and immune dysregulation/inflammation (416 out of 437 publications, 95%), oxidative stress (all 115), mitochondrial dysfunction (145 of 153, 95%) and toxicant exposures (170 of 190, 89%). Second, the strength of evidence for publications in each area was computed using a validated scale. The strongest evidence was for immune dysregulation/inflammation and oxidative stress, followed by toxicant exposures and mitochondrial dysfunction. In all areas, at least 45% of the publications were rated as providing strong evidence for an association between the physiological abnormalities and ASD. Third...

Bayesian Estimation of Population-Level Trends in Measures of Health Status

Finucane, Mariel M.; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Danaei, Goodarz; Ezzati, Majid
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/05/2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.9%
Improving health worldwide will require rigorous quantification of population-level trends in health status. However, global-level surveys are not available, forcing researchers to rely on fragmentary country-specific data of varying quality. We present a Bayesian model that systematically combines disparate data to make country-, region- and global-level estimates of time trends in important health indicators. The model allows for time and age nonlinearity, and it borrows strength in time, age, covariates, and within and across regional country clusters to make estimates where data are sparse. The Bayesian approach allows us to account for uncertainty from the various aspects of missingness as well as sampling and parameter uncertainty. MCMC sampling allows for inference in a high-dimensional, constrained parameter space, while providing posterior draws that allow straightforward inference on the wide variety of functionals of interest. Here we use blood pressure as an example health metric. High blood pressure is the leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death worldwide. The results highlight a risk transition, with decreasing blood pressure in high-income regions and increasing levels in many lower-income regions.; Comment: Published in at http://dx.doi.org/10.1214/13-STS427 the Statistical Science (http://www.imstat.org/sts/) by the Institute of Mathematical Statistics (http://www.imstat.org)

Surface temperature cooling trends and negative radiative forcing due to land use change toward greenhouse farming in southeastern Spain

Campra, Pablo; García García, Mónica; Cantón, Yolanda; Palacios-Orueta, Alicia
Fonte: American Geophysical Union Publicador: American Geophysical Union
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 1006260 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
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10 pages, 6 figures.-- Open Access full-text version available at the publisher's site.; Index Terms: 1632 Global Change: Land cover change; 1631 Global Change: Land/atmosphere interactions; 0402 Biogeosciences: Agricultural systems; 1640 Global Change: Remote sensing; 3329 Atmospheric Processes: Mesoscale meteorology.; Greenhouse horticulture has experienced in recent decades a dramatic spatial expansion in the semiarid province of Almeria, in southeastern (SE) Spain, reaching a continuous area of 26,000 ha in 2007, the widest greenhouse area in the world. A significant surface air temperature trend of −0.3°C decade−1 in this area during the period 1983–2006 is first time reported here. This local cooling trend shows no correlation with Spanish regional and global warming trends. Radiative forcing (RF) is widely used to assess and compare the climate change mechanisms. Surface shortwave RF (SWRF) caused through clearing of pasture land for greenhouse farming development in this area is estimated here. We present the first empirical evidences to support the working hypothesis of the development of a localized forcing created by surface albedo change to explain the differences in temperature trends among stations either inside or far from this agricultural land. SWRF was estimated from satellite-retrieved surface albedo data and calculated shortwave outgoing fluxes associated with either uses of land under typical incoming solar radiation. Outgoing fluxes were calculated from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface reflectance data. A difference in mean annual surface albedo of +0.09 was measured comparing greenhouses surface to a typical pasture land. Strong negative forcing associated with land use change was estimated all year round...

Evaluation of Centrally Located Sources in Coincidence Timing Calibration for Time-of-Flight PET

Wargo, Richard Ryan
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2012
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35.87%

Coincidence Timing Calibration (CTC) is an essential part of ensuring proper PET scanner function. The purpose of CTC is to account for timing differences in detector modules. The importance and precision in which this calibration needs to work is even more stringent for Time-of-Flight (TOF) PET. In this work, we looked to investigate the CTC process by which the TOF capable GE PET/CT Discovery-690 (D690) operates. Currently, it uses a 68Ge rotating pin source (RPS) to perform the calibration. The purpose of this work was to investigate the use of a centrally located source to perform the calibration. The timing resolution of the D690 was determined and used as a metric to evaluate both methods.

Two cylindrical 18F filled phantoms of 7.5 and 10 cm diameter were used to perform the CTC. The RPS and system table motion had to be disabled in order to use the centrally located sources in the CTC. All CTCs started with the default calibration file in place. Iterations of the CTC were performed until convergence of the calibration was observed on the review screen. Even after convergence, more iterations were performed for further analysis. At the end of the CTC with the centrally located sources, a follow-up iteration with the RPS was performed to see what adjustments would be made. Next...

Historical temporal trends in monthly, seasonal, and annual mean, minimum, and maximum streamflows from the Okanagan River watershed in south-central British Columbia, Canada

Sierra Rayne; Kaya Forest
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
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Historical trends in monthly, seasonal, and annual mean streamflows, as well as minimum and maximum monthly streamflows, were investigated at nine hydrometric stations in the Okanagan River watershed from south-central British Columbia, Canada. Overall, mean annual streamflows in the Okanagan River watershed are not exhibiting any significant time trends. No consistent declines in monthly minimum streamflows are evident at any point during the hydrologic year. Mean monthly and monthly maximum streamflows in tributary streams to the mainstem system appear to be significantly increasing over time during the spring snowmelt period of March and April. Any temporal changes in flow patterns at the mainstem Okanagan River stations likely reflect alterations in water management strategies over time at the respective upstream dams.

Evolução da assistência materno-infantil na cidade de São Paulo (1984-1996); Secular trends in maternal and child health care in S. Paulo city, Brazil(1984-1996)

Monteiro, Carlos Augusto; França Júnior, Ivan; Conde, Wolney Lisboa
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2000 POR
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OBJETIVO: Descrever a evolução da assistência materno-infantil, com base nas informações extraídas de dois inquéritos domiciliares realizados nos anos de 1984/85 e de 1995/96, na cidade de São Paulo, SP. MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas amostras probabilísticas da população entre zero e 59 meses de idade: 1.016 crianças em 1984/85 e 1.280 crianças em 1995/96. Três componentes da assistência materno-infantil foram investigados: assistência pré-natal, assistência ao parto e ao recém-nascido e assistência de puericultura. RESULTADOS: Aspectos favoráveis da evolução da assistência materno-infantil na cidade de São Paulo foram a manutenção da cobertura universal da assistência hospitalar ao parto, a expansão substancial do alojamento conjunto mãe-filho na maternidade, o aumento no número de consultas de puericultura no primeiro ano de vida e, sobretudo, a universalização da cobertura das vacinas BCG, tríplice e anti-sarampo. Aspectos desfavoráveis foram o progresso muito modesto e claramente insuficiente da assistência pré-natal, a manutenção de quase 50% de cesarianas e a não expansão da puericultura após o primeiro ano de vida. CONCLUSÕES: Estimativas sobre a evolução da assistência materno-infantil no conjunto das áreas urbanas do País em período semelhante confirma e acentua o desempenho insatisfatório da assistência pré-natal na cidade de São Paulo. Comparações favoráveis a São Paulo são registradas apenas quanto a cobertura vacinal. A influência que mudanças na assistência materno-infantil podem ter exercido sobre a evolução de diferentes indicadores do estado de saúde das crianças da cidade é examinada em artigos subseqüentes.; OBJECTIVE: Two consecutive household surveys undertaken in mid-80s and mid-90s in the city of S. Paulo...

Variability and trends of extreme dry and wet seasonal precipitation in Argentina: A retrospective analysis

Scian,B.; Pierini,J.
Fonte: Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, UNAM Publicador: Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, UNAM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 EN
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35.91%
The variability in seasonal mean and extreme precipitation is analyzed for several regions of Argentina to the north of 39° S, using long-term monthly time series data which expand from 1860 to 2006. The selected locations can be considered as representative of different climatic regions. This work focuses on the analysis of monthly rainfall distribution, significant seasonal trends, changes in variance and extreme monthly values, in order to establish the magnitude of the seasonal climatic rainfall variability through time for central Argentina. A 40-yr moving window was employed in order to analyze seasonal variability of rainfall extremes. Extremes were computed for different probability levels of a theoretical distribution function over/below the 80th/20th percentile. The gamma distribution was selected among five other theoretical distributions, and the scale and shape parameters were computed using the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and the bootstrap method for 1000 resample data sets, as well. Trend analysis was performed for each window on winter and summer means and tested for significance. The use of a moving window allowed detecting the window of maximum absolute values for the trends. Research results show significant temporal shifts in seasonal rainfall distribution and return values (RV) that were computed for different frequencies (once every five...

Trends and spatial distribution of deaths of children aged 12-60 months in São Paulo, Brazil, 1980-98

Antunes,José Leopoldo Ferreira; Waldman,Eliseu Alves
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2002 EN
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OBJECTIVE: To describe trends in the mortality of children aged 12-60 months and to perform spatial data analysis of its distribution at the inner city district level in São Paulo from 1980 to 1998. METHODS: Official mortality data were analysed in relation to the underlying causes of death. The population of children aged 12-60 months, disaggregated by sex and age, was estimated for each year. Educational levels, income, employment status, and other socioeconomic indices were also assessed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences software was used for the statistical processing of time series. The Cochrane-Orcutt procedure of generalized least squares regression analysis was used to estimate the regression parameters with control of first-order autocorrelation. Spatial data analysis employed the discrimination of death rates and socioeconomic indices at the inner city district level. For classifying area-level death rates the method of K-means cluster analysis was used. Spatial correlation between variables was analysed by the simultaneous autoregressive regression method. FINDINGS: There was a steady decline in death rates during the 1980s at an average rate of 3.08% per year, followed by a levelling off. Infectious diseases remained the major cause of mortality...

Cervical cancer mortality trends in Brazil: 1980-2009

Gonzaga,Carolina Maciel Reis; Freitas-Junior,Ruffo; Barbaresco,Aline Almeida; Martins,Edesio; Bernardes,Bruno Teixeira; Resende,Ana Paula Magalhães
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2013 EN
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The objective was to describe time trends in cervical cancer mortality rates in Brazil as a whole and in the country's major geographic regions and States from 1980 to 2009. This was an ecological time series study using data recorded in the Mortality Information System (SIM) and census data collected by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). Analysis of mortality trends was performed using Poisson regression. Cervical cancer mortality rates in Brazil tended to stabilize. In the geographic regions, a downward trend was observed in the South (-4.1%), Southeast (-3.3%), and Central-West (-1%) and an upward trend in the Northeast (3.5%) and North (2.7%). The largest decreases were observed in the States of São Paulo (­5.1%), Rio Grande do Sul, Espírito Santo, and Paraná (-4.0%). The largest increases in mortality trends occurred in Paraíba (12.4%), Maranhão (9.8%), and Tocantins (8.9%). Cervical cancer mortality rates stabilized in the country as a whole, but there was a downward trend in three geographic regions and 10 States, while two geographic regions and another 10 States showed increasing rates.