Página 7 dos resultados de 25165 itens digitais encontrados em 0.021 segundos

Associação entre excesso de peso e hábito de fumar, Santarém, PA, 2007; Association between overweight and smoking habits, Santarém, PA, 2007

SÁ, Naíza Nayla Bandeira de; MOURA, Erly Catarina
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Pós -Graduação em Saúde Coletiva Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Pós -Graduação em Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.6%
OBJETIVO: Estudar associação entre excesso de peso e hábito de fumar. METODOLOGIA: Estudo transversal desenvolvido por telefone numa amostra probabilística de adultos (Santarém /PA), em 2007. Variável desfecho foi excesso de peso, explanatória hábito de fumar e de confusão idade, escolaridade, união conjugal, estado nutricional prévio, abuso de bebidas alcoólicas, atividade física no lazer e padrão alimentar. Associação entre excesso de peso e demais variáveis foi investigada pelo teste do qui-quadrado e regressão de Poisson para o cálculo das razões de prevalência de excesso de peso conforme hábito de fumar, considerando-se três níveis de hierarquia: características sociodemográficas, estado nutricional prévio e padrão comportamental. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se 40,6% de excesso de peso e 16,4% de fumantes. As variáveis associadas ao excesso de peso foram: maior idade, menor escolaridade, união conjugal estável, excesso de peso aos 20 anos e hábito de não consumo de refrigerante para ambos os sexos; não ativo no lazer para homens e hábito de fumar (atual e passado) para mulheres. As razões de prevalência de excesso de peso não apresentaram associação com hábito de fumar para homens, porém para mulheres houve tendência de maior prevalência de excesso de peso para fumantes atuais...

Cumulative priming effects of cortical stimulation on smoking cue-induced craving

BOGGIO, Paulo Sergio; LIGUORI, Paola; SULTANI, Natasha; REZENDE, Larissa; FECTEAU, Shirley; FREGNI, Felipe
Fonte: ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD Publicador: ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.6%
Smoking cue-provoked craving is an intricate behavior associated with strong changes in neural networks. Craving is one of the main reasons subjects continue to smoke; therefore interventions that can modify activity in neural networks associated with craving can be useful tools in future research investigating novel treatments for smoking cessation. The goal of this study was to use a neuromodulatory technique associated with a powerful effect on spontaneous neuronal firing - transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) - to modify cue-provoked smoking craving. Based on preliminary data showing that craving can be modified after a single tDCS session, here we investigated the effects of repeated tDCS sessions on craving behavior. Twenty-seven subjects were randomized to receive sham or active tDCS (anodal tDCS of the left DLPFC). Our results show a significant cumulative effect of tDCS on modifying smoking cue-provoked craving. In fact, in the group of active stimulation, smoking cues had an opposite effect on craving after stimulation - it decreased craving - as compared to sham stimulation in which there was a small decrease or increase on craving. In addition, during these 5 days of stimulation there was a small but significant decrease in the number of cigarettes smoked in the active as compared to sham tDCS group. Our findings extend the results of our previous study as they confirm the notion that tDCS has a specific effect on craving behavior and that the effects of several sessions can increase the magnitude of its effect. These results open avenues for the exploration of this method as a therapeutic alternative for smoking cessation and also as a mean to change stimulus-induced behavior. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Prevalência de tabagismo e seu impacto na voz da população do campus de Bauru da Universidade de São Paulo; Prevalence of smoking and the impact on the voice of the population of the Bauru School of Dentistry campus, University of Sao Paulo

Morais, Gianne Cerqueira Leite Rodrigues
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/07/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.6%
O combate à epidemia do tabagismo é prioridade estabelecida pela Organização Mundial de Saúde. Objetivou-se estabelecer a prevalência do tabagismo e seu efeito na voz dos servidores e alunos do campus de Bauru da Universidade de São Paulo. Através da aplicação de um questionário autoexplicativo foram avaliadas as características sociodemográficas, saúde geral, voz, e comportamento em relação ao tabagismo. Avaliou-se a prevalência do hábito, o grau de dependência à nicotina (Teste de Fagerstrom) e a motivação para interrupção do hábito (Teste de Richmond). Os resultados foram analisados no programa Statistica for Windows versão 5.1. Foram aplicados os testes qui-quadrado e correlação de Spearman entre grupos, com nível de significância de 5%. O índice de resposta obtido foi de 62,8%, ou seja, 628 respondentes. A maioria dos entrevistados era do sexo feminino (74,5%), com idade entre 18 e 29 anos (46,2%) e com grau de instrução até o ensino médio (57,8%). Com relação ao hábito de fumar 10,5% eram fumantes e 10,5% ex-fumantes. O percentual de alunos fumantes (4,1%) foi significativamente menor comparado aos valores observados para funcionários (p<0,001). A prevalência de fumantes foi significativamente maior entre os entrevistados do sexo masculino (p=0...

Association between Discoid Lupus erythematosus and Cigarette Smoking - A case-control study

Miot, H. A.; Miot, LDB; Haddad, G. R.
Fonte: Karger Publicador: Karger
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 118-122
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.6%
Background. Discoid lupus erythernatosus (DLE) is a chronic cutaneous disease affecting photoexposed areas and has also been associated with cigarette smoking. Objective: To evaluate the association between smoking and DLE. Methods: A case-control study was performed involving 57 cases diagnosed with DLE and 215 healthy controls. Results:A higher smoking prevalence was noted in DLE cases (84.2%) than controls (33.5%), and the odds ratio adjusted for gender, age and ultraviolet index in the city of origin was 14.4 (95% confidence interval 6.2-33.8; multiple logistic regression, p < 0.01). The cumulative smoking exposure was not related to premature DLE development. At the beginning of the disease, smokers had more extensive involvement than nonsmokers; compromise of the upper arms was statistically related to smoking. Conclusion: Cigarette smoking was statistically associated with DLE development. Other studies are needed in order to evaluate the effects of smoking cessation on the course of disease. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Smoking and Periodontal Disease: Clinical Evidence for an Association

Saliba Moimaz, Suzely Adas; Zina, Livia Guimaraes; Saliba, Orlando; Saliba Garbin, Clea Adas
Fonte: Quintessence Publishing Co Inc Publicador: Quintessence Publishing Co Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 369-376
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.6%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Processo FAPESP: 01/08989-4; Purpose: The aim of the present study was to assess the periodontal condition and smoking status, according to dose and duration information, and to estimate the percentage of subjects with periodontitis attributable to cigarette smoking in a representative adult rural population in southern Brazil.Materials and Methods: Bivariate statistical analysis was used to evaluate the association of smoking status with periodontitis in a cross-sectional study comprising 165 dentate individuals, aged 35 to 66 years, subjected to oral clinical examination of six sites per tooth in all sextants.Results: The prevalence of periodontitis (having >= 1 pocket of >= 4 mm around the index teeth) in the population was 35.2%. Overall, 13.9% had a cumulative loss of attachment > 4 mm; 35.7% of subjects were current smokers, classified as heavy (average 25.3 pack years), moderate (average 14.6 pack years) and light smokers (average 3.1 pack years). Statistical analysis showed that current smokers had an 11 times (95% confidence interval [Cl] = 4.69 to 26.62) and former smokers had a nine times (95% CI = 3.29 to 25.96) greater probability of having established periodontitis compared with non-smokers. The number of pack years (P = 0.0004) and years of smoking exposure (P = 0.0013) were associated with an increased prevalence of periodontitis. The number of current smokers with periodontitis might be reduced by 80%...

Nasal and systemic inflammatory profile after short term smoking cessation

Machado Rodrigues, Fernanda Maria; Ramos, Dionei; Xavier, Rafaella Fagundes; Ito, Juliana Tiyaki; Souza, Alcirene Policarpo de; Fernandes, Romulo Araujo; Cecchini, Rubens; Rossi e Silva, Renata Calciolari; Macchione, Mariangela; Toledo-Arruda, Alessandra
Fonte: W B Saunders Co Ltd Publicador: W B Saunders Co Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 999-1006
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.6%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Introduction: Smoking cessation promotes health benefits and, despite cigarette smoking be an important pro inflammatory stimulus, there are few studies concerning the nasal and systemic inflammation; as well as the mucociliary clearance behavior in smokers after short period of smoking cessation.Aim: To evaluate the nasal and systemic inflammatory markers and mucociliary clearance behavior after 30 days of cigarette smoking abstinence.Methods: Twenty-five smokers were included and divided into two groups: abstinent smokers (n = 14) and current smokers (n = 11). Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and IL-10 were measured on nasal lavage and blood serum samples by ELISA at baseline and after 30 days. The mucociliary clearance, exhaled carbon monoxide (exCO) and carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) were also measured at the same moments.Results: There was a decrease of TNF-alpha level only in blood serum at 30 days of abstinence compared to current smokers. The mucociliary clearance improved and there was a reduction in exCO and HbCO (p < 0.05 for all) after 30 days of smoking cessation.Conclusion: The short term smoking abstinence decreased systemic inflammation and improved nasal mucociliary clearance...

Fatores sócio-demográficos e clínicos relacionados à adesão ao tratamento e sucesso na cessação tabágica de pessoas que procuraram atendimento; Sociodemorafic and clinical factors related to adherence to treatment and sucess in smoking cessation of people search attendance

Rejane Firmino Fernandes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/06/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.6%
Introdução: O tabagismo é a principal causa de morte evitável em todo o mundo. Dados epidemiológicos revelam uma elevada prevalência de tabagismo na população brasileira, ocasionando graves conseqüências à saúde pública em função das patologias tabaco relacionadas. Paralelamente, existe uma demanda crescente por tratamento de tabagismo, todavia, as ofertas de intervenções para auxílio à cessação do uso do tabaco ainda não estão integradas às rotinas dos serviços de saúde no Brasil. Objetivos: Investigar as características sócio-demográficas e clínicas, além de motivos de busca e fatores relacionados à adesão e ao sucesso na cessação tabágica em fumantes que procuraram atendimento. Métodos: Estudo quantitativo, descritivo e prospectivo, avaliou 100 tabagistas que procuraram atendimento pela primeira vez em um ambulatório especializado no tratamento de tabagismo em uma instituição pública universitária. Foram avaliados em seu primeiro comparecimento ao serviço e reavaliados após 4, 8, 12 e 24 semanas. Foram investigadas variáveis sócio-demográficas, clínicas e o questionário de dependência de Fagerström, o Teste URICA, a Escala Hospitalar de Ansiedade e Depressão, o Teste AUDIT e o Questionário CAGE foram aplicados. Foram levantadas razões para busca de tratamento através do questionário sobre fatores motivacionais para cessação...

Maternal smoking during pregnancy and birthweight : a propensity score matching approach

Veiga, Paula Alexandra; Wilder, Ronald P.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho - Núcleo de Investigação em Microeconomia Aplicada Publicador: Universidade do Minho - Núcleo de Investigação em Microeconomia Aplicada
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em /01/2006 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.6%
There is accumulated evidence of the existence of a deleterious effect of smoking on birth outcomes. Whether there is a causal link or a mere statistical association is not clear. Understanding the effect of smoking on pregnancy is a critical issue because of the public policy implications for dissuading maternal smoking. This study was designed to distinguish causal links from statistical association in the relationship between fetal exposure to maternal smoking and birth outcomes. Although the task involves several aspects of estimation we restrict our focus to the issue of self-selection. We explore this issue by using the propensity score method and compare that with parametric estimators. First we estimate the treatment effect of smoking during pregnancy on different birth outcomes. Then, we extend the method to the case of the multi-treatment “intensity of smoking”. The deleterious effect of smoking is found robust to the different estimation methods used.; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)

Psychological morbidity as a moderator of intention to quit smoking : a study of smokers and former smokers

Afonso, Maria Fernanda Besteiro; Pereira, M. Graça
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.6%
Objective: To analyze psychological morbidity as a moderator of the relationship between smoking representations and quality of life in smokers and former smokers, as well as to determine which psychological variables discriminate between smokers with and without the intention to quit smoking. Methods: This was a quantitative, correlational cross-sectional study involving a convenience sample of 224 smokers and 169 former smokers. Results: In smokers and former smokers, psychological morbidity had a moderating effect on the relationship between mental/physical quality of life and smoking representations (cognitive representations, emotional representations, and comprehensibility). Smokers with the intention to quit smoking more often presented with low comprehensibility, threatening emotional representations, behavioral beliefs, and perceived behavioral control, as well as with normative/control beliefs, than did those without the intention to quit. Conclusions: The results of this study underscore the importance of the moderating effect exerted by psychological morbidity, as well as that of sociocognitive variables, among smokers who have the intention to quit smoking.; ResumoObjetivo: Analisar a morbidade psicológica como um moderador na relação entre as representações do tabaco e a qualidade de vida em fumantes e ex-fumantes...

Smoking, consumption of alcohol and sedentary life style in population grouping and their relationships with lipemic disorders

Salas Martins,Ignez; Teixeira Coelho,Leda; Casajus,Monica Inés; Okani,Elisa Tieko
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/1995 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.6%
The study, part of the project "Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, lipemic disorders, hypertension, obesity and diabetis mellitus in a population of the metropolitan area of the southeastern region of Brazil", had the following objectives: a) the characterization and distribution among typical human socio-economic groupings, of the prevalence of some particular habits which constitute aspects of life-style-the use of tobacco, the use of alcohol and sedentary activity; b) the establishment of the interrelation between the above-mentioned habits and some lipemic disorders. The prevalence of the habits cited behaved in the following manner: the use of tobacco predominated among men, distributed uniformly throughout the social strata; among the women the average percentage of smokers was 18,9%, a significant difference occurring among the highest socio-economic class, where the average was of 40.2%. The sedentary style of life presented high prevalence, among both men and women with exception of the women of the highest socio-economic level and of the skilled working class. The use of alcohol, as one would expect, is a habit basically practised by the men, without any statistically significant differences between classes. For the purpose of establishing associations between these risk fictors and lipemic conditions four situations were chosen...

Smoking trend indicators in Brazilian capitals, 2006-2013

Malta,Deborah Carvalho; Oliveira,Tais Porto; Luz,Micheline; Stopa,Sheila Rizzato; Silva Junior,Jarbas Barbosa da; Reis,Ademar Arthur Chioro dos
Fonte: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva Publicador: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.6%
This study aims to analyze the trend of indicators related to smoking in the capitals of Brazil from 2006 to 2013. Information on smoking trends extracted from the survey of risk and protective factors for chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are analyzed through telephone interviews - VIGITEL conducted from 2006-2013 for the adult population in Brazilian capitals. To estimate the trend, the simple linear regression model was used. The prevalence of smokers in Brazil showed a relative reduction of 0.62% for each year of the survey, ranging from 15.6% in 2006 to 11.3% in 2013. A decrease was observed in both sexes in all age ranges except between 55 and 64 years in all education levels and regions. The total population of former smokers remained stable, with a reduction for men. Smoking 20 or more cigarettes per day decreased from 4.6% (2006) to 3.4% (2013), or 0.162 percentage points per year. Passive smoking at home decreased among women 13.4% (2009) to 10.7% (2013), a reduction of 0.72% per annum. Passive smoking at work has remained stable over the period. The smoking trend reduced in the period in most indicators, reflecting the importance of the tobacco control actions in the country.

Smoking in adults in the municipality of Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil: a population-based study

Martinelli,Patricia Merly; Lopes,Creso Machado; Muniz,Pascoal Torres; Souza,Orivado Florencio de
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.6%
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the associations between smoking and socioeconomic status, and to analyze the profile of smokers in the city of Rio Branco, Acre. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study conducted with 1,512 adults living in urban and rural areas. Information about demographic aspects, socioeconomic status and smoking habits were collected through home interviews. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios with their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of smoking was of 19.9%. Males had a higher prevalence (22.7%) in contrast to females (17.6%). By age, a higher prevalence was observed at 50 - 59 years in males (30.9%) and at 40 - 49 years in females (23.8%). A linear trend was observed between the higher prevalence of smoking and the lower amount of years of education and income (p < 0.05). The profile of smokers indicated that the majority, in both genders, began smoking at age 15, smoked between 1 and 10 cigarettes per day, lit the first cigarette of the day 60 minutes after waking up and had tried to quit smoking at least twice. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of smoking is a relevant public health problem in Rio Branco. Community actions must be implemented for the prevention and control of tobacco use.

Obesity and smoking: Are they modulators of cough intravesical peak pressure in stress urinary incontinence?

Fuganti,Paulo Emilio; Gowdy,John Michael; Santiago,Nilton Cesar
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Urologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Urologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.6%
PURPOSE: SUI (Stress Urinary Incontinence) results from sudden increases in intravesical peak pressures exceeding urethral resistance leading to involuntary urine loss. Obesity and smoking are well established reversible risk factors for SUI and may alter intravesical peak pressures. BMI, smoking status, and other clinical factors were studied to determine their relationship to CIPP (maximal Intravesical Peak Pressures generated by Cough) in SUI complaining women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred nineteen women complaining of SUI were evaluated with medical history and urodynamics. Age, parity, comorbidities, previous surgery, BMI and history of smoking were obtained. The maximal intravesical peak pressures generated by cough (CIPP) and cough leak point pressure (CLPP) were acquired. Univariate and multivariate analysis were conducted. RESULTS: Current smokers and former smokers had similar CIPP (170cmH2O and 170cmH2O; p = 0.5, respectively); Those individuals who had never smoked had significantly lower CIPP (140cmH2O; p = 0.000 and p = 0.009 respectively). BMI was directly related to CIPP (r = 0.41; p = 0.000). Vaginal deliveries (r = -0.15, p = 0.08) and diabetes (r = 0.15, p = 0.016) were also directly related to CIPP on univariate analysis. Only smoking status (p = 0.000) and BMI (p = 0.000) were independently significantly related to CIPP on multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity and smoking showed increased CIPP (maximal Intravesical Peak Pressures generated by Cough). While reduced BMI is related to lower CIPP...

Psychological morbidity as a moderator of intention to quit smoking: a study of smokers and former smokers

Afonso,Maria Fernanda Besteiro; Alves,Maria Graca Pereira
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.6%
OBJECTIVE: To analyze psychological morbidity as a moderator of the relationship between smoking representations and quality of life in smokers and former smokers, as well as to determine which psychological variables discriminate between smokers with and without the intention to quit smoking. METHODS: This was a quantitative, correlational cross-sectional study involving a convenience sample of 224 smokers and 169 former smokers. RESULTS: In smokers and former smokers, psychological morbidity had a moderating effect on the relationship between mental/physical quality of life and smoking representations (cognitive representations, emotional representations, and comprehensibility). Smokers with the intention to quit smoking more often presented with low comprehensibility, threatening emotional representations, behavioral beliefs, and perceived behavioral control, as well as with normative/control beliefs, than did those without the intention to quit. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study underscore the importance of the moderating effect exerted by psychological morbidity, as well as that of sociocognitive variables, among smokers who have the intention to quit smoking.

The Effect of Systematic Clinical Interventions with Cigarette Smokers on Quit Status and the Rates of Smoking-Related Primary Care Office Visits

Land, Thomas G.; Warner, Donna; Li, Wenjun; Rigotti, Nancy Ann; Levy, Douglas Edward; Schilling, Thad Ferguson
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.6%
Background: The United States Public Health Service (USPHS) Guideline for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence includes ten key recommendations regarding the identification and the treatment of tobacco users seen in all health care settings. To our knowledge, the impact of system-wide brief interventions with cigarette smokers on smoking prevalence and health care utilization has not been examined using patient population-based data. Methods and Findings Data on clinical interventions with cigarette smokers were examined for primary care office visits of 104,639 patients at 17 Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates (HVMA) sites. An operational definition of “systems change” was developed. It included thresholds for intervention frequency and sustainability. Twelve sites met the criteria. Five did not. Decreases in self-reported smoking prevalence were 40% greater at sites that achieved systems change (13.6% vs. 9.7%, p<.01). On average, the likelihood of quitting increased by 2.6% (p<0.05, 95% CI: 0.1%–4.6%) per occurrence of brief intervention. For patients with a recent history of current smoking whose home site experienced systems change, the likelihood of an office visit for smoking-related diagnoses decreased by 4.3% on an annualized basis after systems change occurred (p<0.05...

Randomized trials on consider this, a tailored, Internet-delivered smoking prevention program for adolescents

Buller, D.; Borland, R.; Woodall, W.; Hall, J.; Hines, J.; Burris-Woodall, P.; Cutter, G.; Miller, C.; Balmford, J.; Starling, R.; Ax, B.; Saba, L.
Fonte: Sage Publications Inc Publicador: Sage Publications Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.6%
The Internet may be an effective medium for delivering smoking prevention to children. Consider This, an Internet-based program, was hypothesized to reduce expectations concerning smoking and smoking prevalence. Group-randomized pretest-posttest controlled trials were conducted in Australia (n = 2,077) and the United States (n = 1,234) in schools containing Grades 6 through 9. Australian children using Consider This reported reduced 30-day smoking prevalence. This reduction was mediated by decreased subjective norms. The amount of program exposure was low in many classes, but program use displayed a dose-response relationship with reduced smoking prevalence. American children only reported lower expectations for smoking in the future. Intervening to prevent smoking is a challenge, and this data suggest small benefits from an Internet-based program that are unlikely to be of practical significance unless increased by improved implementation. Implementation remains the major challenge to delivering interventions via the Internet, both for health educators and researchers.; David B. Buller, Ron Borland, W. Gill Woodall, John R. Hall, Joan M. Hines, Patricia Burris-Woodall, Gary R. Cutter, Caroline Miller, James Balmford Randall Starling...

Effect of smoking on concentrations of RANKL and OPG in human gingival crevicular fluid.

Tang, Teck Huah
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2009
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.6%
Background and Objective: Smoking is one of the major risk factors for chronic periodontitis. However, the mechanisms involved in tissue degradation due to cigarette smoking are not clear. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) are a system of molecules that regulate bone resorption. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of soluble RANKL (sRANKL), OPG and their relative ratio in GCF among periodontitis patients with varying smoking histories. Material and Methods: GCF samples were collected from 149 periodontitis patients who were never smokers (n=58), former smokers (n=39) and current smokers (n=52). sRANKL and OPG concentrations in GCF were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results: sRANKL, OPG and their relative ratio were not statistically significant among the never smokers, former smokers and current smokers. However, OPG was significantly reduced and subsequently the sRANKL:OPG ratio was significantly increased in the high pack-years group as compared with never smokers. The positive correlation between packyears and sRANKL:OPG ratio was statistically significant even after adjusting for age and current smoking status. Conclusion: Increased lifetime exposure to cigarette smoking above a minimum threshold suppresses OPG production and leads to increased sRANKL:OPG. This may partially explain increased bone loss in smoking-related periodontitis.; Thesis (D.Clin.Dent.) - University of Adelaide...

Perinatal outcomes following maternal asthma and cigarette smoking during pregnancy

Hodyl, N.A.; Stark, M.J.; Scheil, W.; Grzeskowiak, L.E.; Clifton, V.L.
Fonte: European Respiratory Society Publicador: European Respiratory Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.6%
Does cigarette smoking in pregnancy explain the increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes that occur with maternal asthma or does it compound the effect? Using population based birth records, a retrospective analysis was conducted of all singleton pregnancies in South Australia over 10 years (1999–2008; n=172 305), examining maternal asthma, cigarette smoking and quantity of smoking to estimate odds ratios. Compared with nonasthmatic females who did not smoke during pregnancy, both asthmatic females who smoked and those who did not smoke during pregnancy had a significantly increased risk of gestational diabetes, antepartum haemorrhage, polyhydramnios, premature rupture of membranes, emergency Caesarean section, and the child being small for gestational age and having congenital abnormalities. These associations suggest that asthma, independently of maternal smoking, increases the risk of these adverse perinatal outcomes. Maternal smoking was itself associated with an increased risk of a number of poor neonatal outcomes, with a dose–response relationship observed. Notably, maternal asthma combined with cigarette smoking significantly increased the risk of preterm birth and urinary tract infections to a greater degree than with either exposure alone. Maternal asthma and cigarette smoking during pregnancy are both independently associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and...

Untersuchung der Nikotinkinetik in Abhängigkeit von biologischen und rauchanamnestischen Variablen; Examination of nicotine pharmacokinetics dependent on biological and anamnestic smoking-related variables

Bannier, Oliver
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.6%
Die Tabakabhängigkeit stellt nach wie vor das bedeutendste einzelne Gesundheitsrisiko und die führende Ursache frühzeitiger Sterblichkeit dar (WHO-Kollaborationszentrum für Tabakkontrolle im Deutschen Krebsforschungszentrum 2006). Um die Tabakabhängigkeit besser behandeln zu können, ist es von großer Bedeutung, ein umfassendes Wissen über die Ursachen der Tabakabhängigkeit und die Nikotinkinetik zu erlangen. Fragestellung: Ziel dieser Studie war die Untersuchung möglicher biologischer und rauchanamnestischer Einflussfaktoren auf den Nikotinmetabolismus. Dafür wurden 28 Raucher (22w/6m) hinsichtlich Alter, Geschlecht, Gewicht, Zigaretten pro Tag, Rauchdauer, FTND-Gesamtwert und CYP2A6-Genotyp untersucht. In einer Nebenfragestellung wurde geprüft, wie sich das mittels Questionnaire on Smoking Urges (QSU) und visueller Analogskala (VACS) gemessene subjektive Rauchverlangen (Craving) über den Zeitraum der vierstündigen Nikotinkinetikstudie veränderte. Methoden: 28 Studienteilnehmern wurden, nach mindestens achtstündiger Nikotinkarenz, 8 mg Nikotin in Form von Sublingualtabletten verabreicht, um die individuelle Nikotinkinetik untersuchen zu können. Den Probanden wurde insgesamt zwölfmal Blut entnommen, um den Verlauf des Nikotin- bzw. Cotininmetabolismus bestimmen zu können. Um das Craving zu dokumentieren wurden die Probanden gebeten...

Market Regulation and Firm Performance: The Case of Smoking Bans in the UK

ADDA, Jérôme; BERLINSKI, Samuel; BHASKAR, V.; MACHIN, Stephen
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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This paper analyzes the effects of a ban on smoking in public places upon firms and consumers. Analysis of survey data from public houses finds that the Scottish smoking ban (introduced in March 2006) reduced pub sales and harmed medium run profitability. An event study analysis of the stock market performance of pub-holding companies corroborates the negative effects of the smoking ban on firm performance. We develop a model of public good provision by firms to offer an interpretation of these findings. In the context of smoking, the public good aspect and consumer heterogeneity in preferences regarding smoking appear to be central to the problem. The model allows us to examine the appropriate form of optimal regulation and to study the welfare effect of a smoking ban. The optimal policy response ensures that some pubs be permitted to allow smoking while others are not.; We thank Mark Armstrong and seminar participants at Brown University, Cambridge University and Universidad Carlos III for helpful comments. Audrey Stern, Michele Savini and Warn Nurpear provided excellent research assistance.; Financial help acknowledged from the Nuffield Foundation and the ESRC (grant M544285003).