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Assessment of Accuracy of Identification of Pathogenic Yeasts in Microbiology Laboratories in the United Kingdom

Borman, Andrew M.; Szekely, Adrien; Palmer, Michael D.; Johnson, Elizabeth M.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2012 EN
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35.9%
Rapid, accurate identification of yeast isolates from clinical samples has always been important given their innately variable antifungal susceptibility profiles. Recently, this has become paramount with the proposed introduction of species-specific interpretive breakpoints for MICs obtained in yeast antifungal susceptibility tests (M. A. Pfaller, D. Andes, D. J. Diekema, A. Espinel–Ingroff, D. Sheehan, and CLSI Subcommittee for Antifungal Susceptibility Testing, Drug Resist. Updat. 13:180–195, 2010). Here, we present the results of a 12-month evaluation of the accuracy of identifications that accompany yeast isolates submitted to the Mycology Reference Laboratory (United Kingdom) for either confirmation of identity or susceptibility testing. In total, 1,781 yeast isolates were analyzed, and the robustness of prior identifications obtained in microbiology laboratories throughout the United Kingdom was assessed using a combination of culture on chromogenic agar, morphology on cornmeal agar, and molecular identification by pyrosequencing. Over 40% of isolates (755) were submitted without any suggested identification. Of those isolates with a prior identification, 100 (9.7%) were incorrectly identified. Error rates ranged from 5.2% (for organisms submitted for antifungal susceptibility testing) to 18.2% (for organisms requiring confirmation of identity) and varied in a strictly species-specific manner. At least 50% of identification errors would be likely to affect interpretation of MIC data...

Construction and Evaluation of an Online Microbiology Course for Nonscience Majors

Hughes, Lee
Fonte: American Society of Microbiology Publicador: American Society of Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/12/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.9%
The development of web-based technologies provides a new method for course delivery. As with any new technique, evaluation is a necessary tool to determine if the method is consistent with expectations. This study describes the conversion of a nonscience majors’ microbiology lecture course to online delivery and evaluates the hypothesis that the online course can be as effective as the traditional course. Course examination scores are compared between the face-to-face and online sections over a 3-year period. On all but one of the course examinations, no significant difference is found for those students in these two distinctly different course types. The success rate, as defined by those students earning grades of C or better, is high for both course types, although the traditional course success rate is slightly higher. Student evaluations of the courses are also positive, though some differences are noted. Overall, student performance in the online course is equivalent to that in the traditional course.

Clinical Microbiology in Pharmacy Education: A Practice-based Approach

Wasfi, Olla; Power, Mary; Slavcev, Roderick A.
Fonte: American Society of Microbiology Publicador: American Society of Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/12/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.9%
The increasing incidence of multi-drug resistant pathogenic bacteria, alongside viral and fungal human pathogens, supports the argument that skills in microbiology and infectious disease diagnosis, treatment and prevention are of growing global importance to be held among primary care clinicians.

Multiple Benefits Derived from a Peer Teacher Program in Two Undergraduate Microbiology Lab Courses

Sailer, Frances C.; Melvold, Roger W.; Hosford, Charles C.
Fonte: American Society of Microbiology Publicador: American Society of Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/12/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.9%
A peer teaching program was implemented to alleviate the problem of a limited number of lab instructors attempting to teach large numbers of students in two different undergraduate microbiology lab courses. The benefit of having peer teachers was immediately obvious to the lab instructors, faculty and staff who were responsible for conducting the labs, but it was soon evident that there were also benefits for everyone else involved in the program. The students enrolled in the labs reported that having peer teachers in the lab enhanced their learning, and they felt comfortable receiving help from a peer teacher who had recently completed the course. The peer teachers discovered that they gained valuable experience and confidence while teaching other students, and they appreciated the chance to gain hands-on experience. The lab instructors received the qualified help they needed in order to give more individual attention to the large numbers of students in the labs. The feedback from this program has been positive from everyone involved.

Bugs and Movies: Using Film to Teach Microbiology

Sánchez, Manuel
Fonte: American Society of Microbiology Publicador: American Society of Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/12/2011 EN
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A YouTube channel has been created to watch commented video fragments from famous movies or TV series that can be used to teach microbiology. Although microbes are usually depicted in terms of their roles in causing infectious disease, numerous movies reflect other scientific aspects, such as biotechnological applications or bioethical issues.

Assessment of Microbiology Students’ Progress With an Audience Response System

Chaudhry, M. Ahmad
Fonte: American Society of Microbiology Publicador: American Society of Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/12/2011 EN
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35.9%
The development of new approaches to teaching of large lecture courses is needed. Today’s classroom has a wide range of students including high-achieving motivated learners, students struggling to understand basic concepts, and learning-challenged students. Many of these students can be lost in large classes under the shadow of the high-achieving extroverted students who dominate classroom question-and-answer sessions. Measuring a student’s understanding and achievement of content standards becomes difficult until an assessment has been done. To close this gap, an audience response system was introduced in an introductory Principles of Microbiology course. This technology specifically addressed the goal of individualizing instruction to the needs of the students. The evaluation of this project indicated an overall positive impact on student learning.

An Evaluation of Computer-Based Instruction in Microbiology

MERKEL, SUSAN M.; WALMAN, LAURA B.; LEVENTHAL, JEREMY S.
Fonte: American Society of Microbiology Publicador: American Society of Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.9%
There has been a tremendous increase in the availability of computer-based instructional (CBI) materials. Some studies have shown an improvement in learning when CBI is used. However, many researchers believe the current studies are inadequate. While CBI software should be thoroughly tested by developers, as educators, we should be concerned about whether or not the CBI materials we use are improving learning in our classrooms with our students. We present an evaluation of a computer-based hypermedia tutorial that was delivered over our General Microbiology website. We found that CBI was at least as effective as text-based material. However, of all students who used CBI, only those who explored most of the site benefited from using the site. Tracking each student’s use of the CBI was critical for understanding who was learning and why.

Evaluating the Impact of a Classroom Response System in a Microbiology Course

SUCHMAN, ERICA; UCHIYAMA, KAY; SMITH, RALPH; BENDER, KIM
Fonte: American Society of Microbiology Publicador: American Society of Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.9%
The use of a Classroom Response System (CRS) was evaluated in two sections, A and B, of a large lecture microbiology course. In Section B the instructor used the CRS technology at the beginning of the class period posing a question on content from the previous class. Students could earn extra credit if they answered the question correctly. In Section A, the class also began with an extra credit CRS question. However, CRS questions were integrated into the lecture during the entire class period. We compared the two classes to see if augmenting lectures with this technology increased student learning, confidence, attendance, and the instructor’s ability to respond to student’s misconceptions, over simply using the CRS as a quizzing tool. Student performance was compared using shared examination questions. The questions were categorized by how the content had been presented in class. All questions came from instructors’ common lecture content, some without CRS use, and some questions where Instructor A used both lecture and CRS questions. Although Section A students scored significantly better on both types of examination questions, there was no demonstrable difference in learning based on CRS question participation. However, student survey data showed that students in Section A expressed higher confidence levels in their learning and knowledge and indicated that they interacted more with other students than did the students in Section B. In addition...

The microbiology of deep-sea hydrothermal vent plumes: ecological and biogeographic linkages to seafloor and water column habitats

Dick, Gregory J.; Anantharaman, Karthik; Baker, Brett J.; Li, Meng; Reed, Daniel C.; Sheik, Cody S.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/05/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.9%
Hydrothermal plumes are an important yet understudied component of deep-sea vent microbial ecosystems. The significance of plume microbial processes can be appreciated from three perspectives: (1) mediation of plume biogeochemistry, (2) dispersal of seafloor hydrothermal vent microbes between vents sites, (3) as natural laboratories for understanding the ecology, physiology, and function of microbial groups that are distributed throughout the pelagic deep sea. Plume microbiology has been largely neglected in recent years, especially relative to the extensive research conducted on seafloor and subseafloor systems. Rapidly advancing technologies for investigating microbial communities provide new motivation and opportunities to characterize this important microbial habitat. Here we briefly highlight microbial contributions to plume and broader ocean (bio)geochemistry and review recent work to illustrate the ecological and biogeographic linkages between plumes, seafloor vent habitats, and other marine habitats such as oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), cold seeps, and oil spills. 16S rRNA gene surveys and metagenomic/-transcriptomic data from plumes point to dominant microbial populations, genes, and functions that are also operative in OMZs (SUP05...

Engaging Students in Authentic Microbiology Research in an Introductory Biology Laboratory Course is Correlated with Gains in Student Understanding of the Nature of Authentic Research and Critical Thinking†

Gasper, Brittany J.; Gardner, Stephanie M.
Fonte: American Society of Microbiology Publicador: American Society of Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/05/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.9%
Recent recommendations for biology education highlight the role of authentic research experiences early in undergraduate education as a means of increasing the number and quality of biology majors. These experiences will inform students on the nature of science, increase their confidence in doing science, as well as foster critical thinking skills, an area that has been lacking despite it being one of the desired outcomes at undergraduate institutions and with future employers. With these things in mind, we have developed an introductory biology laboratory course where students design and execute an authentic microbiology research project. Students in this course are assimilated into the community of researchers by engaging in scholarly activities such as participating in inquiry, reading scientific literature, and communicating findings in written and oral formats. After three iterations of a semester-long laboratory course, we found that students who took the course showed a significant increase in their understanding of the nature of authentic research and their level of critical thinking skills.

Bacterial Cellulose as a Substrate for Microbial Cell Culture

Yin, Na; Santos, Thiago M. A.; Auer, George K.; Crooks, John A.; Oliver, Piercen M.; Weibel, Douglas B.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.9%
Bacterial cellulose (BC) has a range of structural and physicochemical properties that make it a particularly useful material for the culture of bacteria. We studied the growth of 14 genera of bacteria on BC substrates produced by Acetobacter xylinum and compared the results to growth on the commercially available biopolymers agar, gellan, and xanthan. We demonstrate that BC produces rates of bacterial cell growth that typically exceed those on the commercial biopolymers and yields cultures with higher titers of cells at stationary phase. The morphology of the cells did not change during growth on BC. The rates of nutrient diffusion in BC being higher than those in other biopolymers is likely a primary factor that leads to higher growth rates. Collectively, our results suggest that the use of BC may open new avenues in microbiology by facilitating bacterial cell culture and isolation.

Automated versus Manual Sample Inoculations in Routine Clinical Microbiology: a Performance Evaluation of the Fully Automated InoqulA Instrument

Froment, P.; Marchandin, H.; Vande Perre, P.; Lamy, B.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.9%
The process of plate streaking has been automated to improve the culture readings, isolation quality, and workflow of microbiology laboratories. However, instruments have not been well evaluated under routine conditions. We aimed to evaluate the performance of the fully automated InoqulA instrument (BD Kiestra B.V., The Netherlands) in the automated seeding of liquid specimens and samples collected using swabs with transport medium. We compared manual and automated methods according to the (i) within-run reproducibility using Escherichia coli-calibrated suspensions, (ii) intersample contamination using a series of alternating sterile broths and broths with >105 CFU/ml of either E. coli or Proteus mirabilis, (iii) isolation quality with standardized mixed bacterial suspensions of diverse complexity and a 4-category standardized scale (very poor, poor, fair to good, or excellent), and (iv) agreement of the results obtained from 244 clinical specimens. By involving 15 technicians in the latter part of the comparative study, we estimated the variability in the culture quality at the level of the laboratory team. The instrument produced satisfactory reproducibility with no sample cross-contamination, and it performed better than the manual method...

Adoption of Lean Principles in a High-Volume Molecular Diagnostic Microbiology Laboratory

Mitchell, P. Shawn; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Yao, Joseph D. C.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.9%
Clinical laboratories are constantly facing challenges to do more with less, enhance quality, improve test turnaround time, and reduce operational expenses. Experience with adopting and applying lean concepts and tools used extensively in the manufacturing industry is described for a high-volume clinical molecular microbiology laboratory, illustrating how operational success and benefits can be achieved.

Indoor-Air Microbiome in an Urban Subway Network: Diversity and Dynamics

Leung, Marcus H. Y.; Wilkins, David; Li, Ellen K. T.; Kong, Fred K. F.; Lee, Patrick K. H.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.9%
Subway systems are indispensable for urban societies, but microbiological characteristics of subway aerosols are relatively unknown. Previous studies investigating microbial compositions in subways employed methodologies that underestimated the diversity of microbial exposure for commuters, with little focus on factors governing subway air microbiology, which may have public health implications. Here, a culture-independent approach unraveling the bacterial diversity within the urban subway network in Hong Kong is presented. Aerosol samples from multiple subway lines and outdoor locations were collected. Targeting the 16S rRNA gene V4 region, extensive taxonomic diversity was found, with the most common bacterial genera in the subway environment among those associated with skin. Overall, subway lines harbored different phylogenetic communities based on α- and β-diversity comparisons, and closer inspection suggests that each community within a line is dependent on architectural characteristics, nearby outdoor microbiomes, and connectedness with other lines. Microbial diversities and assemblages also varied depending on the day sampled, as well as the time of day, and changes in microbial communities between peak and nonpeak commuting hours were attributed largely to increases in skin-associated genera in peak samples. Microbial diversities within the subway were influenced by temperature and relative humidity...

A Hidden Pitfall in the Preparation of Agar Media Undermines Microorganism Cultivability

Tanaka, Tomohiro; Kawasaki, Kosei; Daimon, Serina; Kitagawa, Wataru; Yamamoto, Kyosuke; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Michiko; Nakatsu, Cindy H.; Kamagata, Yoichi
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.9%
Microbiologists have been using agar growth medium for over 120 years. It revolutionized microbiology in the 1890s when microbiologists were seeking effective methods to isolate microorganisms, which led to the successful cultivation of microorganisms as single clones. But there has been a disparity between total cell counts and cultivable cell counts on plates, often referred to as the “great plate count anomaly,” that has long been a phenomenon that still remains unsolved. Here, we report that a common practice microbiologists have employed to prepare agar medium has a hidden pitfall: when phosphate was autoclaved together with agar to prepare solid growth media (PT medium), total colony counts were remarkably lower than those grown on agar plates in which phosphate and agar were separately autoclaved and mixed right before solidification (PS medium). We used a pure culture of Gemmatimonas aurantiaca T-27T and three representative sources of environmental samples, soil, sediment, and water, as inocula and compared colony counts between PT and PS agar plates. There were higher numbers of CFU on PS medium than on PT medium using G. aurantiaca or any of the environmental samples. Chemical analysis of PT agar plates suggested that hydrogen peroxide was contributing to growth inhibition. Comparison of 454 pyrosequences of the environmental samples to the isolates revealed that taxa grown on PS medium were more reflective of the original community structure than those grown on PT medium. Moreover...

Infusing Bioethics into Biology and Microbiology Courses and Curricula: A Vertical Approach

Jagger, Kathleen S.; Furlong, Jack
Fonte: American Society of Microbiology Publicador: American Society of Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/12/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.9%
With the rise of biomedicine and biotechnology, there has been a corresponding growth in the need for better understanding of consequent ethical questions. Increasingly, biologists are being asked not only to offer technical clarifications but also to venture ethical opinions, for which most feel poorly equipped. This expectation puts pressure on biology instructors at the university level to provide biology majors the skills and experience to discuss with some confidence and competence bioethical issues which may arise in either the workplace or through public discourse in everyday contexts. Many fine curricular resources about bioethics are available for varied pedagogical purposes, but few target undergraduate biology or microbiology student audiences. When it occurs in the context of a course, bioethics instruction often is taught by non-biologists outside standard biology curricula. We propose that biologists should strive to “infuse” bioethical thinking into their courses and major curricula but not in such a way as merely to point at ethical problems, treating them at a surface level. We suggest what we call “vertical infusion”: taking one bioethical issue per course and integrating this issue within the context of a relevant biological topic...

Whole genome sequencing in clinical and public health microbiology

Kwong, J. C.; McCallum, N.; Sintchenko, V.; Howden, B. P.
Fonte: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publicador: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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35.9%
SummaryGenomics and whole genome sequencing (WGS) have the capacity to greatly enhance knowledge and understanding of infectious diseases and clinical microbiology.

Achieving Speaker Gender Equity at the American Society for Microbiology General Meeting

Casadevall, Arturo
Fonte: American Society of Microbiology Publicador: American Society of Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/08/2015 EN
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35.9%
In 2015, the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) General Meeting essentially achieved gender equity, with 48.5% of the oral presentations being given by women. The mechanisms associated with increased female participation were (i) making the Program Committee aware of gender statistics, (ii) increasing female representation among session convener teams, and (iii) direct instruction to try to avoid all-male sessions. The experience with the ASM General Meeting shows that it is possible to increase the participation of female speakers in a relatively short time and suggests concrete steps that may be taken to achieve this at other meetings.

Sequence analysis of the mip gene of the soilborne pathogen Legionella longbeachae.

Doyle, R.; Steele, T.; McLennan, A.; Parkinson, I.; Manning, P.; Heuzenroeder, M.
Fonte: AMER SOC MICROBIOLOGY Publicador: AMER SOC MICROBIOLOGY
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1998 EN
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35.9%
To understand the basis of pathogenesis by Legionella longbeachae serogroup 1, the importance of the Mip protein in this species was examined. Amino-terminal analysis of the purified, cloned L. longbeachae serogroup 1 ATCC 33462 Mip protein confirmed that the cloned gene protein was expressed and processed in an Escherichia coli background. DNA sequence analysis of plasmid pIMVS27, containing the entire L. longbeachae serogroup 1 mip gene, revealed a high degree of homology to the mip gene of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, 76% homology at the DNA level and 87% identity at the amino acid level. Primer extension analysis determined that the start site of transcription was the same for both species, with some differences observed for the 10 and 35 promoter regions. Primers designed from the mip gene sequence obtained for L. longbeachae serogroup 1 ATCC 33462 were used to amplify the mip genes from L. longbeachae serogroup 2 ATCC 33484 and an Australian clinical isolate of L. longbeachae serogroup 1 A5H5. The mip gene from A5H5 was 100% identical to the type strain sequence. The serogroup 2 strain of L. longbeachae differed by 2 base pairs in third-codon positions. Allelic exchange mutagenesis was used to generate an isogenic mip mutant in ATCC 33462 and strain A5H5. The ATCC mip mutant was unable to infect a strain of Acanthamoebae sp. both in liquid and in a potting mix coculture system...

Development of an mlrA gene-directed TaqMan PCR assay for quantitative assessment of microcystin-degrading bacteria within water treatment plant sand filter biofilms

Hoefel, D.; Adriansen, C.; Bouyssou, M.; Saint, C.; Newcombe, G.; Ho, L.
Fonte: Amer Soc Microbiology Publicador: Amer Soc Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
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35.9%
We report for the first time a quantitative mlrA gene-directed TaqMan PCR assay for the rapid detection of microcystin-degrading bacteria. This was applied, in combination with 16S ribosomal DNA-directed quantitative PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, to study virgin sand filter column biofilm development and to correlate mlrA gene abundance with microcystin removal efficiency.; Daniel Hoefel, Caroline M. M. Adriansen, Magali A. C. Bouyssou, Christopher P. Saint, Gayle Newcombe and Lionel Ho; Copyright © 2009, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.