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Neighborhood Factors Affecting Rates of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Chicago

Thomas, James C.; Torrone, Elizabeth A.; Browning, Christopher R.
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.41%
High rates of gonorrhea have been shown to be associated with high rates of incarceration in the prior year. One hypothesized chain of events is that there is a negative effect of incarceration on neighborhood social characteristics, which in turn affect behaviors facilitating transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). This study examined whether neighborhood characteristics were associated with the incidence of STDs and homicide rates as a proxy for incarceration rates. Data were from the 1995 Program on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, the Chicago Health Department, and the Chicago Police Department. Neighborhood gonorrhea rates increased by 192.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 131.6, 252.9) cases per 100,000 population with a change from the 25th to the 75th percentile of social disorder. This rate difference was a value greater than the median neighborhood gonorrhea rate. Similar increases were observed for other neighborhood measures and for Chlamydia infection. We hypothesize that high rates of incarceration may play a role in undermining neighborhood social cohesion and control. Using homicide rates as a proxy for incarceration, a change from the 25th to the 75th percentile of 1995 neighborhood homicide rates yielded a gonorrhea rate increase of 164.6 (95% CI 124.4...

Examining the Temporal Relationship Between Criminal Justice Involvement and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Drug-Involved Men

Epperson, Matthew W.; El-Bassel, Nabila; Chang, Mingway; Gilbert, Louisa
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.41%
Although criminal justice involvement has repeatedly been associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection prevalence and sexual risk behaviors, few studies have examined whether arrest or incarceration uniquely contributes to sexually risky behavior. We examined the temporal relationship between criminal justice involvement and subsequent sexual HIV risk among men in methadone maintenance treatment in New York City. A random sample of 356 men was interviewed at baseline (time 1), 6-month (time 2), and 12-month (time 3) follow-ups. Propensity score matching, negative binomial, and multiple logistic regression were used to isolate and test the effect of time 2 arrest and incarceration on time 3 sexual risk behaviors. Incidence of time 2 criminal justice involvement was 20.1% for arrest and 9.4% for incarceration in the prior 6 months. Men who were arrested at time 2 demonstrated increased number (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.62; 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.11, 2.37) and proportion (IRR = 1.36; 95% CI = 1.07, 1.72) of unprotected vaginal sex acts at time 3. Men incarcerated at time 2 displayed increased number (IRR = 2.07; 95% CI = 1.23, 3.48) and proportion (IRR = 1.45; 95% CI = 1.06...

Problem Gambling Inside and Out: The Assessment of Community and Institutional Problem Gambling in the Canadian Correctional System

Turner, Nigel E.; Preston, Denise L.; McAvoy, Steven; Gillam, Laura
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.41%
This paper reports on the results of a multi-site survey of gambling behaviour and gambling problems amongst offenders in correctional institutions in Ontario, Canada, conducted between 2008 and 2011. A total of 422 (completion rate 61.5 %) incarcerated offenders (381 male and 41 female) took part in the study including 301 federal offenders and 121 provincial offenders. Based on the Problem Gambling Severity Index of the Canadian Problem Gambling Index (CPGI/PGSI) the prevalence rate of severe problem gambling was 8.9 prior to incarceration and 4.4 % during incarceration. These numbers are substantially higher than rates found among the general public. Thirty-four percent of the sample reported gambling in prison. Half of those who suffered from gambling problems before incarceration continued to have gambling problems during incarceration. People with problems related to slot machines prior to incarceration reported fewer gambling problems during incarceration compared to other problem gamblers.