Objetivo: o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as características sócio-demográficas, a prevalência de sintomas da menopausa na mulher HIV positiva e fatores associados a tais sintomas comparando com grupo controle. Foram analisados: características dessa população (idade, raça, escolaridade, autopercepção de saúde, status menopausal, estado civil, paridade, tabagismo, uso de drogas, uso de antiretrovirais, índices de CD4, índice de massa corpórea, aposentadoria e comportamento de risco para DST), a prevalência de sintomas da menopausa (Vasomotores, psicológicos, sexuais, genito-urinários, palpitações, artralgias e insônia) e fatores associados com tais sintomas. Foi realizado um estudo corte transversal de mulheres no climatério divididas em 96 mulheres HIV positivas e 155 mulheres HIV negativas. Os critérios de inclusão foram: ter 40 anos ou mais e ser brasileira. O critério de exclusão usado foi o uso de Terapia de Reposição Hormonal há menos de seis meses. A prevalência dos sintomas foi estudada nas variáveis de controle e nas demais variáveis dependentes através do teste de qui-quadrado. A prevalência de um ou mais sintomas foi avaliada multivariadamente através de medidas repetidas pela técnica de GEE - estimação de equação generalizada e calculado o valor do Odds Ratio ajustado pelas variáveis de controle. O nível de significância assumido foi de 5% e o software utilizado para análise foi o SAS versão 9.01. Resultados: A média de idade das mulheres com HIV e sem HIV foi de 48...
Este trabalho teve como principal objetivo, o desenvolvimento de
um novo produto alimentar. Um produto que satisfizesse as
necessidades do consumidor mas que ao mesmo tempo fosse uma
mais-valia para a empresa Pascoal & Filhos criando possíveis
oportunidades de desenvolvimento e crescimento.
Desenvolveu-se a Açorda de Bacalhau seguindo o que há de mais
tradicional na gastronomia portuguesa. A vida agitada do dia-a-dia
culmina na falta de tempo para dedicar à cozinha e aos preparados
culinários, assim sendo, as pessoas procuram soluções práticas e
rápidas de preparar.
Inicialmente realizou-se uma pesquisa de mercado, a fim de
auscultar quais as Açordas comercializadas. Atualmente, existem
algumas soluções embora não exista nenhuma de bacalhau.
Elaborou-se uma comparação entre elas e a partir daí chegou-se a
uma proposta de receita seguindo as percentagens de ingredientes
exibidas pelas comercializadas.
Testaram-se diferentes coentros e salsa para além de diversos tipos
de pães. Entre os coentros e a salsa testados, os frescos resultaram
numa melhor solução. No que se refere ao pão, testaram-se os
seguintes tipos: croustons/tostas, tostas com ervas aromáticas e alho,
pão d’avó, pão de mistura de centeio, pão de fibra...
O presente trabalho descreve um projecto de implementação de melhoria da
recepção de materiais na Oliveira & Irmão S.A.. Considerando que a recepção
de materiais contribui para um fornecimento lean da cadeia de abastecimento,
o objectivo deste trabalho passa pela melhoria do planeamento e controlo na
recepção de materiais, visando a redução do tempo em fila espera.
O trabalho desenvolvido envolveu a recolha de informação sobre o processo
de descargas, interacção com os intervenientes nesse processo e a
identificação de oportunidades de melhoria.
Como resultado do projecto verificou-se a melhoria na organização e logística
das descargas, passando pela criação de um plano de descargas e pela
alocação de recursos em função dos horários estabelecidos, o que permitiu
reduzir o tempo de descarga em aproximadamente 50%.
A execução do projecto foi apoiada numa revisão de literatura sobre logística,
recepção de materiais lean, cadeia de abastecimento e sistemas e tecnologias
de informação na recepção de materiais.; This paper describes a project for improvement on the process of receipt of
material at Oliveira & Irmão, SA. Considering that receipt of materials
contributes to a lean supply chain supply, the goal of this work is the
improvement of planning and control of material receipt...
The potential reduction in morbidity and mortality through cancer screening cannot be realized without receipt of appropriate follow-up care for abnormalities identified via screening. In this paper, the authors critically examine the existing literature on correlates of receipt of appropriate follow-up care for screen-detected abnormalities, as well as the literature on interventions designed to increase rates of receipt of follow-up care. Lessons learned describe what is known and not known about factors that are related to or predict receipt of follow-up care. Similarly, effective interventions to increase follow-up are described and gaps identified. A conceptual model is developed that categorizes the health care system in the United States as comprising four levels: policy, practice, provider, and patient. Some patient-level factors that influence follow-up receipt are identified, but the lack of data severely limit the understanding of provider, practice, and policy-level correlates. The majority of intervention studies to increase follow-up receipt have focused on patient-level factors and have targeted follow-up of abnormal Papanicolaou smears. Insufficient information is available regarding the effectiveness of provider, practice...
Transmission of reward signals is a function of dopamine, a neurotransmitter known to be involved in the mechanism of psychosis. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated how expectation and receipt of monetary rewards modulate brain activation in patients with bipolar mania and schizophrenia. We studied 12 acutely manic patients with a history of bipolar disorder, 12 patients with a current episode of schizoaffective disorder or schizophrenia and 12 healthy subjects. All patients were treated with dopamine antagonists at the time of the study. Subjects performed a delayed incentive paradigm with monetary reward in the scanner that allowed for investigating effects of expectation, receipt, and omission of rewards. Patients with schizophrenia and healthy control subjects showed the expected activation of dopaminergic brain areas, that is, ventral tegmentum activation upon expectation of monetary rewards and nucleus accumbens activation during receipt vs omission of rewards. In manic patients, however, we did not find a similar pattern of brain activation and the differential signal in the nucleus accumbens upon receipt vs omission of rewards was significantly lower compared to the healthy control subjects. Our findings provide evidence for abnormal function of the dopamine system during receipt or omission of expected rewards in bipolar disorder. These deficits in prediction error processing in acute mania may help to explain symptoms of disinhibition and abnormal goal pursuit regulation.
Prospective studies indicate that individuals with elevated dietary restraint scores are at increased risk for future bulimic symptom onset, suggesting that these individuals may show hyper-responsivity of reward regions to food and food cues. Thus, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the relation of dietary restraint scores to activation of reward-related brain regions in response to receipt and anticipated receipt of chocolate milkshake and exposure to pictures of appetizing foods in 39 female adolescents (mean age = 15.5 ± 0.94). Dietary restraint scores were positively correlated with activation in the right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in response to milkshake receipt. However, dietary restraint scores did not correlate with activation in response to anticipated milkshake receipt or exposure to food pictures. Results indicate that individuals who report high dietary restraint have a hyper-responsivity in reward-related brain regions when food intake is occurring, which may increase risk for overeating and binge eating.
Studies comparing neural correlates of reward processing across development yield inconsistent findings. This challenges theories characterizing adolescents as globally hypo- or hypersensitive to rewards. Developmental differences in reward sensitivity may fluctuate based on reward magnitude, and on whether rewards require decision-making. We examined whether these factors modulate developmental differences in neural response during reward anticipation and/or receipt in 26 adolescents (14.05±2.37yrs) and 26 adults (31.25±8.23yrs). Brain activity was assessed with fMRI during reward anticipation, when subjects made responses with-vs.-without decision-making, to obtain large–vs.–small rewards, and during reward receipt. When reward-receipt required decision-making, neural activity did not differ by age. However, when reward receipt did not require decision-making, neural activity varied by development, reward magnitude, and stage of the reward task. During anticipation, adolescents, but not adults, exhibited greater activity in the insula, extending into putamen, and cingulate gyrus for large-vs.-small incentives. During feedback, adults, but not adolescents, exhibited greater activity in the precuneus for large-vs.-small incentives. These data indicate that age-related differences in reward sensitivity cannot be characterized by global hypo- or hyper-responsivity. Instead...
Binge eating is often preceded by reports of negative affect, but the mechanism by which affect may lead to binge eating is unclear. This study evaluated the effect of negative affect on neural response to anticipation and receipt of palatable food in women with bulimia nervosa (BN) versus healthy controls. We also evaluated connectivity between the amygdala and reward-related brain regions. Females with and without BN (N = 26) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during receipt and anticipated receipt of chocolate milkshake and a tasteless solution. We measured negative affect just prior to the scan. Women with BN showed a positive correlation between negative affect and activity in the putamen, caudate, and pallidum during anticipated receipt of milkshake (versus tasteless solution). There were no significant relations between negative affect and receipt of milkshake. Connectivity analyses revealed a greater relation of amygdala activity to activation in the left putamen and insula during anticipated receipt of milkshake in the bulimia group relative to the control group. The opposite pattern was found for the taste of milkshake; the control group showed a greater relation of amygdala activity to activation in the left putamen and insula in response to milkshake receipt than the bulimia group. Results show that as negative affect increases...
The rapidly growing older adult populations in Brazil and India present major challenges for health systems in these countries, especially with regard to the equitable provision of inpatient care. The objective of this study was to contrast inequalities in both the receipt of inpatient care and the length of time that care was received among adults aged over 60 in two large countries with different modes of health service delivery. Using the Brazilian National Household Survey from 2003 and the Indian National Sample Survey Organisation survey from 2004 inequalities by wealth (measured by income in Brazil and consumption in India) were assessed using concentration curves and indices. Inequalities were also examined through the use of zero-truncated negative binomial models, studying differences in receipt of care and length of stay by region, health insurance, education and reported health status. Results indicated that there was no evidence of inequality in Brazil for both receipt and length of stay by income per capita. However, in India there was a pro-rich bias in the receipt of care, although once care was received there was no difference by consumption per capita for the length of stay. In both countries the higher educated and those with health insurance were more likely to receive care...
Dietary restraint theoretically increases risk for binge eating, but prospective and experimental studies have produced contradictory findings, apparently because dietary restraint scales do not identify individuals who are reducing caloric intake. Yet, experimentally manipulated caloric deprivation increases responsivity of brain regions implicated in attention and reward to food images, which may contribute to binge eating. We tested whether self-imposed acute and longer-term caloric restriction increases responsivity of attention and reward regions to images, anticipated receipt, and receipt of palatable food using functional magnetic resonance imaging among female and male adolescents (Study 1 N = 34; Study 2 N = 51/81). Duration of acute caloric deprivation correlated positively with activation in regions implicated in attention, reward, and motivation in response to images, anticipated receipt, and receipt of palatable food (e.g., anterior cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, putamen, and precentral gyrus respectively). Youth in a longer-term negative energy balance likewise showed greater activation in attention (anterior cingulate cortex, ventral medial prefrontal cortex), visual processing (superior visual cortex), reward (caudate) and memory (hippocampus) regions in response to receipt and anticipated receipt of palatable food relative to those in neutral or positive energy balance. Results confirm that self-imposed caloric deprivation increases responsivity of attention...
Antibiotic therapy is the principal risk factor for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), but little is known about how risks cumulate over the course of therapy and abate after cessation. We prospectively identified CDI cases among adults hospitalized at a tertiary hospital between June 2010 and May 2012. Poisson regression models included covariates for time since admission, age, hospitalization history, disease pressure, and intensive care unit stay. Impacts of antibiotic use through time were modeled using 4 measures: current antibiotic receipt, time since most recent receipt, time since first receipt during a hospitalization, and duration of receipt. Over the 24-month study period, we identified 127 patients with new onset nosocomial CDI (incidence rate per 10,000 patient days [IR] = 5.86). Of the 4 measures, time since most recent receipt was the strongest independent predictor of CDI incidence. Relative to patients with no prior receipt of antibiotics in the last 30 days (IR = 2.95), the incidence rate of CDI was 2.41 times higher (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41, 4.13) during antibiotic receipt and 2.16 times higher when patients had receipt in the prior 1–5 days (CI 1.17, 4.00). The incidence rates of CDI following 1–3...
Across taxa, female behavior and physiology change significantly following the receipt of ejaculate molecules during mating. For example, receipt of sex peptide (SP) in female Drosophila melanogaster significantly alters female receptivity, egg production, lifespan, hormone levels, immunity, sleep, and feeding patterns. These changes are underpinned by distinct tissue- and time-specific changes in diverse sets of mRNAs. However, little is yet known about the regulation of these gene expression changes, and hence the potential role of microRNAs (miRNAs), in female postmating responses. A preliminary screen of genomic responses in females to receipt of SP suggested that there were changes in the expression of several miRNAs. Here we tested directly whether females lacking four of the candidate miRNAs highlighted (miR-279, miR-317, miR-278, and miR-184) showed altered fecundity, receptivity, and lifespan responses to receipt of SP, when mated once or continually to SP null or control males. The results showed that miRNA-lacking females mated to SP null males exhibited altered receptivity, but not reproductive output, in comparison to controls. However, these effects interacted significantly with the genetic background of the miRNA-lacking females. No significant survival effects were observed in miRNA-lacking females housed continually with SP null or control males. However...
Demographic change and policy changes in social care provision can affect the type of social care support received by older people, whether through informal, formal state or formal paid-for sources. This paper analyses the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing data (wave 4) in order to examine the relationship between demographic and socio-economic characteristics, and the receipt of support from different sources by older people who report difficulty with daily activities. The research outlines three key results with implications for the future organisation of social care for older people. Firstly, the number of instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) an older person reports having difficulty with, followed by the number of activities of daily living (ADLs) are the strongest determinants of receiving support from any source. Secondly, there are significant gender differences in the factors associated with receiving support from different sources; for example, physical health is a strong determinant of informal support receipt by men, while mental health status is a strong determinant of informal support receipt by women. Finally, the research shows that different kinds of impediments in everyday life are associated with receiving support from different sources. This ‘link’ between particular types of difficulties and support receipt from particular sources raises questions about the way social care provision can or should be organised in the future.
Truxton, Dec. 1, 1812.
Sir, Enclosed I transmit the [receipt] of the Collectors at Truxton to David
Griswold for the tax on 50 acres of no. 56 Truxton … showing that the tax has
been paid on that portion of the Lot; Mr. Griswold wishes you to keep the receipt and he will call this winter sometime and get it… not being a writer he called on me to do it for him. I am Sir yours sincerely John Miller; A letter addressed to Archibald McIntire [McIntyre], Comptroller, Albany, [New York], from John Miller, dated December 1, 1812. The letter explains that a receipt has been enclosed showing that the taxes on David Griswold's property in Truxton have been paid. Griswold requested that John Miller write the letter for him. Letter transcription:
Truxton, Dec. 1, 1812.
Sir, Enclosed I transmit the [receipt] of the Collectors at Truxton to David
Griswold for the tax on 50 acres of no. 56 Truxton … showing that the tax has
been paid on that portion of the Lot; Mr. Griswold wishes you to keep the receipt and he will call this winter sometime and get it… not being a writer he
called on me to do it for him. I am Sir yours sincerely John Miller
Receipt from the city clerk’s office of St. Catharines to H.K. Woodruff for payment of $11.20 for
additional cemetery land. Accompanying this document is a crudely drawn map of graves along
Queenston Road and rough notes on Deed no. 419, Oct. 16, 1901.
Many long-term care systems in economically developed countries are reliant on informal care. However, in the context of population ageing, there are concerns about the future supply of informal care. This article reports on projections of informal care receipt by older people with disabilities from spouses and (adult) children to 2032 in England. The projections show that the proportions of older people with disabilities who have a child will fall by 2032 and that the extent of informal care in future may be lower than previously estimated. The policy implications, in the context of the Dilnot Commission's report, are explored.
OBJECTIVE: To determine and describe the prevalence and patterns of three recommended practices for infant and young child feeding-exclusive breastfeeding (EB), continued breastfeeding (CB), and achievement of minimum dietary diversity-in four regions in Haiti, and to identify the attitudes and beliefs that inform these practices and any other factors that may facilitate or impede their implementation. METHODS: This study utilized a mixed-methods approach consisting of 1) a cross-sectional survey (n = 310) and 2) 12 focus group discussions among women ≥18 years old with children ≤ 2 years old. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with 1) EB during the first six months of life, 2) CB for children ≥ 2 years old, and 3) receipt of a diverse variety of complementary foods. Qualitative data were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed for common themes. Data were collected in June and July 2013 in four departments in Haiti: Artibonite, Nippes, Ouest, and Sud-Est. RESULTS: Prevalence of EB, CB, and achievement of minimum dietary diversity was 57.0%, 11.9%, and 21.2% respectively. EB was statistically significantly associated with infant's age when controlling for annual household income...